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Energized Report 2019

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The Malabo Montpellier (MaMo) Forum 5th Report presentation in Banjul, The Gambia , December 17 , 2019

Energized
Policy innovations to power the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food system

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Energized Report 2019

  1. 1. www.mamopanel.org Energized Policy innovations to power the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food system @MaMoPanel MaMoPanel #MaMoForum
  2. 2. Policy innovations to power the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food system Outline Part One: Malabo Montpellier Panel and Forum Part Two: Main Report Findings Part Three: Country Case Studies Part Four: Key Recommendations
  3. 3. Policy innovations to power the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food system Ousmane Badiane Panel Co-chair Director for Africa International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Outline Part One: Malabo Montpellier Panel and Forum Part Two: Main Report Findings Part Three: Country Case Studies Part Four: Key Recommendations
  4. 4. MaMo Approach to Policy Innovation Policy innovation from top is more likely: • to be adopted and faster, • to be implemented and at scale, • hence to be transformative. Drivers of policy innovation from the top • Failed experiments costlier • Policy change gradual vs transformative • Peer learning to accelerate pace of innovation
  5. 5. Annual Agricultural Expenditure Ag. Gross Domestic Product +86% +63% LEARNING FROM POSITIVE CHANGE Where there is progress, there are lessons to be learnt
  6. 6. Share of Population under Poverty Line Level of Malnutrition* -36% -20% -43% * % malnourished population; under-5 stunted and wasted LEARNING FROM POSITIVE CHANGE Where there is progress, there are lessons to be learnt
  7. 7. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Agricultural value added index, 2000-2017 (1=2000) East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa North America South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa LEARNING FROM POSITIVE CHANGE Where there is progress, there are lessons to be learnt
  8. 8. 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Actual and 2000s trend for the future 1960-1977 growth path 3.2% annual growth rate 7.0% annual growth rate to catch up $700 $1,200 $1,900 Source: Badiane et al (2015). !!!! At current pace of growth It would take decades to make up for the lost ground THE IMPERATIVE TO LEARN Need to make up for lost decades of slow growth and decline
  9. 9. There is still a long way to go despite progress THE IMPERATIVE TO LEARN Hunger Persists in Africa Despite Progress
  10. 10. Understanding Positive Change • Find out where progress is taking place • Understand what works, how and why Evidence and Dialogue for Policy Innovation Institutional Innovation Policy Innovation Program Interventions Learning from Positive Change • Good practices in policy and program design and implementation • Dialogue and exchange for adoption
  11. 11. Lessons and Good Practices Exchange Among Practitioners Evidence and Dialogue for Policy Innovation
  12. 12. MALABO MONTPELLIER PANEL Debisi Araba Tom Arnold Ousmane Badiane Noble Banadda Patrick Caron Gordon Conway Gebisa Ejeta Karim El Aynaoui Ashok Gulati Sheryl Hendriks Muhammadou Kah Agnes Kalibata Wanjiru Kamau-Rutenberg Ishmael Sunga Rhoda Peace Tumusiime Joachim von Braun Nachilala Nkombo
  13. 13. Policy innovations to power the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food system Muhammadou Kah Panel Member Professor and Provost American University of Nigeria Outline Part One: Malabo Montpellier Panel and Forum Part Two: Main Report Findings Part Three: Country Case Studies Part Four: Key Recommendations
  14. 14. Setting the scene: Access is growing… North Africa is nearly at 100% In SSA, access is still lagging at 45% • 80% of people without electricity live in rural areas Source: Africa Energy Outlook 2019, IEA
  15. 15. Population WITHOUT access to electricity • 55% of people in SSA • In 13 countries, more than 75% of the population does not have access to electricity Source: Adapted from Africa Energy Outlook 2019, IEA Setting the scene: … but challenges persist
