Lecture 8 energy_and_civilization


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Lecture 8 energy_and_civilization

  1. 1. Environmental Science A Study of Interrelationships Eleventh Edition Enger & Smith Chapter 8Energy and Civilization: Patterns of Consumption Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Energy and Civilization:Patterns of Consumption
  3. 3. Outline History of Energy Consumption How Energy is Used Electrical Energy The Economics and Politics of Energy Use Energy Consumption Trends
  4. 4. History of Energy Consumption Biological energy sources • Initial energy transfer occurs through photosynthesis. • Very early in history humans began to exploit additional energy sources to make life more comfortable. • Energy provided by burning wood enabled people to cook food, heat living areas, and develop primitive metallurgy. • Dense, rapidly growing settlements quickly outstripped wood production, and new fuel sources such as coal had to be utilized.
  5. 5. History of Energy Consumption During the Carboniferous period, (286-362 million years ago) conditions were conducive to the formation of large deposits of coal. Oil and natural gas formed primarily from one- celled marine organisms. During the Industrial Revolution, machines replaced human and animal labor in the manufacture and transportation of goods. • Steam engines converting heat energy into forward motion were central to this transformation. • Countries or regions without large coal deposits were consequently left behind.
  6. 6. History of Energy Consumption Prior to the Industrial Revolution, goods were manufactured on a small scale in private homes. Expanding factories needed larger labor pools, thus people began congregating around factories and cities. • Widespread use of coal in cities resulted in increased levels of air pollution. Within 200 years, daily per capita energy consumption of industrialized nations increased eightfold.
  7. 7. History of Energy ConsumptionChanges in energy sources
  8. 8. History of Energy Consumption The invention of the automobile dramatically increased the demand for oil products. The growth of the automobile industry led to roadway construction, which required energy. • Better roads permitted higher speeds. • Higher speeds permitted bigger, faster cars. • Bigger, faster cars required better roads. Convenience of the automobile led to two-car families. • Job growth in automobile-related industries. • Major role in development of industrialized nations.
  9. 9. History of Energy Consumption Cars altered people’s lifestyles: • Vacationers could travel greater distance. • People could live farther from work, leading to sprawling cities and suburbs. • In the suburbs, labor-saving, energy-consuming devices became essential in the home. • We expect to see Florida oranges, California lettuces, and Central American bananas in any supermarket in North America. – They must be processed, refrigerated, and transported to distant locations.
  10. 10. History of Energy Consumption Initially, natural gas was burned as a waste product at oil wells. • Before 1940, accounted for less than 10% of energy consumption. • By 1970, it accounted for about 30% of energy needs. • Currently, it accounts for 23% of U.S. consumption. • It is primarily used for home heating and industrial purposes.
  11. 11. How Energy is Used Industrialized nations use energy roughly equally for: • Residential / commercial uses • Industrial uses • Transportation Less-developed countries use most energy for residential purposes. • Cooking and heating Developing countries use much of their energy to develop industry.
  12. 12. How Energy is Used In North America, 16% of energy is used for residential and commercial purposes. • 68% used for air conditioning and water and space heating. In India, 57% of energy is used for residential purposes. The current pattern of residential and commercial energy use in each region of the world determines what conservation methods will be effective.
  13. 13. How Energy is Used The total amount of energy required in a country’s industrial sector depends on industrial processes in use. • Many countries use inefficient processes and could reduce energy consumption by converting to more efficient means. – Need capital investments. – Many LDCs don’t have the necessary capital.
  14. 14. Transportation Energy Uses Per capita energy use for transportation is high in developing countries and highest in highly developed countries. • The specific combination of bus, rail, waterways, and private automobiles is the main factor in determining a country’s energy use for transportation. • In countries with high population densities, rail and bus transport are particularly efficient.
  15. 15. How Energy is Used In North America, government policies have kept energy costs artificially low to support the automobile industry while removing support for bus and rail transport. • Private automobiles in N. America consume over 40% of world gasoline production.
  16. 16. How Energy is UsedHow Americans get to work
  17. 17. Electrical Energy Electricity is both a way that energy is consumed and a way that it is supplied. Most electrical energy is produced as a result of burning fossil fuels. Because electricity is easily transported and its uses are so varied, electricity is a major world energy source. • Industrialized nations have 20% of the world’s population, but use 60% of the world’s electricity. • Per capita use in N. America is 25 times greater than that in less-developed countries.
  18. 18. The Economics and Politics of Energy Use A direct link exists between economic growth and the availability of inexpensive energy. • Most industrial societies want to ensure a continuous supply of affordable energy. • The higher the price of energy, the more expensive goods and services become. • Subsidies help keep energy costs down.
  19. 19. The Economics and Politics of Energy Use Automobile fuel efficiency is one area in which government policy has had significant impact. The price of gasoline determined by two factors: • Purchasing and processing crude oil. • Taxes Most of the differences in gasoline prices among countries are a result of taxes and reflect differences in government policy toward motor vehicle transportation.
  20. 20. The Economics and Politics of Energy Use Taxes in the U.S. represent less than 20% of retail gasoline price. • 35% in Canada • 45-70% in Japan and Europe When we compare the kinds of automobiles driven, we find a direct relationship between the cost of fuel and fuel efficiency. The average European car driver pays more than twice as much as U.S. and Canadian drivers, and uses 30% less fuel to drive the same distance as a U.S. driver.
  21. 21. The Economics and Politics of Energy Use Governments often charge road users to help build and repair roads by taxing fuel. • Many European countries raise more money from fuel taxes than they spend on building and repairing roads. • U.S. only raises 60% of monies needed for roads from fuel taxes. – Low fuel costs in the U.S. encourage more travel, which increases road repair costs.
  22. 22. The Economics and Politics of Energy UseGasoline taxes and fuel efficiency
  23. 23. The Economics and Politics of Energy Use The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) consists of twelve members. OPEC nations control over 78% of the world’s estimated oil reserves (1,000 billion barrels). Since 2002, OPEC countries have agreed to regulate production to maintain a price greater than $22 per barrel. With increased solidarity among OPEC countries, oil prices have continued to rise and reached over $70 per barrel in 2006.
  24. 24. Energy Consumption Trends Over half of world energy consumption is by the 25 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the developed nations of the world. • Available Energy Sources – Oil 37% – Coal 27% – Natural Gas 24% – Nuclear energy and hydropower provide the rest.
  25. 25. Energy Consumption TrendsChanges in world energy consumption
  26. 26. Political and Economic Factors The primary factors determining energy use: • Political stability in oil-producing countries • Price of oil During the 1980s, energy costs in N. America and Europe declined, and people became less concerned about energy consumption.
  27. 27. Energy Consumption Trends Energy consumption behavior of most people is motivated by economics rather than a desire to wisely use energy resources. Over the past several years, world oil prices have been extremely volatile.
  28. 28. Summary A direct correlation exists between the amount of energy used and the complexity of civilizations. Fossil-fuel consumption in conjunction with the invention of labor-saving machines resulted in the Industrial Revolution, which led to the development of technology-oriented societies today in the developed world. The invention of the automobile caused major changes in the lifestyles of people that led to greater consumption of energy.
  29. 29. Summary Because of the high dependence of modern societies on oil as a source of energy, OPEC countries can set the price of oil through collective action. In general, rich countries use large amounts of energy and poor countries use much less. Analysts expect the worldwide demand for energy to increase steadily and the growth in energy usage by those countries becoming industrialized to be greater than that of already- industrialized nations.