Taylor ‘s Prescription, 1911
Let’s start from the
…of this century!
Agile Manifesto, 2001
“Build projects around
support they need, and
trust them to get the job
designs emerge from
Never talked about ‘structure’!
It was Scrum that killed
…though not the
= “Scrum Master”
So, who does the “management”?
Has that really happened?
Maybe / Maybe Not!
Hint: just search if companies claiming to be Scrum shops
still hire old-style managers?
Management 3.0, c 2011
“I believe that Agile software
development has overlooked the
importance of (line) management. If
managers don’t know what to do and
what to expect in an Agile
organization, how are they supposed
to feel involved in a transition to
Agile software development? What
is the message of Agile here? If it’s
just “we don’t need managers,” it’s
no wonder Agile transitions are
obstructed all over the world.(Page
What does Management 3.0
• People are the most important part of an organization and managers must do all
they can to keep people active, creative and motivated
• Teams can self-organize, and this requires empowerment, authorization and
trust from the management
• Self-organization can lead to anything, and therefore it’s necessary to protect
people and shared resources and to give people a clear purpose and deﬁned goals
• Teams cannot achieve their goals if team members are not capable enough, and
managers must therefore contribute to the development of competence
• Many teams operate within the context of a complex organization, and thus it is
important to consider the structure that enhance communication
• People, teams and organizations need to improve continuously to defer failure for
as long as possible
• Holacracy is a real-world-tested social technology
for purposeful organization.
• It radically changes
– how an organization is structured,
– how decisions are made,
– and how power is distributed.
• Is NOT Leaderless!
• Focus is on work, not people!
How it changes with Holacracy?
In Conventional Organizations
#NoManager / Boss-free
• Flat / Horizontal Organization, Delayering
• No or very few levels of middle management
• Promotes employee involvement
– through decentralization and empowerment
• Rotating Team Leaders – 37Signals, Valve
• Open Allocation – Valve, GitHub Inc, Treehouse,
• No Manager – The Morning Star Company, Gore
on ability to
gain the respect
of peers and to
Gore has a
• Team-based, Flat Lattice since 1958!
• Revenue: $3B, Staff: 10,000
• No traditional org charts, no chain of
command, nor predetermined channels of
• “You will be responsible for managing your
own workload and will be accountable to
others on your team. More importantly, only
you can make a commitment to do something
(for example, a task, a project, or a new
role)--but once you make a commitment, you
will be expected to meet it. A "core
commitment" is your primary area of
concentration. You may take on additional
commitments depending on your interests, the
company's needs, and your availability.”
• 400+ employees, $2B-4B revenue?
• anarcho-syndicalism. Effectively, free association of
employees with one another
• Valve's basic approach to "managing without managers"
– hire only incredibly self-motivated people
– give them full autonomy to decide what project to
– teach them to spot valuable projects, and to
understand what value they can add to those projects
– allow team structure to happen organically - teams
self-select, leaders are chosen by their peers
– encourage people to acknowledge and learn from
mistakes quickly to move forward
– make everyone responsible together for the success or
failure of projects
• and ﬁnally (and most critically):
– determine the value and compensation of each
employee by peer review
Microsoft is changing…
“So how do you create that selforganizing capability to drive
innovation and be focused? …To me,
that is perhaps the big culture change
— recognizing innovation and
fostering its growth. It’s not
going to come because of
an org chart or the
Most people have a very strong sense
of organizational ownership, but I
think what people have to own is an
innovation agenda, and everything is
shared in terms of the
Why are they all changing?
• Remote workers
• Career progression
• External networks
• Employees want to be left alone
• But managers should be there when
employees need them!
• Networks for innovation, agility and
• Hierarchy for efﬁciency, predictability
• Shared leadership and decisionmaking across the board
• No permanency or carry-over of roles