5 The Logical Framework - a short course for NGOs


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A series of modules on project cycle, planning and the logical framework, aimed at team leaders of international NGOs in developing countries.

There is a handout to go with this module, a Logframe with blanks. http://www.slideshare.net/Makewa/exercise-watsan-logframe-with-blanks

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  • NEED: Handout - BOND Guidance Notes No4, Flip chart, prepare example Objective Tree (/problem tree) (from previous session), Handout list of terms
  • Developed by USAID in 1960s to be developed by various UN agencies, then adopted by GTZ in 1980s but now optional. In widespread use by the larger donor organizations, partially because of the orderly structuring and documentation of information and its demand for more skill in use DFID require it
  • Developed by US Army, NASA then USAID in 1960s, later developed by various UN agencies, then adopted by GTZ in 1980s but now optional. In widespread use by the larger donor organizations, partially because of the orderly structuring and documentation of information and its demand for more skill in use DFID require it
  • Problems are analysed systematically The objectives are clearly formulated, logical and measurable, The risks and conditions for success of a project are taken into account There is an objective basis for monitoring and evaluation => hence the whole project proposal is coherent
  • See next 2 slides for detail
  • Problem analysis : identifying stakeholders, their key problems, constraints and opportunities, determining cause and effect relationships. Analysis of objectives : developing objectives from the identified problems, identifying the relationships between the means and the ends. Analysis of the strategy : identifying the different strategies to achieve objectives, determining the major objectives (overall objectives and project purpose or specific objective).
  • Logframe : defining the project structure, testing its internal logic and formulating objectives in measurable terms, determining means and cost. Activity planning : determining the sequence and the relation between the activities, estimating their duration , setting the main stages in the process, assigning responsibility. Resources planning : from the activity schedule, developing the input schedule and the budget.
  • We have covered this topic as part of the project cycle, but we can run a session specially on pre-planning at any time.
  • The technique is an integral part of the ZOPP approach assists in analysing an existing situation by identifying the major problems and their main causal relationships
  • May also use a ranking exercise
  • Helps to cintrol scope creep
  • How do you fill in/prepare a logframe? This is the first style of Logframe – activity oriented. Then introduced results oriented
  • What if war breaks out? Trade bans?
  • Again, it is the application of science and scientific principles to non-scientific situations in the real world.
  • What sort of assumptions?
  • These are the levels of the Objective Tree
  • Sometimes Supergoal is introduced (ie global). Donors often see the goal as a national level policy objective.
  • Measurable: who will be reached, what change will be achieved, the period in which it will be achieved and where it will occur
  • NB: Be careful in preparation of risks and assumptions!!
  • Do you know what “&c” means? No? Then it shouldn’t be here! All jargon too.
  • All this information should be in the Logframe
  • With the advent of Results-Based Management (RBM), there was a need to modify the logical framework so as to render it more "results-oriented" and less input-oriented.
  • Means of Verification has been pushed out. A PMF Performance Monitoring Framework is prepared to accompany this type of LFA which will go into detail about MOVs for indicators and milestones etc.
  • 5 The Logical Framework - a short course for NGOs

