SPONSOR DS IP
TYRES AND TUBES
I RODUCT I O N
TN
4
AIM
To teach student offrs about the construction
of tyres , tread patterns and lasest trends
SEQ
STAGE 1
TYRE CONST
TREAD PATTERNS,
TYPES OF TYRE AND TUBES
TYRE MARKING
LOADING INDEX AND SPEED RATING 5
6
STAGE 2
LATEST TRENDS
SAFETY MEASURES
RECOMMENDED TYRES
CONCL
SEQ
TYRE BASICS
 A tyre is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a
wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle
perfor...
TYRE CONST
8
TYRE CONST
10
SIPES
Small, slit-like grooves
in the tread blocks that
allow the blocks to flex.
This added flexibility
inc...
TYRE CONST
11
13
TREAD PATTERNS
Rib Shape
Block Shape
Zig Zag Shape
V Shape
TREAD PATTERNS
NON-DIRECTIONAL
MUD AND SNOW
DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW
14
Groove
The groove is the hollow part or
the tread....
NON-DIRECTIONAL
MUD AND SNOW
DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW
15
Rib Shape
 The design of this pattern is
like a rib shape with t...
NON-DIRECTIONAL
MUD AND SNOW
DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW
16
Assymetric Pattern
 It has a diff design on the
inside to the ou...
18
Block Shape
 This pattern has a block
shape design. The grooves
are very small and the tread
pattern is very tight and...
19
Zig Zag Shape
 It’s a classic tread design
for passenger vehs
 Today most van tyres are
still using this zigzag
desig...
20
V type pattern
 The tread pattern ensures
that they grip well to the
rd remaining as rigid as
possible at all times
TR...
NON-DIRECTIONAL
MUD AND SNOW
CROSS CTY ROCK SVC
DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW
21
TREAD PATTERNS
22
Radial tyres
Bias Tyres
Performance tyres
All round tyres
Wet-weather tyres
Winter or snow tyres
All terrain tyr...
RADIAL AND BIAS TYRES
23
 A Radial-ply tire is a
particular design of
vehicular tyre.
 In this design, the cord
plies ar...
BIAS PLY TYRE
25
TYPE OF TYRES
26
Performance tyres
 Performance tyres are designed for grip
and driving performance rather than
longevity...
TYPE OF TYRES
27
All-Round tyres
All round tyres are found on most cars and
are designed to handle most of the weather
and...
TYPE OF TYRES
28
Snow tyres
Snow tyres are designed for rds with regular
snow and ice. The tread pattern is much
larger th...
TYPE OF TYRES
29
All-terrain tyres
 All terrain tyres are used on 4WD vehs
 Designed for handling a wide range of on-rd
...
TYPE OF TYRES
30
Truck or Van tyres
 Tyres used in commercial vehs will often
employ a classic zig zag pattern and are
de...
TYPE OF TYRES
31
Earth Mover Tyres
Rock Svc Tyres
Truck Tyres (4x4 Vehs)
Solid Tyres
Earthmover TyresGrader TyresCbt Tyres
32
TYPES OF TUBES
BULLET RESISTING TUBE Cbt Tubes
Std Tubes
33
TYPES OF TUBES
Std Tubes
 Std tubes are circular rubber containers that
fit inside the tire and hold the air that sps ...
34
TYPES OF TUBES
Cbt Tubes
 Same as std tubes
 Relatively thicker material used
 Smaller than std tubes
 Can only be ...
TYRE MARKINGS
35
Manufacturers or
brand name, and
commercial name or
identity
Req pressure
marking
Type of Tyre
constructi...
37
LI KG
50 190
51 195
52 200
53 206
54 212
55 218
56 224
57 230
58 236
59 243
60 250
61 257
62 265
63 272
64 280
65 290
6...
38
STAGE 2
LATEST TRENDS
39
Run Flat Tyres
These tyres contain an extra lining within the tire
that self-seals in the event of a smal...
LATEST TRENDS
40
Airless Tyres
 These tyres are not sp by air pressure
and are used on cbt vehs/ Hy eqpt vehs
 Airless t...
LATEST TRENDS
41
Retread Tyres
 Retreads are basically old recycled tyres
 A retread is a new lease of rubber put on
an ...
SAFETY MEASURES
42
Hydroplaning / Aquaplaning
When driving in the rain or over
standing water and you temporarily
feel the...
SAFETY MEASURES
43
Wheel Balancing
 Steering vibrations is a consequence of
veh’s tyres not being balanced
 In most case...
SAFETY MEASURES
45
Wheel Alignment
 Wheel alignment refers to
the procedure of lining
up the components of
steering inclu...
SAFETY MEASURES
46
Tyre Rotation
 Tyre wear varies depending
on where it is fitted. If a car is
front wh drive then the f...
SAFETY MEASURES
47
Effects of Tyre Pressure
RECOMMENDATIONS
48
Summer tyres are ideal and are basically the
best type for Sindh/Bln and Northern region
weather conds ...
CONCL
49
CONCL
Dir Stability
Steering Precisions
Ride
Comfort
Wet Braking
Aqua planning
Rolling Resistance
Service
Life
Ty...
50
THANKYOU
51
Tyres and tubes x
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Tyres and tubes x

393 views

Published on

tyres and tubes and latest trends

Published in: Engineering, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
393
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tyres and tubes x

  1. 1. SPONSOR DS IP TYRES AND TUBES
  2. 2. I RODUCT I O N TN
  3. 3. 4 AIM To teach student offrs about the construction of tyres , tread patterns and lasest trends
  4. 4. SEQ STAGE 1 TYRE CONST TREAD PATTERNS, TYPES OF TYRE AND TUBES TYRE MARKING LOADING INDEX AND SPEED RATING 5
  5. 5. 6 STAGE 2 LATEST TRENDS SAFETY MEASURES RECOMMENDED TYRES CONCL SEQ
  6. 6. TYRE BASICS  A tyre is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the gr  The fundamental materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire  They consist of a tread and a body. The tread provides traction while the body ensures support 7
  7. 7. TYRE CONST 8
  8. 8. TYRE CONST 10 SIPES Small, slit-like grooves in the tread blocks that allow the blocks to flex. This added flexibility increases traction by creating an additional biting edge. Sipes are especially helpful on ice, light snow and loose dirt GROOVES Create voids for better water channeling on wet road surfaces. Grooves are the most efficient way of channeling water from in front of the tyres to behind it. BLOCKS Segments that make up the majority of a tyre's tread. RIBS Straight-lined row of blocks that create a circumferential contact "band." DIMPLES These are the indentations in the tread, normally towards the outer edge of the tyre SHOULDERS Provide continuous contact with the road while maneuvering. The shoulders wrap slightly over the inner and outer sidewall of a tyre.
  9. 9. TYRE CONST 11
  10. 10. 13 TREAD PATTERNS Rib Shape Block Shape Zig Zag Shape V Shape
  11. 11. TREAD PATTERNS NON-DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW 14 Groove The groove is the hollow part or the tread. The grooves are cut which makes the tyre pattern. The hollow part (the groove) is designed to channel the water out and away. When tread wears the groove becomes less hollow and apparent. Design of the groove effects the performance and the quality of the tyre. Pitch:- The pitch/cuff is the small tread at the edge of both sides of the tyre, as shown in the picture on the left. The pitch often wears out before the wrest of the tyre. The funPitch:- The pitch/cuff is the small tread at the edge of both sides of the tyre, as shown in the picture on the left. The pitch often wears out before the wrest of the tyre. The fun Pitch The pitch/cuff is the small tread at the edge of both sides of the tyre. The function of the pitch is to enhance the performance by providing better steering and stability. The pitch is mostly visible on winter tyres, and it functions to byte the road and grip the ice
  12. 12. NON-DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW 15 Rib Shape  The design of this pattern is like a rib shape with the grooves running from the centre to the edges like rib pattern.  This pattern aids faster water drainage and hence gives good traction on wet roads.  It is commonly found and suitable for all car types.  The disadvantage of this type of design is that it is rotational pattern TREAD PATTERNS
  13. 13. NON-DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW 16 Assymetric Pattern  It has a diff design on the inside to the outside. It looks like two different tyres joined in the middle.  The sides differ in pattern to give different functionality  The inside offers better cornering traction while the outside is designed to channel water away. TREAD PATTERNS
  14. 14. 18 Block Shape  This pattern has a block shape design. The grooves are very small and the tread pattern is very tight and close.  The advances in tread design have seen this tyre less in use, it was very common on passenger cars up till the 90’s.  Today it is mostly seen on winter and all season type tyres. TREAD PATTERNS
  15. 15. 19 Zig Zag Shape  It’s a classic tread design for passenger vehs  Today most van tyres are still using this zigzag design  Success of this design in commercial use is because of the grooves that are cut in a zigzag giving the tyre low rolling resistance, low heat generation  It’s ideal for the long journeys that commercial TREAD PATTERNS
  16. 16. 20 V type pattern  The tread pattern ensures that they grip well to the rd remaining as rigid as possible at all times TREAD PATTERNS
  17. 17. NON-DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW CROSS CTY ROCK SVC DIRECTIONAL MUD AND SNOW 21 TREAD PATTERNS
  18. 18. 22 Radial tyres Bias Tyres Performance tyres All round tyres Wet-weather tyres Winter or snow tyres All terrain tyres TYPES OF TYRES Truck or Van tyres Combat tyres Passenger tyres Rock svc tyres Earthmover tyres Grader tyres
  19. 19. RADIAL AND BIAS TYRES 23  A Radial-ply tire is a particular design of vehicular tyre.  In this design, the cord plies are arr at 90 deg to the dir of travel, or radially (from the cen of the tire)  Series of plies of cord reinforces a tire  The radial cords in the sidewall allow it to act like a spring, giving flexibility and ride comfort
  20. 20. BIAS PLY TYRE 25
  21. 21. TYPE OF TYRES 26 Performance tyres  Performance tyres are designed for grip and driving performance rather than longevity, and use softer rubber compounds  The tread pattern utilised in performance tyres will often utilise an asymmetric pattern, as the outside tread pattern is designed to channel water away and the inside pattern offers better handling.  They are often wider than the normal tyre and are used on larger rim size whs
  22. 22. TYPE OF TYRES 27 All-Round tyres All round tyres are found on most cars and are designed to handle most of the weather and rd conds that motorists will encounter except for the extremes such as snow, ice, mud and dirt Wet-Weather tyres Wet weather tyres are especially designed for driving in wet conds. Tread pattern is deep and designed to spill water away from the tyre. The rubber compound is even softer than performance tyres and is designed to heat up quickly and provide more grip on the rd
  23. 23. TYPE OF TYRES 28 Snow tyres Snow tyres are designed for rds with regular snow and ice. The tread pattern is much larger than normal tyres and as a result is much noisier. Snow tyres should only be used in snow and ice conds as the tyres wear quickly on dry rds and damage the rd surface
  24. 24. TYPE OF TYRES 29 All-terrain tyres  All terrain tyres are used on 4WD vehs  Designed for handling a wide range of on-rd and off-rd conds  They have stiffer sidewalls and large tread patterns  Soft off rd tyres are designed primarily to be used on sealed rds, with the tread patterns resembling normal car tyres. They are engineered to handle some off-rd conds like gravel, dirt and sand  Off-rd tyres are designed to handle unsealed rds and off-the-beaten trs .Off-rd tyres are noisy and wear more quickly on dry, sealed rds
  25. 25. TYPE OF TYRES 30 Truck or Van tyres  Tyres used in commercial vehs will often employ a classic zig zag pattern and are designed to offer low rolling resistance and low heat generation, which makes them ideal for the long dist that commercial vans and trks travel.  The disadvantages of the zig zag pattern include poor cornering and a lack of grip in wet conds
  26. 26. TYPE OF TYRES 31 Earth Mover Tyres Rock Svc Tyres Truck Tyres (4x4 Vehs) Solid Tyres Earthmover TyresGrader TyresCbt Tyres
  27. 27. 32 TYPES OF TUBES BULLET RESISTING TUBE Cbt Tubes Std Tubes
  28. 28. 33 TYPES OF TUBES Std Tubes  Std tubes are circular rubber containers that fit inside the tire and hold the air that sps the veh  It is strong enough to with stand few lbs of air pressure  It is easily chafed, punctured , pinched or damaged  It is made up of butyl and synthetic rubber  They are used reg for std tyres
  29. 29. 34 TYPES OF TUBES Cbt Tubes  Same as std tubes  Relatively thicker material used  Smaller than std tubes  Can only be used with cbt tyres  In case of non availability std tube can be used of same size inside Cbt tyre Bullet resisting Tubes  They are made of heavy thicker material  Auto seals bullet punctures  They can be ident by extra wt and generally have green painted valve stems  In case of non availability std tube can be used of same size inside Cbt tyre
  30. 30. TYRE MARKINGS 35 Manufacturers or brand name, and commercial name or identity Req pressure marking Type of Tyre construction Tyre size , Construction and Speed rating designations. Cty of Mfr Mud and Snow Tyre
  31. 31. 37 LI KG 50 190 51 195 52 200 53 206 54 212 55 218 56 224 57 230 58 236 59 243 60 250 61 257 62 265 63 272 64 280 65 290 66 300 67 307 68 315 69 325 LI KG 70 335 71 345 72 355 73 365 74 375 75 387 76 400 77 412 78 425 79 437 80 450 81 462 82 475 83 487 84 500 85 515 86 530 87 545 88 560 89 580 LI KG 150 3350 151 3450 152 3550 153 3650 154 3750 155 3875 156 4000 157 4125 158 4250 159 4375 160 4500 161 4625 162 4750 163 4875 164 5000 165 5150 166 5300 167 5450 168 5600 169 5800 TYRE SIZE – LOAD INDEX
  32. 32. 38 STAGE 2
  33. 33. LATEST TRENDS 39 Run Flat Tyres These tyres contain an extra lining within the tire that self-seals in the event of a small hole due to a nail or screw. In this way, the loss of air is prevented from the outset such that the tire is either permanently self-repairing or at least loses air very slowly. EXTRA LINING
  34. 34. LATEST TRENDS 40 Airless Tyres  These tyres are not sp by air pressure and are used on cbt vehs/ Hy eqpt vehs  Airless tyres have higher rolling resistance and provide much less suspension.Airless tyres are often filled with compressed polymers (plastic) , rather than air
  35. 35. LATEST TRENDS 41 Retread Tyres  Retreads are basically old recycled tyres  A retread is a new lease of rubber put on an old tyre without changing the cords or infrastructure  They are more commonly found on off rd 4x4 sizes and truck sizes
  36. 36. SAFETY MEASURES 42 Hydroplaning / Aquaplaning When driving in the rain or over standing water and you temporarily feel the veh is no longer in control.This is a result of hydroplaning Hydroplaning is caused by a combination of factors which include the speed the tyre is traveling how much tread is remaining on the tyre, pressure and also depth of the water. When the tyre travels over the water it creates a blocking point similar to a wave which causes the tyre to temporarily float on the water hence loosing contact with the road. This is hydroplaning, to lose traction and glide or hydroplane across the water
  37. 37. SAFETY MEASURES 43 Wheel Balancing  Steering vibrations is a consequence of veh’s tyres not being balanced  In most cases if you feel the vibration and shaking on the steering then it’s car front whs that need bal and for those that feel it on their rear then it’s the rear wheels that need bal  If the wheels are not balanced, driving can be very annoying and this imbalance has a knock on effect on other components including suspension and tyres
  38. 38. SAFETY MEASURES 45 Wheel Alignment  Wheel alignment refers to the procedure of lining up the components of steering including the camber, caster and toe  Whs that are not aligned properly can wear out tyres a lot quicker and along with steering and handling issues it can also damage the suspension sys of veh
  39. 39. SAFETY MEASURES 46 Tyre Rotation  Tyre wear varies depending on where it is fitted. If a car is front wh drive then the fronts will wear out a lot quicker than the rear ones  If the car is rear wh drive, then the rears whs will wear a little faster although there isn't a lot of diff from front to back with these cars  Most commonly it is suggested you make the switch every 2000 to 3000 miles.
  40. 40. SAFETY MEASURES 47 Effects of Tyre Pressure
  41. 41. RECOMMENDATIONS 48 Summer tyres are ideal and are basically the best type for Sindh/Bln and Northern region weather conds and rds. They deliver excellent driving and braking performance on wet (rainy) and dry roads. In all the seasons spring, summer, autumn and above freezing winter conds. The tread pattern ensures that they grip well to the road remaining as rigid as possible at all times Winter tyres have a fine block design with grooves that are deep and wide Some also come with spikes, the rubber compound is perfect for low temperatures so when temperatures are below freezing they provide good friction characteristics. Suitable for extreme weathers All season tread designs provide good traction and stability but also have good tread wear The tread pattern is more complex, they have more sips, the tread bites the surface to give grip in freezing conditions
  42. 42. CONCL 49 CONCL Dir Stability Steering Precisions Ride Comfort Wet Braking Aqua planning Rolling Resistance Service Life Tyre Weight
  43. 43. 50 THANKYOU
  44. 44. 51

×