5. If Change is Normal, then what is the Problem?
6. So, why do people resist changes?
of the Past
tendency of most complex systems to reach a state of
equilibrium. The sense of balance that comes from
operating in a stable environment is seductive. It
masquerades as comfort. But it also leads to inertia – a
powerful and limiting force.
• Eventhe most talented and well-intended individuals, if they
are enveloped by the contentment of the status quo, don’t
generally recognize their condition – or the ensuing risks that
stagnation presented to their businesses. Management
scholars and consultants label the phenomenon “resistance
8. …as a result, what do people do?
Disagree Procrastinate Pushback Deny
Reject Refuse Resist Sabotage
12. So, what is change?
13. The Myths around Change
Change is slows things
e is an
constraint Chang event
Change is e is a
an option threat
is costly Change
is end of
Change is can’t be
14. The Reality… Change is
Change is Change is
the new relative
normal Change is
makes us Change is
creates Change is
options a process
15. Change in quotes
• We all have big changes in our lives that are more
or less a second chance – Harrison Ford
• If you don’t like change, you’re going to like
irrelevance even less – General Eric Shinseki
• Change brings opportunity – Nido Qubein
is not necessary to change. Survival is not
mandatory – W Edwards Deming
• The bamboo that bends is stronger than the oak
that resists – Japanese Proverb
16. Is Change good?
“I can’t understand why people
are frightened of new ideas. I
am frightened of the old ones”.
- John Cage, American Composer
17. Is Change bad?
Over the coming decades, an accelerating pace of
change will test the resilience of every society,
organization and individual. Luckily, perturbations
create opportunities as well as challenges. But the
balance of promise and peril confronting any
organization will depend on its capacity for adaption.
Hence the most important question for any company is
this: Are we changing as fast as the world around us?
Gary Hamel, the Future of Management
18. Why change matters?
I'm very interested in the future
because I plan to spend the rest
of my life there.
— Robert Wood Johnson,
19. Change Models
• Satir Change Model
• Kubler-Ross Grief Cycle
• Lewin Force-Field Analysis
• Prosci ADKAR Change Model
• Situational Leadership
• Kotter 8-step Model
21. How to help during each stage
Stage Description How to help
1 Late Status Encourage people to seek improvement information and
Quo concepts from outside the group
2 Resistance Help people to open up, become more aware, and
overcome the reaction to deny, avoid or blame
3 Chaos Help build a safe environment that enables people to
focus on their feelings, acknowledge their fear, and use
their support systems. Help management avoid any
attempt to short circuit this stage with magical solutions
4 Integration Offer reassurance and help finding new methods for
coping with difficulties
5 New Status Help people feel safe so that they can practice
22. Kubler-Ross Grief Cycle
Shock Denial Stage Anger Stage Bargaining Depression Testing Acceptance
Stage*: Stage Stage Stage* Stage
• Initial • Trying to • Frustrated • Seeking in • Final • Seeking • Finally
paralysis at avoid the outpouring vain for a realization realistic finding the
hearing inevitable. of bottled- way out. of the solutions. way
the bad up inevitable. forward
26. ADKAR Model
• ADKAR Change Management Model proposed by Jeff Hiatt
and Timothy J. Creasey in “The Perfect Change”
• It characterizes the process for individual change in 5 key
• Awareness of the need to change
• Desire to participate and support the change
• Knowledge about how to change
• Ability to implement new skills and behavior
• Reinforcements to keep the change in place
27. Individual Change Process
• The time it takes for each individual to go through similar change
could be different
• Hence, change management models can’t treat the organization
as a homogeneous mass of people going through the change
process at the same time
Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement
Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement
29. Successful Change
• Change happens on two dimensions: business and people
• Business Dimension:
• Business need or opportunity is identified
• Project is defined (scope and objectives)
• Business solution is designed (new processes, systems and org
• New processes and systems are developed
• Solution is implemented into the organization
• Successful change happens when both happen simultaneously
31. Kotter’s Eight Step Process
Establishing a Creating the Communicating
sense of Guiding the Vision for
Urgency Coalition Buy-In
Never Letting Generating
Changes into Broad-based
Up Short-term Wins
32. Can we anticipate or predict Change?
Prediction is very difficult, especially if it’s
about the future.
– Niels Bohr, Physicist
Anticipate the difficult by managing the
– Lao Tzu, Chinese Philosopher
33. Who Moved My Cheese?
Noticing Small Changes
Early Helps You Adapt To
The Bigger Changes That
Are Yet To Come.
34. Who Moved My Cheese?
Smell The Cheese Often
So You Know When It Is
35. Our Iceberg Is Melting
“…Icebergs are not like ice cubes. The bergs can
have cracks inside called canals. The canals can
lead to large air bubbles called caves. If the ice melts
sufficiently, cracks can be exposed to water, which
would then pour into the canals and caves.
