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Chapter 11 edtl 520

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This is a presentation for my EDTL 520 class.

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Chapter 11 edtl 520

  1. 1. Chapter 11<br />Principles for Managing Essential Processing in Multimedia Learning: Segmenting, Pretraining, and Modality Principles <br />
  2. 2. Terminology<br />Research<br />Application<br />Activity<br />Roadmap <br />
  3. 3. This theory refers to the fact that visual/ pictorial and auditory/verbal channels in working memory are extremely limited. Therefore, only a few items can be held or manipulated in each channel at any one time.<br />Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning<br />
  4. 4. Too Much –Too Fast<br />Narrated animation presented at a fast rate which creates an intrinsic cognitive load.<br />The end result is that the essential cognitive processing required to understand exceeds the learner’s cognitive capacity<br />Essential Overload<br />
  5. 5. People learn more deeply when multimedia messages are presented in learner-paced segments<br />Segmenting Principle<br />
  6. 6. People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts<br />The Pretraining Principle<br />
  7. 7. Stand up straight<br />Follow the sequence<br />Touch your right shoulder with your left hand <br />Touch your left shoulder with your right hand<br />Touch your left side with your right hand<br />Touch your right side with your left hand<br />Touch your left hip with your right hand<br />Touch your right hip with your left hand<br />Pretraining<br />
  8. 8. Humans learn more deeply from multimedia message when the words are spoken rather than printed<br />Modality Principle<br />
  9. 9. Is the total amount of processing that can be supported by both the auditory and the visual channels of the learner’s working memory at any one time<br />Cognitive Capacity<br />
  10. 10. Mayer & Moreno, 2003 <br /> A complex topic is presented at a fast pace with a narrated animation. The end result is a type one essential overload <br />Mayer and Chandler, 2001<br />Continuous 140 seconds presentation vs. 16 seconds presentation<br /> learners performed when they saw the presentation in small segments<br />Research<br />
  11. 11. Mayer, Dow, and Mayer (2003)<br />Segmented Group vs. Continuous Group<br />“ Dr. Phyz” narrated a continuous version or students control the pace of the different segments. <br />Students who controlled the pace of the presentation performed much better<br />Research cont.<br />
  12. 12. Pollock, Chandler, & Sweller (2002)<br />Group One<br />Phase one: Introduction on the components<br />Phase two: How the components worked together<br />Group two<br />Both phases dealt with the components working together<br />Group one performed better on a problem solving transfer test.<br />Low experienced learner benefited more from the pretraining phase than the experienced learners<br />Research on Pretraining Principle<br />
  13. 13. Mayer Mau tone, & Prothero, 2002<br />Two groups of students were presented with the Profile Game to learn about geology.<br />Group one was given illustrations before the lesson. Group two did not get any pretraining.<br />The pretraining group performed better on a subsequent test<br />Pretraining Research<br />
  14. 14. More than a dozen studies have been done.<br />Mousavi, Low and Sweller ( 1995)<br />Group one: Computer presentation with graphics and printed text<br />Group two: Graphics and narration<br />Overall results concluded that the modality of graphics and narration was more effective because the scores were higher.<br />Modality Principle<br />
  15. 15. Allow the learner to control the pace of presentation (particularly good for learners with limited prior knowledge)<br />Try to equip the learner with knowledge that will make it easier to process the information.<br />Allow learners to have enough time to engage in active cognitive process<br />Off load some of the visual information onto the auditory channels<br />APPLICATIONS<br />
  16. 16. Segment it- When possible use a continue button<br />Pre-train<br />Use visual and auditory modalities<br />Keep the essential material and eliminate the extraneous material<br />Slow Down and Make it Student Centered.<br />
  17. 17. Let’s dance the Macarena!<br />Activity<br />
  18. 18. Mayer, E (2008).The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Santa Barbara. Cambridge University Press<br />Reference<br />

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