Asian Green City IndexAssessing the environmental performance of Asia’s major citiesA research project conducted by the Ec...
Asian Green City Index | Contents     Contents004 The Cities00                    018 Key findings from the             02...
Asian Green City Index | The Cities     The Cities                                                                        ...
Asian Green City Index | Expert advisory panel                                                                            ...
Asian Green City Index | Introduction     IntroductionUnprecedented shift from the countryside to citiesT    he future of ...
Asian Green City Index | Results     ResultsH    ere are the complete results for the 22 cities in the Asian Green City   ...
Asian Green City Index | Overall key findings     Overall key findingsEnvironmental                                       ...
Asian Green City Index | Overall key findingsIndex and was less clear in the European Index.           beyond their immedi...
Asian Green City Index | Overall key findingsronmental oversight. The Asian Development           Nations, adds that altho...
Asian Green City Index | Key findings from the categories     Key findings from the ca tegoriesEnergy and CO2             ...
Asian Green City Index | Key findings from the categoriesWater                                                  water coll...
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities
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Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities

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The Asian Green City Index seeks to measure and assess the environmental performance of 22 major Asian cities across a range of criteria. This report presents the key findings and highlights from the Index and is intended to provide stakeholders with a unique tool to help Asian cities learn from each other, in order to better address the common environmental challenges they face.

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Asian Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of Asia's major cities

  1. 1. Asian Green City IndexAssessing the environmental performance of Asia’s major citiesA research project conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, sponsored by Siemens
  2. 2. Asian Green City Index | Contents Contents004 The Cities00 018 Key findings from the 024 Exemplar projects 028 Waste 036 City portraits categories 024 Energy and CO2 Hanoi: Making waste pay 036 Bangkok 080 Manila006 Expert advisory panel 018 Energy and CO2 Tokyo: The first cap and trade Bangkok: Follow that trash 040 Beijing 084 Mumbai 018 Land use and buildings system in Asia 029 Water 044 Bengaluru 088 Nanjing008 Introduction 019 Transport Shanghai: The largest offshore Singapore: Water as good as new 048 Delhi 092 Osaka 019 Waste wind farm in China 030 Environmental governance 052 Guangzhou 096 Seoul010 Results 020 Water 025 Land use and buildings Eco-clubs: Educating future 056 Hanoi 100 Shanghai 020 Sanitation New technology: The world’s environmentalists in Delhi 060 Hong Kong 104 Singapore012 Overall key findings 020 Air quality greenest skyscraper in 0 064 Jakarta 108 Taipei 021 Environmental governance Guangzhou 032 Methodology 068 Karachi 112 Tokyo Old technology: Planting trees 072 Kolkata 116 Wuhan 022 Managing the city as a in Beijing 076 Kuala Lumpur 120 Yokohama ‘living organism’ 027 Transport An interview with Nicholas You, Shanghai: Doubling the size of urban environmental expert the world’s longest metro Green transport: A holistic approach in Singapore2 3
  3. 3. Asian Green City Index | The Cities The Cities Beijing, China Seoul, South Korea Tokyo, Japan Yokohama, Japan Osaka, Japan Nanjing, China Shanghai, China Wuhan, China Delhi, India The Asian Green City Index measures and Taipei, Taiwan Karachi, Pakistan Guangzhou, China rates the environmental performance of Kolkata, India Hanoi, Vietnam Hong Kong, China 22 Asian cities. They are capital cities as well Mumbai, India as certain leading business centres selected for their size and importance. The cities were picked independently rather than relying Manila, Philippines Bangkok, Thailand on requests from city governments to be Bengaluru, India included, in order to enhance the Index’s credibility and comparability. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Singapore, Singapore Jakarta, Indonesia4 5
  4. 4. Asian Green City Index | Expert advisory panel A panel of global experts in urban environmental sustainability advised the Economist Expert advisory panel Intelligence Unit (EIU) in developing the methodology for the Green City Index, including the Latin American Green City Index and forthcoming Indexes in other regions. The EIU would like to thank the panel for their time and valuable insight.Brunella Boselli Gordon McGranahan Mary Jane C. Ortega Hiroaki Suzuki Pablo Vaggione Sebastian Veit David Wilk Nicholas YouStatistician, Regional Develop- Head of Human Settlements Secretary General Lead Urban Specialist and Eco2 Founder, Design Convergence Senior Climate Economist Climate Change Lead Specia- Chairman, Steering Committeement Policy Division, Organisa- Group, International Institute CITYNET Team Leader, Corporate Urbanism African Development Bank list, Sustainable Energy and of the World Urban Campaign,tion for Economic Cooperation for Environment and Develop- Finance Economics and Urban Climate Change Unit, Inter- UN-Habitatand