During a cold winter, the narrow canals filled with
water can freeze quickly, trapping water inside the
caves. But as the temperature goes lower and lower,
the water in the caves will also freeze. Because a
freezing liquid dramatically expans in volume, an
iceberg could be broken into pieces.
After a few minutes, Alice began to see why Fred was
so deeply concerned. The magnitude of the problem
36. Indicators of impending change
• Merger, Acquisition or Divestiture
• New Product, Service or Market
• New Technology
• New Legislation
• New Leader
• 5 Reasons people resist change – Julie Rains
• Satir Change Model
• The Satir Change Model – Steven Smith
• The 8-step Process for Leading Change – John Kotter
• Transitions: Managing People and Organizational Change – Dai Williams
From 8 colors in 1903, now there are over 120 colors!
Kurt Lewin developed a conceptual model for understanding the nature of change and resistance he called Force Field Analysis (Figure 1). Lewin postulated that an organization, society, or culture finds itself at any given time held in balance between forces moving the group toward change (driving forces) and forces maintaining the status quo (restraining forces). In this dynamic understanding, change occurs when the valence of driving forces exceeds that of the restraining forces, demanding a simultaneous effort to increase and highlight the driving forces as well as reduce, minimize, and eliminate the restraining forces. Force field analysis accounts for balance of power, helps identify the major stake holders, and helps identify how to engage the issues and people needed for successful transformation (3). Steps in a successful force field analysis include articulating the current situation, describing the desired situation; imagining what will happen if no action is taken; identifying the forces driving change toward the desired outcome; identifying the resistances against the desired outcome; understanding the forces (are they valid? can they be changed? which are critical?); and planning how to increase the driving forces and decrease the restraining forces (3).
Within organizational settings, change cannot occur without an “unfreezing” of the status quo. A distortion must be introduced into the organization in order for an unfreezing to occur. The unfreezing process begins as (1) the driving forces for change become more prevalent, (2) when restraining forces are diminished, or (3) as a result of a combination of both of these occurrences (McShane and Von Glinow, 2008, p. 489).For instance, driving forces for change become more pronounced when someone new is inserted into a key point within the structure of the organization. In a church setting, this can occur when a new pastor or elder is called to serve the congregation. This person may, knowingly or not, begin an unfreezing process that moves the organization in a new direction. “Change rarely occurs by increasing driving forces alone, however, because the restraining forces often adjust to counterbalance the driving forces” (p. 492).Restraining forces can be diminished when key leaders or managers within an organization relocate, retire, or pass away. If a person was influential within the organization, these types of events can easily begin to move the group in a new direction. If restraining forces are declining as driving forces for change are increasing, then movement from the status quo to a new condition is probably inevitable. Thus, the process of unfreezing begins.The unfreezing process can create great tension and disharmony within the organization. The disequilibrium that results can generate a considerable amount of stress for those who desire no movement from the existing state of affairs. Those in positions of authority must handle this instability with great care and gracious understanding for those who are uncomfortable with the movement to a new condition. Disgruntled and disenchanted people, even if in the minority, can be a great hindrance to the growth of any organization. Effective resistance to change can take many forms that undermine the goals of the leaders who are trying to move the organization to a better position in order to accomplish their mission.Rather than resenting the reality of resistance, leaders and managers would do well to consider the brute fact that many people oppose change simply because they fear the process of change itself. The following six items are forces that resist organizational change, adapted from McShane and Von Glinow (2008). These forces are manifest to some degree in all organizational settings, even, regrettably, in churches:(1) Direct costs. People tend to block actions that they perceive will cost them something. This cost is weighed socially, economically, or psychologically.(2) Saving face. Some resist change as a political strategy in order to enhance their personal reputation within the organization.(3) Fear of the unknown. People resist change out of worry that they will not be able to properly adjust and acclimate themselves to the new environment.(4) Breaking routines. People are creatures of habit. They like to stay within their comfort zones by continuing routine role patterns that make life predictable. Changes within their workplace or place of worship are viewed with as much gravitas as changes that take place within their own living rooms. Also, people simply do not wish to invest the time and energy necessary in order to learn new role patterns.(5) Incongruent organizational systems. Social and psychological rewards accompany certain role patterns within any organization. People do not wish to alter such well-known unspoken social structures.(6) Incongruent team dynamics. Groups develop and enforce conformity to a set of norms that guide behavior. However, conformity to existing team/group norms may discourage people from accepting organizational change. In the eyes of those who resist change, new norms that conflict with the status quo must be eliminated (p. 490-91).