  16. 16. Biomass accounts for >45% of total energy use in Africa and up to 60% in SSA. Cooking accounts for more than 70% of household energy usage in Africa. Major cause of indoor air pollution, with damaging health effects. Biomass dominates energy consumption Total primary energy supply % by source, Africa 2017 Source: Adapted from Africa Energy Outlook 2019, IEA
  17. 17. Agriculture employs almost ½ of Africa’s workforce, but consumes less than 10% of energy used for productive purposes. 80% of the energy used to prepare land in SSA comes from manual power. 60% of total energy used across the whole value chain is manual power. Animal power provides an additional 25% of farm power. Energy for Africa’s food systems
  18. 18. Continental and global frameworks (& initiatives) AU Agenda 2063, “a prosperous Africa based on inclusive growth and sustainable development” SDG #7: Universal access to energy by 2030 Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) Africa-EU Energy Partnership Power Africa New Deal on Energy in Africa / Transformative Partnerships on Energy for Africa – AfDB Africa Renewable Energy Initiative Clean Energy Corridors in Africa
  19. 19. Energy uses along the agriculture value chain
  20. 20. Benefits of improved energy services in agriculture (1/2) Increase land & labor productivity Reduce time and effort spent toiling Make rural employment more attractive Higher incomes ©Peter Lowe, CIMMYT
  21. 21. ©Mitchel Maher, IFPRI Benefits of improved energy services in agriculture (2/2) Value addition & processing Reduce post-harvest losses Improve food safety Increase consumption of nutritious crops Support mechanization
  22. 22. Elements of an enabling environment Holistic and inclusive policy making • Women empowerment Private sector and SMEs Financing Africa’s agricultural energy Infrastructure and new technology • Increased regional cooperation • Access to reliable energy • Increase energy efficiency • Mini-grids and off-grids Capacity strengthening and employment opportunities
  23. 23. Enabling environment: inclusivity Private sector Local communities Multi-sectoral and cross- governmental coordination Gender-responsive energy strategies ©Stephan Gladieu, World Bank
  24. 24. Enabling environment: private sector & SMEs Crowding in of private sector suppliers ‘Pro-poor’ financing models & one- stop shops Solutions combined with digital and mobile money technology Impact investors and venture capital; Africa Enterprise Challenge Fund ©Jason Mulikita_REEEP
  25. 25. Enabling environment: infrastructure & technology Central, mini- and off-grids Regional cooperation Reliable energy Energy efficiency Renewable sources ©John Mogg
  26. 26. Enabling environment: financing Continental initiatives Global initiatives and sources Development partners Private sector and SMEs ©TEDx Tarfaya
  27. 27. Enabling environment: capacity strengthening Training for • Use • Installation and maintenance • Policy-making • Meaningful engagement Reverse Linkages (IsDB) ©Helen Mallet, Future Pump
  28. 28. Policy Innovations for Transforming Africa’s Food System with Digital Technologies Outline Part One: Malabo Montpellier Panel and Forum Part Two: Main Report Findings Part Three: Country Case Studies Part Four: Key Recommendations Debisi Araba Panel Member Director for Africa International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)
  29. 29. Country case studies: selection Agricultural growth rates per Nighttime Lights intensity 1992 – 2013
  30. 30. Country case studies: selection Country Expansion of electrification in logarithm of the difference of number of Nighttime Lights pixels 1992-2013 (mean=8) Averaged growth in agricultural value added per worker 1992-2013 (%) RISE score 2017 Ethiopia 9.10 2.36 48.46 Ghana 9.49 4.55 63.89 Morocco 10.98 6.53 74.04 Senegal 8.55 2.68 38.92 South Africa 11.23 5.08 75.81 Zambia 8.43 1.51 42.96
  31. 31. WHAT HAS WORKED Experiences From 6 Case Study Countries Actions at three levels 1. Institutional innovations 2. Policy innovations 3. Programmatic interventions
  32. 32. Ethiopia • Nighttime luminosity: 9.10 • Ag value added per worker: 2.36% p.a. • RISE: 48/100 • Electrification: 44.3% • Universal access by 2020 ©Wind turbines in Adama, Ethiopia by Ollivier Girard, CIFOR