Development (OECD) ment Department, World Bank American Development BankBrunella Boselli has been with the Gordon McGranahan currently Mary Jane C. Ortega is the former Hiroaki Suzuki has more than 20 Pablo Vaggione is an urban Sebastian Veit is senior climate David Wilk joined the Inter- Nicholas You is chairman of,regional development policy directs the Human Settlements mayor of the city of San Fernando, years of operational experience in specialist with over 15 years of economist at the African American Development Bank in amongst others, the Cities anddivision of the OECD since 2003. Group at the International Institute Philippines, and served the city the infrastructure sector and public experience. His cross-sector and Development Bank in Tunis. While early 2001 as an urban environ- Climate Change Commission of theShe is responsible for regional for Environment and Develop- from 1998 to 2007. She is now the sector at the World Bank. Having multidisciplinary approach at the organisation he has focused mental senior specialist. His World Future Council, and thestatistics, and is one of the authors ment. Trained as an economist, he secretary general of CITYNET, a worked in the East Asia and Pacific provides cities and actors in urban on green growth strategies in professional experience in Latin Assurance Group of the Urbanof the flagship publication “OECD spent the 1990s at the Stockholm network of 119 member cities and Region, as East Asia urban sector development with integrated, Africa and renewable energy America and the Caribbean during Infrastructure Initiative of theRegions at a Glance”. She has Environment Institute, in charge of NGOs that works to improve living leader and China urban sector strategic and practical plans to issues. In 2007 he was a consultant the 1990s included a range of World Business Council for Sus-recently developed the OECD their Urban Environment conditions in human settlements coordinator for the last five years, respond to the challenges of to the United Nations Framework management and consulting tainable Development. AfterMetropolitan Database, which Programme. He works on a range in Asia-Pacific. She was the charter he joined the Bank’s Corporate sustainable urbanisation. He has Convention on Climate Change, activities with the World Bank, running UN-Habitat’s Bestcontains socio-economic data for of urban environmental issues, president of the Solid Waste Finance Economics and Urban worked in East and South-East and from 2004 to 2007 he was a international organisations and Practices and Local Leadership82 metropolitan areas, and is with an emphasis on addressing Management Association of the Department in 2009 as lead urban Asia, Western Europe, and Latin consultant with the World Bank in consulting firms. His work with Programme for over a decade, hecurrently working on a new OECD poverty and environmental Philippines, and was recently specialist and Eco2 team leader. He and North America, in the Washington DC. At the World Bank these organisations was in the area was appointed as the seniorterritorial definition for metropoli- problems in and around the home, elected back to the position of is the main author of “Eco2 cities: preparation of city development he specialised in energy and water. of land use and environmental policy and strategic planningtan regions. and how the critical scale of urban president. She was a member of Ecological Cities as Economic Cities” strategies, plans for the planning, watershed manage- adviser of the agency. From 2007 environmental burdens changes as the executive committee of the (www.worldbank.org/eco2). regeneration of historic urban ment, sustainable urban transport to 2009 he led the development cities become wealthier. Key United Nations Advisory Council areas, and sustainable develop- and environmental assessment of and roll out of UN-Habitat’s publications include: “The Citizens on Local Authorities (UNACLA) ment blueprints for new districts. development and infrastructure strategic and institutional at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to from 2000 to 2007. She received He provides advice on urban issues projects. management plan. As part of that Sustainable Cities” and “The rising the UN-Habitat Scroll of Honour to a number of multilateral plan, he was asked in January tide: Assessing the risks of climate Award in 2000. organisations, local governments 2009 to spearhead UN-Habitat’s change and human settlements in and companies. His work for World Urban Campaign. Upon his low-elevation coastal zones”. He Madrid received in 2007 the World retirement from the UN in July was the convening lead author of Leadership Award. Between 2007 2010, some 50 partners repre- the urban systems chapter of the and 2010 he served as the senting public, private and civil Millennium Ecosystem Assess- Secretary General of the society institutions worldwide ment. International Society of City and elected him as chairman of the Regional Planners (ISOCARP), a Campaign’s Steering Committee. professional organization of planners from 70 countries.6 7
  5. 5. Asian Green City Index | Introduction IntroductionUnprecedented shift from the countryside to citiesT he future of Asia is in its cities. Although still one of the less urbanised continents, theshare of the Asian population living in urban currently need to build a total of 20,000 new dwellings, 250 km of new roads, and the infra- structure to deliver an additional 6 million litres and wellbeing of billions of people in the region and worldwide. sponsored by Siemens, seeks to measure and assess the environmental performance of 22 major Asian cities across a range of criteria. This A unique Indexareas has grown from 32% in 1990 to 42% in of potable water. How Asian governments man- The Asian Green City Index, a research project report presents the key findings and highlights The 22 cities selected for the Asian Green City Index include most2010, according to the United Nations Popula- age urbanisation will be crucial to the health conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, from the Index, and is intended to provide major Asian urban areas. They are capital cities as well as certaintion Division. By 2026, the United Nations fore- stakeholders with a unique tool to help Asian leading business centres selected for their size and importance. Thecasts that half of Asians will be city dwellers. cities learn from each other, in order to better cities were picked independently rather than relying on requestsThe sheer size of the continent’s population Urban population in Asia from 1990 - 2025 address the common environmental challenges from city governments to be included, in order to enhance the In-makes the task of managing this urbanisation they face. dex’s credibility and comparability. Another decisive factor in the se- % of population living in citiesespecially daunting. For the last five years, Asia lection was the availability of data. One city, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet- 60has added 37 million urban residents each year, The report is divided into five parts. First, it nam, had to be excluded from the original shortlist due to amore than 100,000 per day, to its growing total. examines the overall key findings. Second, it significant lack of available information.Asia currently has seven of the world’s 10 most 50 examines the key findings from the eight individ- The methodology, described in detail in a separate section in this re-populous urban areas, and McKinsey and Co, a ual categories in the Index: energy and CO2, land port, has been developed by the EIU in cooperation with Siemens. Itconsultancy, predicts that by 2025, China alone 40 use and buildings, transport, waste, water, sani- relies on the expertise of both organisations, a panel of outside ex-will have 221 cities with more than a million tation, air quality and environmental gover- perts, and the experience from producing the European Green Cityinhabitants. In contrast, Europe currently has 30 nance. Third, the report presents a variety of Index in 2009 and the Latin American Green City Index in 2010. Onejust 25. leading best-practice ideas from across the of the great strengths of the Asian Green City Index is the breadth of The Asian Development Bank says the ongo- 20 region. Fourth, it gives a detailed description of information it uses. There are 29 individual indicators for each city,ing migration from the countryside to cities in the methodology used to create the Index. Final- and these indicators are often based on multiple data points. ValueAsia is “unprecedented in human history”, and ly, an in-depth profile for each city outlines its also comes from how the Index is presented. Each city is assessed in 10the scale of the change has enormous environ- particular strengths, weaknesses, and ongoing eight categories and placed within a performance band to indicatemental consequences. In order to cope with this Year environmental initiatives. These profiles rightly its relative results. The process is transparent, consistent, replicable, 0migration, the Asian Development Bank calcu- 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 constitute the bulk of the report because the aim and reveals sources of best practice.lates that each day, across the continent, cities of the study is to share valuable experience. Source: United Nations Population Division8 9
  6. 6. Asian Green City Index | Results ResultsH ere are the complete results for the 22 cities in the Asian Green City Index, including the overall results and placements within the eightindividual categories. The cities were placed in one of five performancebands, from well below average to well above average.Overall results well below average above well below average average above average average Karachi Bengaluru Bangkok Hong Kong Singapore Hanoi Beijing Osaka Kolkata Delhi Seoul Manila Guangzhou Taipei Mumbai Jakarta Tokyo Kuala Lumpur Yokohama Nanjing Shanghai WuhanCategory resultsEnergy and CO2 Transport Water Air quality well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above below average average above below average average above average average average average average average average average Shanghai Beijing Bangkok Delhi Tokyo Karachi Bangkok Beijing Hong Kong Osaka Kuala Lumpur Bangkok Bengaluru Beijing Singapore Karachi Beijing Bengaluru Bangkok Guangzhou Bengaluru Hong Kong Kolkata Bengaluru Delhi Kuala Lumpur Delhi Hong Kong Nanjing Tokyo Mumbai Kolkata Delhi Hong Kong Karachi Hanoi Jakarta Hanoi Guangzhou Seoul Guangzhou Karachi Osaka Yokohama Wuhan Guangzhou Kuala Lumpur Kolkata Manila Osaka Manila Jakarta Singapore Hanoi Kolkata Seoul Hanoi Manila Kuala Lumpur Mumbai Seoul Mumbai Nanjing Taipei Jakarta Mumbai Wuhan Jakarta Osaka Nanjing Singapore Shanghai Tokyo Manila Shanghai Nanjing Singapore Wuhan Taipei Wuhan Yokohama Taipei Seoul Taipei Yokohama Shanghai Tokyo YokohamaLand use and buildings Waste Sanitation Environmental governance well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well well below average above well below average average above below average average above below average average above below average average above average average average average average average average average Hanoi Bangkok Beijing Osaka Hong Kong Jakarta Bangkok Beijing Delhi Singapore Hanoi Bangkok Beijing Guangzhou Hanoi Karachi Beijing Bangkok Karachi Bengaluru Seoul Kuala Lumpur Karachi Bengaluru Hong Kong Jakarta Bengaluru Hong Kong Kolkata Mumbai Bengaluru Hong Kong Kolkata Delhi Singapore Kolkata Guangzhou Osaka Karachi Delhi Osaka Delhi Osaka Manila Guangzhou Taipei Manila Hanoi Taipei Kolkata Nanjing Seoul Guangzhou Seoul Shanghai Jakarta Yokohama Mumbai Nanjing Tokyo Kuala Lumpur Shanghai Singapore Jakarta Singapore Wuhan Kuala Lumpur Seoul Shanghai Yokohama Manila Wuhan Taipei Kuala Lumpur Taipei Mumbai Wuhan Mumbai Tokyo Manila Tokyo Nanjing Yokohama Nanjing Yokohama Tokyo Shanghai Wuhan10 11
  7. 7. Asian Green City Index | Overall key findings Overall key findingsEnvironmental reau provides training and technical assistance to Richer cities perform better kg per person per year. This is just 7 kg above the Tipping point in water consumption city officials in developing countries. In Asia, the overall Index average of 375 kg and well belowawareness and income: correlation between GDP per capita and environ- Average annual GDP per person in US$ the average of 598 kg of the five cities in theA tipping point in Asia mental performance is as strong as it was in 45,000 mid-income range (between US$10,000 and Water consumption in litres per person per day 2009’s European Green City Index. US$25,000).A lthough money is not everything when it comes to environmental performance, wealthhelps in some obvious ways. Richer cities are able At a certain level, resource consumption does not continue to rise with income 40,000 35,000 There is a similar picture regarding water consumption. The six richest cities consume 343 litres per person per day on average. Although 600 Guangzhou 500 Kuala Lumpurto make necessary investments in urban infra- As cities become more prosperous, in addition this is higher than the average water consump- 30,000structure, and can afford to maintain a profession- to investing in infrastructure, one might also tion of all cities (278 litres), the mid-income 400 Shanghai Osakaal, experienced civil service to drive environmental expect residents to consume more resources cities have higher consumption levels (393 Nanjing Hong Kong 25,000 Bangkokinitiatives. This holds true in the Asian Green City and thereby experience environmental conse- litres). For an illustration of this phenomenon, Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo 300Index, where wealthier cities consistently perform quences such as higher carbon emissions, or 20,000 see chart on the right. Wuhan Yokohama Mumbaibetter. Singapore, for example, is the Index leader excessive water consumption and waste. Up to a For carbon emissions, this pattern holds true Beijing 200 Delhiwith a well above average ranking overall, and is certain level of income, the Asian Green City 15,000 as well. The six richest cities emit an average of Karachialso the fourth richest city, with a GDP per person Index does indeed show a steady rise in resource 5.8 tonnes per person per year, compared to an Manila Kolkataof US$36,500. It can afford cutting-edge water consumption along with per capita GDP. But 10,000 overall average of 4.6 tonnes. However, the five 100 Jakartarecycling plants, waste-to-energy facilities and when income rises above a certain point, at cities in the mid-income range produce on aver- Bengaluru 5,000 Hanoimajor investments in its transport system. Yoko- around US$20,000 per person, average con- age 7.6 tonnes of CO2 per person per year. 0 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000hama, with an above average per-formance over- sumption declines. All of this demonstrates that wealthier cities inall and a GDP per person of US$30,200, offers For example, the average waste generation the Index do not necessarily consume resources Annual GDP per person in US$ Cities … well below … average … well abovegenerous subsidies for electric vehicles, among of the six cities in the high income range (each ranking average or average or at a level that their high incomes might suggest. below average above averageother investments, and its innovative Water Bu- with a GDP per capita above US$29,000) is 382 This shift was not present in the Latin American12 13
