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Agile Software Development


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I normally teach Introduction to Agile and Scrum over a 2 day session to teams. Here is a highly condensed 2-hour version of it that covers agile thinking and introduces scrum as a framework without getting into details.

I use it as a course material for teaching to teams or groups looking to get a perspective on "why" as opposed to "how" aspect of agile.

Published in: Software
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Agile Software Development

  1. 1. Agile Software Development Tathagat Varma Pic:
  2. 2. The changing nature of work…
  3. 3. The Work Spectrum
  4. 4. Not all Knowledge Work is same!
  5. 5. Types of Problems
  6. 6. That’s the problem we need to solve! And these are the methods we are using!!!
  7. 7. Predictive vs. Adaptive
  8. 8. Predictive vs. Adaptive • Development methods exist on a continuum from adaptive to predictive.[15] • Agile methods lie on the adaptive side of this continuum. One key of adaptive development methods is a "Rolling Wave" approach to schedule planning, which identifies milestones but leaves flexibility in the path to reach them, and also allows for the milestones themselves to change.[16] Adaptive methods focus on adapting quickly to changing realities. When the needs of a project change, an adaptive team changes as well. An adaptive team will have difficulty describing exactly what will happen in the future. The further away a date is, the more vague an adaptive method will be about what will happen on that date. An adaptive team cannot report exactly what tasks they will do next week, but only which features they plan for next month. When asked about a release six months from now, an adaptive team might be able to report only the mission statement for the release, or a statement of expected value vs. cost. • Predictive methods, in contrast, focus on analysing and planning the future in detail and cater for known risks. In the extremes, a predictive team can report exactly what features and tasks are planned for the entire length of the development process. Predictive methods rely on effective early phase analysis and if this goes very wrong, the project may have difficulty changing direction. Predictive teams will often institute a Change Control Board to ensure that only the most valuable changes are considered.
  9. 9. What is the most important part in these two machines? “The Brakes!!!” They let you go faster…
  10. 10. Agility vs. Discipline?
  11. 11. Process Spectrum…
  12. 12. Waterfall Software Development Limitations and Assumptions 1. Wrong analogy: Software development ≠ Production 2. Customers know EVERYTHING upfront and that requirement won’t change 3. Legacy from the past: implicitly assumes CPU time is costly, so focuses on doing everything upfront to minimize ‘machine time’ for trial and error 4. “Wicked Problem”: Designers and developers know how exactly how to build 5. Very long feedback cycles not suitable for today’s pace of innovation Picture from
  13. 13. Waterfall challenges: Poor Visibility
  14. 14. Waterfall challenges: Poor Risk Management
  15. 15. Waterfall challenges: Poor Quality
  16. 16. Waterfall challenges: Poor Change Management
  17. 17. “V” Model
  18. 18. “W” Model of Testing
  19. 19. Spiral,_1988%29.svg
  20. 20. Incremental Development • Incremental development – is a scheduling and staging strategy – in which the various parts of the system are developed at different times or rates, – and integrated as they are completed. – It does not imply, require nor preclude iterative development or waterfall development - both of those are rework strategies. • The alternative to incremental development is to develop the entire system with a "big bang" integration
  21. 21. Iterative Development • Iterative development – is a rework scheduling strategy – in which time is set aside to revise and improve parts of the system. – It does not presuppose incremental development, but works very well with it. A typical difference is that the output from an increment is not necessarily subject to further refinement, and its' testing or user feedback is not used as input for revising the plans or specifications of the successive increments. On the contrary, the output from an iteration is examined for modification, and especially for revising the targets of the successive iterations.
  22. 22. Incremental vs. Iterative
  23. 23. Incremental vs. Iterative Patton_Incremental_Iterative_MnaLisa.jpg
  24. 24. Incremental and Iterative
  25. 25. 12 Agile Principles Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. Working software is the primary measure of progress. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
  26. 26. Waterfall vs. Agile %E2%90%99/
  27. 27. Waterfall vs. Agile By doing them continuously: • Quality improves because testing starts from day one. • Visibility improves because you are 1/2 way through the project when you have built 1/2 the features. • Risk is reduced because you are getting feedback early, and • Customers are happy because they can make changes without paying exorbitant costs.
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Waterfall vs. Agile
  30. 30. Waterfall vs. Agile: Constraints
  31. 31. Waterfall Vs. Agile: Managing Changes
  32. 32. Waterfall vs. Agile: Risk vs. Value Delivered
  33. 33. Agile ROI
  34. 34. agile lifecycle – big picture
  35. 35. Agile lifecycle – small picture
  36. 36. So, what happens in each increment? Increment ≠ Mini-waterfall
  37. 37. feedback loop in agile lifecycles
  38. 38. test-code-refactor loop
  39. 39. QA in Agile
  40. 40. from daily builds to project
  41. 41. Feedback Loops in Traditional Techniques vs. Agile Techniques
  42. 42. XP Feedback Loops
  43. 43. Schneider Culture Model
  44. 44. Agile Culture
  45. 45. Role of Management
  46. 46. What is Scrum? • "Scrum is a team of eight individuals in Rugby. Everyone in the pack acts together with everyone else to move the ball down the field in small incremental steps. Teams work as tight, integrated units with whole team focusing on a single goal.“ • "The relay race approach to product development may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead, a holistic or ‘rugby’ approach – where a team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth – may better serve today’s competitive requirements.”-The New New Product Development Game” by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka.
  47. 47. What is Scrum? • Scrum is an iterative, incremental process for developing any product or managing any work. • It produces a potentially shippable set of functionality at the end of every iteration. • It's attributes are: – Scrum is an agile process to manage and control development work. – Scrum is a wrapper for existing engineering practices. – Scrum is a team-based approach to iteratively, incrementally develop systems and products when requirements are rapidly changing – Scrum is a process that controls the chaos of conflicting interests and needs. – Scrum is a way to improve communications and maximize co-operation. – Scrum is a way to detect and cause the removal of anything that gets in the way of developing and delivering products. – Scrum is a way to maximize productivity. – Scrum is scalable from single projects to entire organizations. Scrum has controlled and organized development and implementation for multiple interrelated products and projects with over a thousand developers and implementers. – Scrum is a way for everyone to feel good about their job, their contributions, and that they have done the very best they possibly could.
  48. 48. Scrum
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Roles, Ceremonies and Artifacts Scrum Team is small (5-9), cross-functional team members from Dev, UX, QA (excluding Product Owner) to ship complete feature(s) end to end Scrum Master is the servant leader responsible for supporting team Product Owner owns Product Backlog and sets appropriate priority for team to act upon Roles Product Owner Scrum Master Scrum Team Ceremonies Sprint Planning Meeting Daily Stand-ups Backlog Grooming Product Demo Sprint Retrospective Artifacts Product Backlog Sprint Backlog Increment Release Burn-down Chart Sprint Burn-down Chart
  51. 51. Scrum Roles
  52. 52. References • • • • • • handbook