Grammar preparation for TOEIC: Sentence


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types of clause
types of sentence

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Grammar preparation for TOEIC: Sentence

  1. 1. SENTENCE PATTERN Clause (Independent and Dependent Clause) Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence
  2. 2. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE  Can stand on its own, by itself  No need to be joined to any other clauses Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.
  3. 3. DEPENDENT CLAUSE  Does not express a complete thought  Need to be joined with independent clause to be complete When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)  * Before, after, because, since, in order to, although, though, whenever, wherever, whether, while, even though, even if, who, which, that
  4. 4. SIMPLE SENTENCE  1 independent clause S + V ( + O, + Complement) Ed is working on his project. The new security guard always stands at the gate. My mom and dad ask me to help them in their business. Many people thinks about money all the time.
  5. 5. COMPOUND SENTENCE  2 independent clauses  Equal importance  Be joined with conjunction [ for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so], or semicolon ( ; ) S1 + V1 +, Conjunction( or ; ) + S2 + V2 IC1 +, Conjunction ( or ; ) + IC 2 I love dogs. My boyfriend doesn’t love dogs. I love dogs, but my boyfriend doesn’t. Students are lazy. It’s summer period. It’s summer period, so students are lazy.
  6. 6. COMPLEX SENTENCE  At least 1 independent clause with 1 or more dependent clause  One is more important than another  Have subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun [ although, though, because, in contrast, when, while, that, who, which, etc.] IC+ DC The woman, who bought me coffee, is my secretary. Although Fred knows the truth, he insists to do.
  7. 7. COMMON CONJUNCTION For And Nor But Or Yet, still So, therefore, accordingly although, even though, even if, though that, so that, in order that because, since before, after If, unless while, whereas as, as if, as long as when, whenever, where, wherever, who, which, whoever Coordinate Subordinate
  8. 8. CHOOSE THE MOST APPROPRIATE CONJUNCTION TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. AND NOR BUT OR BECAUSE ALTHOUGH 1. We decided not to buy the parts________ the cost was too high. 2. _______ he passed the first interview, he failed the second interview 3. Neither the price______ the quality of service meet our requirement. 4. Workers can apply now______ wait until a position becomes available. 5. The restaurant is famous for its delicious food_____ its friendly staff. 6. His mother always buys things at shopping mall _______ he buys online.
  9. 9. Unfortunately, our principal parts supplier, HX Industries, has been experiencing difficulties at one of their main manufacturing plants,____ this has caused a delay in the delivery of replacement parts. A. but B. and C. because D. whether
  10. 10.  Jean Mallet has been selected to replace Henri Valois, ________ is retiring as president and executive officer of Marteux Pharmaceutical Corporation. A. That B. It C. Which D. Who
  11. 11.  Either the organization’s sponsors will pay for the building addition_______ we will have to raise the money ourselves. A. or B. but C. and D. nor