  8. 8. Asian Green City Index | Overall key findingsIndex and was less clear in the European Index. beyond their immediate neighbourhoods and sur- example, has one of the lowest levels of GDP than taking a long-term holistic approach. With Similarly, Hong Kong, with a large degree ofThere are several potential factors at work. The roundings remains to be seen.” per capita in the Index, at an estimated Policy execution policies so common in Asia, one differentiator in self-government, resources, and a capable civiltransition to more service-based industries plays a Evidence from the city portraits in this report US$2,000. Yet the city still achieves an average differentiates the best- the Asian Green City Index is the ability to exe- service, scores well in the Index, not because itspart in reducing carbon emissions among the rich- suggests that the wealthier cities have also overall rating, with a particularly strong result in performing cities cute and enforce those regulations and stan- policies are inherently more advanced, butest cities. And the quality of infrastructure con- made solid efforts to reduce consumption. the waste category, where it ranks above aver- dards. Professor Yue-Man Yeung, emeritus pro- because it has the capacity to carry them out.tributes to lower water consumption levels. Five ofthe seven wealthiest cities, for example, havewater leakage rates at or below 7%. Policy execu- Taipei City has a longstanding, world-renowned pay-as-you-throw waste charge. In 2003, Yoko- hama set a goal of reducing waste by 30% in ten age. This is in part because of residents’ atti- tudes towards consumption and recycling. As the city portrait in this report notes, Delhi’s “tra- G overnments in the 22 cities in the Index, despite varying performances on quantita- tive indicators, appear to be convinced of the fessor of geography at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, notes that “the most important thing that you must have for a city to clean up is Furthermore, the governments of Singapore and Hong Kong have the capacity to approach their cities as single entities, which enhancestion also plays a role in richer cities (see below). In years but exceeded the target in five years. By ditional culture of careful consumption”, which need to improve the urban environment. Most political will.” their ability to address environmental chal-Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, the rise of envi- 2030 Seoul aims to cut carbon emissions by 40% economic growth has not yet eroded, helps cities have comprehensive policies in place for Singapore, the only city to achieve a well lenges (see also interview with Nicholas You in aronmentalism coincided with public outcries over compared to 1990. Osaka holds 150 workshops explain why Delhi leads the Index with an extra- almost every environmental area evaluated in above average overall score, illustrates this point. separate section of this report).industrial pollution, which led governments to each year to educate primary school children ordinarily low per capita waste generation fig- the Index. Uniformity at the policy level also If Singapore were scored only on quantitativebegin addressing environmental issues as a about the water system. There are many more ure of 147 kg per year. The city’s advanced poli- helps to explain why cities in the Asian Green measures, it would have ranked one band below,whole. And governments in those countries have examples of cities pursuing practical steps to cies, including one of the more robust City Index perform so much more consistently at above average. But it is comprehensive and City governments needremained responsive to citizens’ concerns ever encourage sustainable resource use, and the strategies in the Index to reduce, re-use and overall. Fourteen of the 22 cities in Asia, for effective policies that elevate the city to rank well more power to makesince. Dr Hyun Bang Shin of the London School of consumption figures in the Index show that they recycle waste, also demonstrate just how much example, appear in the same performance band above average overall. A rich city-state, SingaporeEconomics has noted the link between income are having a positive effect. can be achieved with limited resources. Delhi for at least five of the eight categories. In Latin has access to resources, but unlike other cities in their own environmen-and rising environmental awareness in China. As shows that less well off cities do not need to America, by contrast, the cities showed much the Index, the government is not split between tal decisionswealth grows, he says, “many of the new middle Delhi’s approach to waste and recycling: wait to get rich before adopting policies and more varied results, even though income levels competing levels of administration. And it has aclass are becoming much more aware of environ-mental issues. They seem to be exerting pressureon local governments.” He adds, “Whether or not when resources are limited, attitudes make a difference Such programmes do not necessarily need to shaping attitudes towards sustainability. are more homogeneous than in Asia. Results from the Latin American Green City Index showed that cities there are hindered by focus- highly trained civil service, along with a reputa- tion for transparency, which is underlined by Sin- gapore’s fourth place in Transparency Interna- T here is a growing consensus among environ- mental experts that decentralising authority from national to local governments is a key waythe interest in environmental protection expands wait until cites grow rich, however. Delhi, for ing on immediate, pressing problems rather tional’s Corruption Perception Index. to achieve more relevant and responsive envi-14 15
