Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Technology, Design


  1. 1. Personas Tathagat Varma Picture:
  2. 2. What’s wrong with it?
  3. 3. User Personas •  In marketing and user-centered design, personas are fictional characters created to represent the different user types within a targeted demographic, attitude and/or behavior set that might use a site, brand or product in a similar way. Marketers may use personas together with market segmentation, where the qualitative personas are constructed to be representative of specific segments. The term persona is used widely in online and technology applications as well as in advertising, where other terms such as pen portraits may also be used. •  Personas are useful in considering the goals, desires, and limitations of brand buyers and users in order to help to guide decisions about a service, product or interaction space such as features, interactions, and visual design of a website. Personas may also be used as part of a user-centered design process for designing software and are also considered a part of interaction design (IxD), having been used in industrial design and more recently for online marketing purposes. •  A user persona is a representation of the goals and behavior of a hypothesized group of users. In most cases, personas are synthesized from data collected from interviews with users. They are captured in 1–2 page descriptions that include behavior patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, and environment, with a few fictional personal details to make the persona a realistic character. For each product, more than one persona is usually created, but one persona should always be the primary focus for the design.
  4. 4. The Inmates are Running the Asylum, 1999 “Develop a precise description of our user and what he wishes to accomplish. The sophistication comes from how we determine and use that precise description…We make up pretend users and design for them. We call these pretend users personas.”
  5. 5. Personas “Personas are not real people, but they represent them throughout the design process. They are hypothetical archetypes of actual users. Although they are imaginary, they are defined with significant rigor and precision. Actually, we don't so much "make up" our personas as discover them as a byproduct of the investigation process. We do, however, make up their names and personal details.”
  6. 6. Personas •  Goal: create a common understanding of the final user. •  Represent similar behavior patterns of a cluster of users, not job descriptions
  7. 7. Types of Personas: Olsen •  Focal (primary) •  Secondary (satisfy when we can) •  Unimportant (low-priority) •  Affected (bystanders, of a sort) •  Exclusionary (not gonna bother) •  Stakeholders (people who write checks) »  From Boxes and Arrows
  8. 8. Types of Personas: Cooper •  Primary •  Secondary •  Design for Primary!
  9. 9. Writing Effective Personas •  You don't "make up" personas, but instead discover them as a byproduct of your requirements investigation process. •  Write specific personas: you will have a much greater degree of success designing for a single person. The "generic user" will bend and stretch to meet the moment, but your true goal should be to develop software which bends and stretches. Your personas should "wiggle" under the pressure of development. •  You want to know what the persona's goals are so that you can see what your system needs to do, and not do. •  Sometimes you want to identify negative personas, people that you are not designing for. •  A primary persona is someone who must be satisfied but who cannot be satisfied by a user interface that is designed for another persona. •  If you identify more than three primary personas your scope is likely too large. •  You want a finite number of personas, your goal is to narrow down the people that you are designing the system for.
  10. 10. Anatomy of a Persona
  11. 11. 1.  Profile 2.  Personality 3.  Expertize 4.  Must Does / Must Never 5.  Referents & Influences 6.  Devices & Platforms 7.  User Product / Service 8.  Archetype 9.  Key-quotes 10. Experience Goals 11.  Brand-Relationship 12. Picture 13. User Type
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Proto-Personas •  Proto-personas are an ad hoc, non- research-backed articulation of a customer archetype. •  Originate from brainstorming workshops •  Create a starting point from which to begin evaluating products and create some early design hypotheses •  Helpful in initiating and reinforcing corporate awareness of customer’s POV •  Once created, take them to field to validate
  16. 16. A checklist to identify personas… Role: What is your job role? Your job title? How is your job measured? What is a typical day? What skills are required? What knowledge and tools do you use? Who do you report to? Who reports to you? Goals: What are you responsible for? What does it mean to be successful in your role? Challenges: What are your biggest challenges? How do you overcome these challenges? Company: What industry or industries does your company work in? What is the size of your company (revenue, employees?) Watering Holes: How do you learn about new information for your job? What publications or blogs do you read? What associations and social networks do you belong to? Personal Background: Age Family (single, married, children) Education Shopping Preferences: How to you prefer to interact with vendors (email, phone, in person?) Do you use the internet to research vendors or products? If yes, how do you search for information? What types of websites do you use?
  17. 17. References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •