Absorption Chiller

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This presentation describes the working of an absorption chiller and a case study associated with its trouble shooting

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  • Quantity of Water(liters)5/4/20125/12/20125/25/20125/31/2012100 25 50 40Refrigerant specific gravity4/25/20125/11/20125/12/20125/25/20125/26/20125/31/20126/4/20126/5/20126/9/20121.4 161.2321.085 1.0731.051.012 1.0121.0091.0076/11/2012 6/18/20121.0061.002LiBr conc. in Refrigerant 4/25/20125/12/20125/25/20126/4/20126/9/20126/11/20126/18/20124411.510 1.81.121.020.5
  • Design Load on Evaporator(TR)=705.6385Design Economy of Chiller(lb/hr) per TR   =19.05877 Design Load on Condenser and Absorber(TR)   =1799.815Condenser Tons/Evaporator Tons   =2.550619Power Consumption by the Chilled Water Supply Pump(Kw)132.1028Based on TMP Data Load on Evaporator(TR)=804.8565
  • Absorption Chiller

    1. 1. Absorption Chillers (KG-111A/B) Presented By: Malik Qadeer AhmadManagement Associate (Process Engineering) malikqa_uetian@yahoo.com
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES1. To complete a schedule task of training plan2. To give an overview of the Absorption Chillers, associated problems and recommendations
    3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS• Introduction• Working Philosophy• Problems• Recommendations
    4. 4. INTRODUCTIONAbsorption Chiller: A vapor absorption chiller is a machine that produces chilled water using a thermal source rather than electrical input as in the more familiar vapor compression cycle.Types of Absorption Chillers: 1. Steam Based 2. Hot Water Based 3. Natural Gas Based 4. Waste Heat Based 5. Solar Energy Based
    5. 5. INTRODUCTION ISOFLOW SINGLE EFFECT UNIT NAME ABSORPTION CHILLERMANUFACTURER YORK, USANO. OF UNITS 02HEAT SOURCE LOW PRESSURE STEAMMODEL YIA-ST-12F1DESIGN LOAD EACH UNIT 700 (Tons of Refrigeration)DESIGN CHILLED WATER 381FLOW(m3/hr)DESIGN TEMPERATURE 12.8 0C to 7.2 0CRANGE
    6. 6. WORKING PHILOSOPHY Vapor Absorption Refrigeration CycleUnder VacuumOperation Qout Condenser Condenser Generator Expansion ExpansionGenerator Thermal Valve Valve Compressor Absorber Absorber Evaporator Evaporator Qin
    7. 7. WORKING PHILOSOPHYRefrigerant Demineralized Water  Stable  Nontoxic  Low cost  Readily available  Environmental friendly
    8. 8. WORKING PHILOSOPHYAbsorbent Lithium Bromide Lithium Bromide Solution CompositionSpecific Gravity of Solution 1.566-1.640Lithium Bromide 54-56(LiBr) Conc.(%)Lithium Hydroxide 0.001-0.0022LiOH(%)Lithium 0.017-0.32Chromate(Li2CrO4)%
    9. 9. WORKING PHILOSOPHY Cooling Water Return 330C Condenser Refrigerant Generator CondensateHeat Steam Conc. SolutionExchanger Refrigerant Chilled Water 10.50C Evaporator Chilled Water Absorber 15.80C Cooling Water 300C Dilute Solution Refrigerant Pump Solution Pump
    10. 10. FREQUENT PROBLEMS• Low Vacuum• Overloading of Refrigerant Pump Motor• Low Level of Refrigerant in Evaporator pan
    11. 11. LOW VACUUMCauses of Low Vacuum• Air ingress in system• Improper operation of purge system• Generator/Condenser/Absorber/Evaporator tube leakage• Refrigerant/solution pipeline circuit valve leakage
    12. 12. LOW VACUUMRemedial Actions• Close and plug all drains and bleeders• Ensure proper operation of purge system• Confirm & rectify the leaking tube
    13. 13. RECENT PROBLEMSAfter TA-2012,when Chiller A(KG-111A) was taken inservice following problems were observed:• Chiller tripping on Refrigerant Motor Overloading• Refrigerant Pump Tripping on Low level in Evaporator pan
    14. 14. REFRIGERANT MOTOR OVERLOADINGAfter discussion with Vendor, Lab. Analysis ofRefrigerant was carried out and High LithiumBromide concentration in refrigerant was found as theroot cause of problem. LiBr Concentration(%) Specific Gravity in Refrigerant of Refrigerant 44 1.416
    15. 15. ROOT CAUSE Low Load Operation Small Heat Input Less Refrigerant Generated Low Level in Evaporator Pan Float Level Switch ActuationSolution Transfer to Evaporator PanResults in Concentrating refrigerant
    16. 16. PROBLEM TACKLING Blow downAddition of Diluted ofRefrigerant Refrigerant Refrigerant
    17. 17. EFFECT OF REFRIGERANT ADDITION ADDITION120 1.6 1.4100 1.2 80 1 60 0.8 0.6 40 0.4 20 0.2 0 0 4/25/2012 5/5/2012 5/15/2012 5/25/2012 6/4/2012 6/14/2012 Quantity of Water(Litrs) LiBr Conc.(%) in Refrigerant Refrigerant S.G
    18. 18. REFRIGERANT PUMP TRIPPING Low Load Operation Small Heat Input Less Refrigerant Generated Low Level in Evaporator Pan Refrigerant Pump Tripping on low level
    19. 19. PROBLEM TACKLINGControlling Increases Steam Enough Cooling Input Quantity of Water Load on Remains Refrigerant Flowrate Chiller same is produced
    20. 20. RECOMMENDATIONS1. Regular check of Refrigerant composition and Solution composition2. Sight glass availability for checking the refrigerant level in Evaporator3. Properly following the annual maintenance plan to avoid any chances of low vacuum in system4. Flow meter availability on steam/condensate line5. Provision of HMI for remote operation monitoring
    21. 21. QUESTIONS?
    22. 22. THANK YOU

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