  9. 9. Asian Green City Index | Overall key findingsronmental oversight. The Asian Development Nations, adds that although in countries such as nese government, in its latest report on the state sumption per $US of GDP. And three of the five the way the cities draw their official boundaries other areas, some cities are doing very well.”Bank states, “although central-local relations are India, which has a history of a federal structure, of the environment, spoke of “very serious” cities have the highest CO2 emissions per capita. plays some role in their results for green spaces. However, the rapid growth of automobile trafficbeing reconfigured in many different ways, it is cities might have some power, the trend across water pollution, “grave” results from acid rain, Similarly, all the cities finish in the bottom half of Second, the Index rewards policy as well as sta- has held cities back. Prof Yeung notes that aboutquite clear that local, sub-national areas are now Asia is that local governments are “incredibly and “serious” air pollution problems in some the Index for their levels of airborne particulate tistical performance, and here Chinese cities are 30 big cities in China are building subway sys-overwhelmingly regarded as the site for effec- weak”. He says that too often, instead of real urban areas. Of the country’s 113 key cities for matter, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. strong. All are in the average band when only tems, which is a positive development, but con-tive governance.” In addition, Dr Xuemei Bai, power being transferred to localities, there is a environmental protection, 43% are at or below These statistics are only part of the story, policies are taken into account, and all but struction is not keeping pace with the growth ofsenior science leader for sustainable ecosystems “decentralisation of corruption.” He and others the lowest national air quality rating, Grade III. It however. Even with below and well below aver- Wuhan are above average in transport policy. automobiles. The number of cars in Wuhan, forat CSIRO, Australia’s national science agency, believe that more decentralisation is required to should also be noted that China’s Grade III stan- age results in the quantitative indicators for Even on air quality, Shanghai scores above aver- example, has tripled to 1 million in the lastpoints out: “Urban government is the crucial make further environmental progress in cities, dards for nitrogen dioxide are twice the World energy and air quality in the Index, the five age in policy terms, with an established air qual- decade. Prof Yeung says, “Things are going bothlevel in addressing the urban environment.” but with the accompanying fiscal clout to Health Organisation’s recommended healthy mainland Chinese cities fall into the average ity code and regular monitoring. ways in Chinese big cities.”There have been fears, according to the World enforce regulations and invest in initiatives. levels, and for particulate matter over seven band in the Index overall. The Chinese performance regarding policies China’s economic development is bringingBank, that decentralisation of authority could times more. The Grade III sulphur dioxide stan- Two factors help explain this. First, in some suggests that the authorities take the environ- huge environmental challenges, but a closerlead to deterioration in key public services, but dard is more than 12 times higher. China’s poor environmental areas, Chinese cities are doing ment seriously. A major step forward for Beijing, look at its cities reveals a nuanced picture, withat the same time it notes that in East Asia espe- China’s environmental environmental record can be attributed to reasonably well. Beijing, for example, collects an for example, was hosting the 2008 Olympics. In some areas of success and seriousness aboutcially, the effects “appear to have been largely performance: Looking explosive economic development, as a result of estimated 95% of its waste, the eighth best fig- the run-up to the event, with the world’s atten- policy that should yield improvements in thebenign so far.” However, Dr Bai says that being the “factory to the world”. The environ- ure in the Index. And Shanghai has the sixth low- tion on the city, the national and city govern- long run. “With increasing levels of income,although national governments in Asia have beyond air quality and mental challenges include an energy supply est water leakage rate in the Index, at 10%, ver- ments invested heavily in improving air quality, infrastructure investment will increase, basicgiven formal authority to cities in recent years, carbon emissions heavily reliant on coal, factory emissions, dust sus the Index average of 22%. Meanwhile, landscaping and transport. Prof Yeung of the issues like sanitation will improve, but morethey have not always handed over adequate from construction and an increase in automo- Nanjing generates the third lowest amount of Chinese University of Hong Kong also notes a urban dwellers are joining cities daily,” says Drfunding to meet new responsibilities, and sogovernments have faltered. Brian Roberts, pro-fessor emeritus at the University of Canberra I n 2009 China overtook the US as the world’s largest energy user, and for several years pre- viously it already held the dubious distinction of bile traffic. So it is no surprise that the five mainland Chinese cities in the Index, Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai, and Wuhan are waste per capita, at an estimated 218 kg annual- ly. And Guangzhou, Nanjing and Beijing come first, second and fourth, respectively, for the perceptible change across the country. “Not too long ago,” he says, “the motto was ‘develop first, clean up later.’ This is no longer considered Bai of Australia’s national science agency. “There is a huge need to provide housing and other ser- vices. Most cities will continue to struggle withand former chief technical adviser for the United producing the most greenhouse gases. The Chi- also the five cities with the highest energy con- amount of green spaces per person, although acceptable. On green policy, garbage collection, competing interests.”16 17
