How do ex-convicts stop offending? Presented by: Malinda D. Wilson
WHAT ARE THE OTHER MAJOR CONTRIBUTING FACTORS? <ul><li>Besides the typical issues of Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>
Most want to turn their lives around. Families are a key motivation They want to live with their families, take care of their children, work, and stay out of trouble (Irwin and Austin, 1994; McMurray, 1993: 153). Despite their hopes, many fail (Richards, 1995). The desire to have a changed life presents itself especially during the hot periods: arrest, court appearance, sentencing, incarceration.
<ul><li>Yet, The Stats Tell the Rehab Story </li></ul><ul><li>25 % of released prisoners are rearrested in the first six months, 40 % within the first year and 63 % within three years (Bureau of Justice Statistics). </li></ul><ul><li>These arrests resulted in about 41 % being back in jail or prison within 3 years (Beck and Shipley, 1989). </li></ul><ul><li>According to parole records, just 44% of those finishing parole were considered successful (Petersilia, 1999: 513). </li></ul>
WHAT WORKS? <ul><li>Community and Probation Supervision (Studies find a 14% reduction due to supervision) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and Drug Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support (Social Control Theory) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive-Interpersonal Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational Interviewing Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Aging out </li></ul>
INTERPERSONAL, MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ARE DYNAMICS THAT ARE ROUTINELY NEGLECTED IN CURRENT PROGRAMS. <ul><li>Most curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>including </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking for a Change </li></ul><ul><li>offered during supervision generally focus on cognitive restructuring. </li></ul>T4C uses a “classroom” teaching style that is difficult for most learners
Need to understand: Social Control Theory Crime occurs as a result of weakened bonds to society. Social bonds help restrain deviant impulses. Social bonds to family, school, work, church &positive peers prevent crime. If weak, they can produce criminal behavior. (Crime in the Life Course, 2003)
What is Interpersonal Therapy It utilizes the best of Cognitive Training in Restructuring Maladaptive Thinking patterns. It takes into consideration, each individuals’ current Stage of Change and level of Social Support It uses Motivational Interviewing Techniques to move the person toward action, including development of stronger social supports. It’s like a laboratory for client’s to experiment new behaviors, strategies, ideas, & ways of communicating
NEED TO UTILIZE: THEORY OF CHANGE <ul><li>Before the advent of Stages of Change, it was common to assume that a few weeks of classes or support groups might lead someone to change an entrenched behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior change process unfolds over months and years and is characterized by six distinct stages (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1998). </li></ul>
How Accessing Stage Works: Traditional interventions often assume that individuals are ready for an immediate and permanent behavior change. Not true… Each stage corresponds to an individual's readiness to change, which will vary over time. By matching an intervention to the appropriate stage (or readiness), program designers improve chances of success. Another important and innovative contribution of Stages of Change is its emphasis on maintaining change.
STAGE CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Precontemplation : No intention to change / Unaware of problem or risk </li></ul><ul><li>"I may have a lot of different sexual partners, but I don't need to use condoms because my partners are healthy." </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation : Aware of problem / Would consider change, but no specific plans or commitment; Ambivalence; feeling "stuck" "I know I should wear a condom, but sex isn't the same when I wear one." </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: Plan to take action soon / May have tried before </li></ul><ul><li>"I bought some condoms and I've decided to talk to my partner about trying them." </li></ul><ul><li>Action Take concrete steps to address problem, but behavior change is not consistent yet </li></ul><ul><li>"We used a condom for the first time, and it wasn't as bad as I thought it would be. We'll use them again." </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Generally free of addictive or problem behavior / Engage in new, healthful behavior May relapse, but accept and commit to new behavior as part of daily life and routine "I use condoms all the time now with my current partner; it's not a big deal for us ... although I will have to talk to any new partners about it." </li></ul><ul><li>Termination Not tempted to return to addictive or problem behavior / Complete confidence in ability to maintain behavior change forever in any situation "I will always use a condom with my current and with all new partners." </li></ul>
The Relationship between Stage and both Self-efficacy and Temptation
Motivational Interviewing Works: MI relies upon the client to identify and mobilize their values and goals to stimulate behavior change . Other approaches have emphasized coercion, persuasion, or the use of external contingencies (e.g., the threatened loss of job or family). Such strategies may have their place in evoking change, but they are quite different in spirit from MI. It is the client's task, not the counselor's, to articulate and resolve his or her ambivalence . Ambivalence takes the form of a conflict between two courses of action (e.g., indulgence versus restraint), each of which has perceived benefits and costs associated with it. Many clients have never had the opportunity of expressing the often confusing, contradictory and uniquely personal elements of this conflict. The counselor's task is to facilitate expression of both sides of the ambivalence impasse, and guide the client toward an acceptable resolution that triggers change. Readiness to change is not a client trait, but a fluctuating product of interpersonal interaction . The therapist is therefore highly attentive and responsive to the client's motivational signs. The therapeutic relationship is more like a partnership or companionship than expert/recipient or teacher/student roles .
WHAT IS SOCIAL SUPPORT? <ul><li>It is emotional. Yet it may be practical in that it empowers </li></ul><ul><li>the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be received by a number of sources including , but not </li></ul><ul><li>limited to, family, positive peers, mentors, sponsors, church </li></ul><ul><li>home, spiritual advisors. </li></ul><ul><li>It can change the trajectory of the individual’s life course. </li></ul><ul><li>It is best when solicited by the individual rather than </li></ul><ul><li>unsolicited. However, individuals need to be taught how to </li></ul><ul><li>garner and solicit positive social support. </li></ul>
FAMILY CONNECTIONS HAVE AN IMPORTANT ROLE <ul><li>“ Families can help develop realistic supervision conditions, motivate compliance and monitor behavior.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Shapiro & Schwartz (2001). Coming Home, Corrections Management) </li></ul><ul><li>We teach client’s how to show respect to family members, </li></ul><ul><li>and the need to understand each member’s expectations </li></ul><ul><li>such as safety needs, boundaries, rules, and roles. </li></ul>
Mentoring as Social Support <ul><li>Combine caring, trust, openness and acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the healthy behavior change </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport building, a healthy alliance, phone calls and accountability / buddy systems can be sources of social support. </li></ul><ul><li>Role modeling / showing how substitution practically works </li></ul><ul><li>Builds social capital and networks </li></ul>
Mentoring Works: Success is more likely when clients can locate, solicit and develop a social support network. Client’s learn how successful people develop accountability structures, healthy friendships and networks This increases practical knowledge, work and career opportunity, interpersonal and spiritual development.
THIS INNOVATIVE PROGRAM, “OVERCOMING BARRIERS,” IS COPYWRITTEN (2009) BY MALINDA D. WILSON <ul><li>Thank you for your time and attention! </li></ul>