  33. 33. ©Mathew McCartney, IWMI Ethiopia: Electrification as a core element of agricultural transformation Preparing for the transition to a green economy Integrating electricity supply with other services to enhance productive capacity Leveraging different energy sources to broaden access Improving energy efficiency and reducing cost
  34. 34. Ghana • Nighttime luminosity: 9.49 • Ag value added per worker: 4.55% p.a. • RISE: 63/100 • Electrification: 80% • Universal access by 2020 ©Workers maintain a thermal power station in Ghana by Jonathan Ernst, World Bank
  35. 35. Ghana: Drive for universal access ©EEP Southern and Eastern Africa Regulatory capacity for private sector engagement Research and technical capabilities Liberalization for private sector investment and energy diversification Initiating a transition towards renewables Energy for homes, farms and processing in rural areas
  36. 36. Morocco • Nighttime luminosity: 12.76 • Ag value added per worker: 6.53% p.a. • RISE: 74/100 • Electrification: 100% • Universal access achieved ©Solar cell plant by ConiferConfier
  37. 37. Morocco: scaling up the use of renewable energy Driving energy efficiency, including in agriculture Scaling up renewables through: • Private sector and independent power producers • Fiscal incentives • Subsidies to farmers for solar pumps and panels Locally adapted solutions
  38. 38. Senegal • Nighttime luminosity: 15.46 • Ag value added per worker: 2.68% p.a. • RISE: 39/100 • Electrification: 61.7% • Universal access date n.a. ©Solar Energy in Senegal Brings Water to the Desert by Create
  39. 39. Senegal: prioritizing access in rural areas Crowding in independent power producers Efforts to jumpstart domestic biofuel production to diversify energy mix • Senegal's National Domestic Biogas Program (2010) ©IRENA
  40. 40. South Africa • Nighttime luminosity: 11.23 • Ag value added per worker: 5.08% p.a. • RISE: 76/100 • Electrification: 84.4% • Universal access date n.a. ©Food processing in South Africa Eastern Cape Province, Rodger Bosch
  41. 41. South Africa: Bridging energy gap for rural areas Bridging energy gap for poor communities and rural areas oEarly focus on off-grid solar PV systems for rural areas oAlternative sources for electricity Crowding in the private sector to boost and diversify energy supply oIPPs to tender for licenses to sell electricity to the Eskom grid under a 20-year purchase agreement
  42. 42. Zambia • Nighttime luminosity: 8.43 • Ag value added per worker: 1.51% p.a. • RISE: 43/100 • Electrification: 40.3% • Universal access: 51% by 2030 ©Solar irrigation, Helen Mallet, Future Pump
  43. 43. Zambia: taking a cluster based approach and SMEs Fiscal incentives to boost and diversify energy supply Cluster-based approach to agricultural electrification • “Farm blocks” equipped with basic infrastructure • Industrial cluster zones for agricultural processing Matching demand and energy mix to accelerate rural electrification Smart financing for power suppliers and farm equipment: • Beyond the Grid for Zambia: Supporting SMEs by de-risking operating and expansion costs • Pro-poor business models e.g. Rent to Own (RTO)
  44. 44. Part One: Malabo Montpellier Panel and Forum Part Two: Main Report Findings Part Three: Country Case Studies Part Four: Key Recommendations Joachim von Braun Panel Co-chair Professor and Director Center for Development Research University of Bonn, Germany Policy Innovations for Transforming Africa’s Food System with Digital Technologies
  45. 45. Recommendations Designing integrated approaches to energy strategies and policies for food, agriculture and rural development. Scaling investments in off-grid and mini-grid solutions especially via start-ups and businesses to leapfrog outdated and dirty technologies. Adopting gender-responsive energy strategies for the design and implementation of energy strategies as well as the choice of technologies and tools applied.
  46. 46. Recommendations - continued Addressing the multiple challenges of biomass-based energy use to ensure that biomass is produced more sustainably, and that indoor cooking is designed to be more environmentally friendly and less harmful to human health. Developing cross-border policies for energy security to help reduce countries’ reliance on imported fuels while diversifying the energy mix.
  47. 47. @MaMoPanel MaMoPanel The Malabo Montpellier Panel Thank you! Download our reports and subscribe to the newsletter www.mamopanel.org

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