  10. 10. Asian Green City Index | Key findings from the categories Key findings from the ca tegoriesEnergy and CO2   Governments are trying to improve their is even greater, from 2 square metres per per- nologically difficult. The city portraits show, for reduce emissions from mass transport. All but wealthier cities have helped keep waste genera- renewables performance. All 22 cities in the son in Kolkata, to 166 square metres per person example, that tree planting is becoming a com- two cities promote greener forms of transport. tion in check.E nergy consumption and carbon emissions are rising as emerging economies develop,especially in China. However, most cities in the Index have invested in energy efficiency and clean energy sources. Twenty cities have formal energy strategies, and have also invested in in Guangzhou. But the Index shows a consen- sus is forming on the required elements for suc- cessful sustainable land use and building poli- mon environmental activity, especially for cities with lower incomes. Transport pricing systems are integrated in most cities, with the exception of poorer ones.   All but a few cities have traffic management   The 22 Asian cities generate an average of 380 kg of waste per person per year, compared with 465 kg in Latin America and 511 kg inIndex are responding with proactive policies to waste-to-energy projects. cies. systems, with traffic light sequencing, traffic Europe.limit greenhouse gases and use energy more   There is more to be done, however. While 18   Different regulatory systems and develop- Transport information systems, and multiple access points   Every city in the Asian Green City Index has aefficiently. cities have a climate change strategy, only 12 ment histories explain most of the divergence in for entry. Congestion reduction is common as strategy to reduce, recycle or re-use waste. The  Average carbon emissions in the Asian GreenCity Index are 4.6 tonnes per person, whichcompares well with the European Green City have conducted a baseline review of green- house gas emissions in the last five years and just ten engage in regular greenhouse gas moni- population density and green spaces. China, for example, places more outlying, undeveloped land within official city boundaries. T raffic management and congestion reduc- tion policies are widespread and compre- hensive in all but the poorest cities. On the well: 16 cities have road charges, pedestrian areas and park and ride systems.   Although wealthier cities have longer superi- vast majority have environmental standards governing waste disposal sites and for industrial hazardous waste. Most cities also monitor illegalIndex average of 5.2 tonnes per person. toring.   Income is less of an issue with regard to land other hand, with only a few exceptions, the or public transport networks, such as metros or waste dumping.  Cities using the least energy tend to have the use. For example, Tokyo, with a GDP per person richest cities have the best superior public trams, Jakarta was an exception, employing   Every city has recycling programmes cover-lowest incomes, but when income rises above of US$70,800, and Hanoi, with a GDP per person transport infrastructure (defined in the Index as “bus rapid transit” as its main superior network, ing a comprehensive range of materials includ-about US$20,000 in GDP per person, average Land use and of US$1,700, have roughly the same amount of transport that moves large numbers of passen- a lower cost alternative to rail, and an idea which ing organic waste, electrical items, glass, plas-emissions decline. green spaces per capita. gers quickly in dedicated lanes, such as metro, originated in Latin America and is widespread tics and paper.  The share of renewables in electricity pro- buildings   Despite the variety of conditions, every city bus rapid transit or trams). However, an assess- there.   Waste collection is weaker. Only seven citiesduction for Index cities is 11%, much lower than has policies to promote energy efficiency, incen- ment beyond policy indicators was difficult collect and adequately dispose of more thanthe figure for Latin America, at 64%, wherehydropower is much more common. In addi-tion, only about 3% of the energy these cities L iving conditions in Asian cities vary enor- mously. Mumbai, the densest city in the Index with 27,000 people per square kilometre, tives for homes and businesses to save energy, and policies to protect green spaces and contain urban sprawl. All but a few also have full or par- since many cities lacked reliable data on the overall length of bus networks or the percent- age of journeys taken by car, train, cycle or on Waste 99% of waste, and on average the figure is 81%, compared with 96% in Latin America.   Waste picking is the biggest policy chal-use on average is from renewable sources,which is less than half of Europe’s average shareof 7%. is more than 27 times more tightly packed than Wuhan, which has fewer than 1,000 people per square kilometre. The variation in green spaces tial eco-building standards for private and gov- ernment buildings.   Policies do not need to be expensive or tech- foot.   Every city in the Index has an urban mass transport policy and makes investments to A sian cities produce less waste per capita than Europe and Latin America, but waste collection is less effective. Proactive policies in lenge. Only six cities have comprehensive regu- lations.18 19
