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Determining HLB Value

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This presentation is as a preliminary knowledge on how to calculate the HLB value base on Griffin's Methods nor coventional methods

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Determining HLB Value

  1. 1. By : Mala Pidiyanti. R&I Dept., CV LIDAH BUAYA Januari 2014 FORMULATING WITH HLB VALUE CALCULATION
  2. 2. Hydrophile Lipophile Balance • The relationship ( or balance ) between the hydrophilic portion of the nonionic surfactant to the lipophilic portion • It was invented in 1954 by William C. Griffin of the Atlas Powder Company ( bought by ICI in 1971 ) • As a guidance to good emulsification performance • HLB values are calculated for nonionic surfactants only • The HLB value is an indication of the solubility of the surfactant
  3. 3. The chemistry of a nonionic surfactant ? • Each surfactant has a hydrophilic group and a lipophilic group • The hydrophilic group is usually a polyhydric alcohol or ethylene oxide • The lipophilic group is usually a fatty acid or a fatty alcohol • The lower the HLB value the more lipophilic or oil soluble the surfactant is • The higher the HLB value the more water soluble or hydrophilic the surfactant is • HLB Value range is between 1 - 20
  4. 4. SURFACTAN PROPERTIES BASED ON HLB VALUE The HLB value can be used to predict the surfactant properties of a molecule : A value from 4 - 8 indicates an anti-foaming agent A value from 7 - 11 indicates a W/O (water in oil) emulsifier A value from 12 - 16 indicates O/W (oil in water) emulsifier A value from 11 - 14 indicates a wetting agent A value from 12 - 15 indicates a detergent A value of 16 - 20 indicates a solubiliser or hydrotrope
  5. 5. HLB/WATER DIPERSIBILITY RELATIONSHIP
  6. 6. Calculating “HLB VALUE” with Grifin’s Methods
  7. 7. Another Methods of Calculating HLB Value • Calculate the hydrophilic groups of the surfactant on a molecular weight basis and then divide that number by 5 Example : oleth-20 is a 20 mole ethoxylate of oleyl alcohol the molecular weight of the 20 moles of ethylene oxide ( one mole ETO =44 ) 20 x 44 = 880 add this number to the molecular weight of the oleyl alcohol  880+ 270 (oleyl alcohol) = 1150 ( the mol. wt) • Percentage of 20 mole ethoxylate from 20-oleth?  880/1150 = 76.5% • 76.5% divided by 5 = 15.3 15.3 is the HLB value of oleth-20
  8. 8. HLB SYSTEM : HLB VALUE MEET HLB REQUIRED √ HLB Value : The balance between the hydrophilic portion to the lipophilic portion of the nonionic surfactant √ HLB Required : the value of HLB that required by every Lipophilic ingredient in the O/W emulsions. √ HLB System is matching the HLB value of your surfactant with the Lipohilic ingredient in the emulsion system.
  9. 9. Some general “HLB required” for O/W emulsions OIL (LIPOPHILIC) CLASS REQUIRED HLB Vegetable Oil Family 6-8 Silicones Oil 8-12 Petroleum Oil and wax 10 -12 Typical Ester Emmolient 12-14 Fatty Acid and Fatty alcohol 14-16
  10. 10. Formulating with HLB value • mixing unlike oils together – use surfactants with HLB’s of 1 to 3 • making water-in-oil emulsions – use surfactants with HLB’s of 4 to 6 • wetting powders into oils – use surfactants with HLB’s of 7 to 9 • making self emulsifying oils – use surfactants with HLB’s of 7 to 10 • making oil-in-water emulsions – use surfactant blends with HLB’s of 8 to16 • making detergent solutions – use surfactants with HLB’s of 13 to 15 • for solubilizing oils ( micro-emulsifying ) into water – use surfactant blends with HLB’s of 13 to 18
  11. 11. CALCULATING HLB VALUE IN EMULSION SYSTEM Example : A simple O/W lotion formula – mineral oil 8 % – caprylic/capric triglyceride 2 % – isopropyl isostearate 2 % – cetyl alcohol 4 % – emulsifiers 4 % – polyols 5 % – water soluble active 1 % – water 74 % – perfume q.s. – preservative q.s.
  12. 12. Calculations: add up the oil phase ingredients – mineral oil 8 % – caprylic/capric triglyceride 2 % – isopropyl isostearate 2 % – cetyl alcohol 4 % » 16 – emulsifiers 4 % – polyols 5 % – water soluble active 1 % – water 74 % – perfume q.s. – preservative q.s.
  13. 13. Calculations: divide each by the total to get the contribution to the oil phase • Mineral oil 8 / 16 = 50% • caprylic/cap. trig. 2 / 16 = 12.5% • isopropyl isostearate 2 / 16 = 12.5% • cetyl alcohol 4 / 16 = 25%
  14. 14. CONCLUSIONS : • One you know the required HLB of individual oils it is easy to mathematically calculate the required HLB of a mixture of oils • knowing the required HLB of an oil or an oil mixture means that you can use the least amount of surfactant to achieve emulsification • Surfactant choice considerations: 1. Chemical type – ester VS ether – lipophilic group, e.g. lauryl VS stearyl 2. Physical form – liquid VS solid VS beads 3. FDA “status” ( if any ) – is there an N. F. monograph 4. Price VS function 5. Blend VS single surfactant 6. Efficiency of the surfactant
  15. 15. Surfactant choice considerations:
  16. 16. 1. Philip Haw, 2005, “THE HLB SYSTEM, A TIME SAVING GUIDE TO SURFACTANT SELECTION’, UNIQEMA 2. Bonnie Pyzowski, Mani Dhamdhere, “Rapid HLB-Based Method for Formulating and Improving Emulsion Stability”, www.angus.com

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