  11. 11. Asian Green City Index | Key findings from the categoriesWater water collection are nearly universal, although 99% or more, and five of the seven wealthiest (WHO). However, most cities are addressing the line for sulphur dioxide is in the form of a 24- departments with broad responsibilities, and the water stress is an issue in only about half of cities treat nearly all of their wastewater. Cities problem with government policies. Cities with hour average rather than an annual average, legal capacity to implement regulations.W ater consumption rates in the Asian Green City Index are similar to Latin America andEurope. In addition, water quality and sustain- cities.   Every city has water quality codes and stan- dards, and policies to publicly promote water with lower income fare much worse. In nine of the 11 cities with the lowest incomes in the Index (below US$10,000 in GDP per capita), an higher incomes perform better for sulphur diox- ide emissions and particulate matter, but nitro- gen dioxide levels — a primary source of which which would be even lower. Even so, the Index annual average still exceeds the WHO’s 24-hour average of 20 micrograms.   Environmental monitoring and providing public access to environmental information is nearly universal, except among a few lowerability policies are widespread in Asian cities. efficiency. average of 49% of residents have access to sani- is automobiles — show no correlation with   Clean air policies are widespread though. All income cities.Basic infrastructure is a problem for poorer tation and an average of just 36% of wastewater income. cities have a code to improve air quality, and all   The involvement of citizens, non-govern-cities. is treated.   Particulate matter is the biggest air quality cities conduct air quality monitoring. mental organisations and other stakeholders in  The 22 Asian cities use an average of 277 Sanitation   Most cities in the Index have environmental challenge identified in the Index. The average   Policies can make a difference if executed decisions about projects with environmentallitres of water per person per day, which is slight- codes covering sanitation, as well as minimum annual daily concentration of particulate mat- correctly. Yokohama and Tokyo used to have impacts is widespread and growing, even inly higher than the figure for Latin America, 264litres, but lower than the figure for Europe, at288 litres. A mong the eight individual categories, the sanitation category sees the widest perfor- mance gap between top-performing and bot- standards for wastewater treatment. Most also monitor on-site sanitation systems in homes or communal areas. However, only nine cities fully ter among the 22 cities is 108 micrograms per cubic metre, which is more than five times the WHO’s recommended safe level of 20 micro- much more polluted air until city authorities tightened regulations. China, where there is traditionally less scope for such input.   Split jurisdictions can create difficulties: the  The average water leakage rate in Asian tom-performing cities. The divide reflects differ- promote public awareness about the proper use grams. No cities in the Index are below the municipal structure of Metro Manila, for exam-cities, at 22%, is slightly lower than Europe’s, ences in infrastructure, which are closely related of sanitation systems, and eight of these cities guideline. Environmental ple, causes notable variation in environmental23%, but significantly better than Latin Ame- to wealth. have the highest incomes in the Index.   The annual average daily concentration of governance governance among municipalities within therica’s, at 35%. Wealthier cities have very good   The overall average rate of access to sanita- nitrogen dioxide among cities in the Index is 47 metropolitan area.leakage rates. For example, Tokyo’s figure of 3%is lower than any city in Latin America or Europe.Poorer cities have difficulties. Four of the cities tion is 70%, less than in the Latin American Green City Index, at 93%. However, the percent- age of wastewater treated is higher in the 22 Air quality micrograms per cubic metre, also well above the WHO’s recommended safe level of 40. Only six cities are below that benchmark. M ost municipal governments across the region have established institutions for environmental governance. Divided authority   The annual average daily level of sulphurwith low incomes (under US$10,000 in GDP percapita) lose over a third of water in the system toleakage. Asian cities than in Latin America, at 60% for Asia compared to 52% in Latin America.   Six of the seven wealthiest cities in the Asian A ir pollution is a serious problem across Asia, with average levels of the three pollutants evaluated in the Index exceeding the safe levels dioxide — a primary source of which is fossil fuels burned to generate power — is 23 micro- between jurisdictions and a lack of administra- tive expertise to implement policies are ongoing challenges to effective oversight.  Water meters, grey water recycling, and rain- Green City Index have sanitation access rates of set down by the World Health Organisation grams per cubic metre. The WHO’s safe guide-   Index cities generally have environmental20 21

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