    1. 1. Project Planning 3 The Logical Framework
    2. 2. Overview of this session <ul><li>Review project cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The LFA process </li></ul><ul><li>The Logical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing LF </li></ul><ul><li>Using LF to guide M&E </li></ul>
    3. 3. Generic Project Cycle Identification Appraisal Negotiation and Approval Implementation & Monitoring Evaluation
    4. 4. Project Cycle Stages: Identification Appraisal Negotiation and Approval Implementation and Monitoring Evaluation and Closure
    5. 6. Developing the Logical Framework
    6. 7. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>In German: </li></ul><ul><li>ZOPP (Zielorientierte Projektplanung) </li></ul><ul><li>In English: </li></ul><ul><li>GOPP- Goal Oriented Project Planning </li></ul><ul><li>OOPP- Objective Oriented Project Planning </li></ul>
    7. 8. Organisations Using the Logframe <ul><li>USAID, USA </li></ul><ul><li>GTZ, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>DfID, Great-Britain </li></ul><ul><li>NORAD, Norway </li></ul><ul><li>DANIDA, Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>AUSAID, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Intercooperation, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France </li></ul><ul><li>DGCD, Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission </li></ul><ul><li>DGCS - Min. of For. Aff., Italy </li></ul><ul><li>ICAX - Min. of Industry, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>SIDA, Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>UNIDO, Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>FINNIDA - Min. of For. Aff., Finland </li></ul><ul><li>HELLASCO, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>WWF </li></ul><ul><li>Int. Federation of Red Cross </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP </li></ul><ul><li>FAO </li></ul>
    8. 9. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>“ a quality-based understanding of planning.. based on a participatory and transparent .. planning process, aimed towards the needs of partners and target groups, in which the key elements of a project are agreed on step by step, in teams, with those concerned, and recorded transparently ” (GTZ, 2005) </li></ul>
    9. 10. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>provides a systematic structure for identification, planning, and management of projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed in a workshop setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with principal interest groups. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Advantages of the logical framework <ul><li>Problems are analysed systematically </li></ul><ul><li>The objectives are clear, logical and measurable </li></ul><ul><li>The risks and conditions for success of a project are taken into account </li></ul><ul><li>There is an objective basis for monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>Your project proposal will be coherent
    11. 12. The logical framework approach <ul><li>Decide what you will do </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how you will do it </li></ul><ul><li>Logframe </li></ul><ul><li>Activity planning </li></ul><ul><li>Resources planning </li></ul>Analysis phase Planning phase
    12. 13. The logical framework approach <ul><li>Problem analysis : stakeholders, problems, constraints, opportunities, causes and effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of objectives : objectives from the problems, relationships from means to ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the strategy : identify the different strategies to achieve objectives (overall objectives and project purpose or specific objective). </li></ul>Analysis phase
    13. 14. The logical framework approach <ul><li>Logframe : </li></ul><ul><li>define the project structure, test its logic and set measurable objectives, determine means and cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Activity planning : </li></ul><ul><li>plan sequence of activities, time, main stages in the process, responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources planning : </li></ul><ul><li>from the activities, develop inputs and budget. </li></ul>Planning phase
    14. 15. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>The output is a planning matrix, </li></ul><ul><li>the logical project framework, </li></ul><ul><li>which: </li></ul><ul><li>summarizes and structures the main elements of a project , </li></ul><ul><li>and: </li></ul><ul><li>highlights logical linkages between intended inputs, planned activities and expected results . (GTZ) </li></ul>
    15. 16. Pre-project planning <ul><li>In-house exercise by agency </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Action Research </li></ul><ul><li>Situation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Identification: Problem Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Problem Tree
    17. 18. Stakeholder Analysis Secondary Primary Participation Influence on project Importance to Project Key Interests Stakeholders
    18. 19. Project Planning Matrix (PPM) <ul><li>Logframe, Logical Framework (Analysis), LFA </li></ul><ul><li>Table 4 rows and 4 columns: “4x4 matrix” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures clear statement of objectives (distinction between purpose and objectives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces indicators of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses attention on the assumptions and risks involved </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Activity-Oriented Logical Framework MOVs Indicators “Milestones” Activities (Inputs) MOVs Indicators Outputs MOVs Indicators Purpose Assumptions Risks MOVs Means of Verification Indicators Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs) Goal
    20. 21. <ul><li>What makes the Logical Framework “logical” and how does this help plan a project? </li></ul>
    21. 22. Assumptions <ul><li>Something we take to be true. </li></ul><ul><li>We expect it will happen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. we expect the sun to rise each morning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assumption: the sun will be in the sky every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a safe assumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumption: “we can buy from Thailand supplies like pickups” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this safe? </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. ‘ Logic Model’ <ul><li>The core of the Logical Framework is the &quot;logic model&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>This takes the form of a series of statements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If these Activities are done, and these Assumptions are true, then these Outputs will be delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If these Outputs are delivered, and these Assumptions a r e t r u e , then this Purpose will be achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If this Purpose is achieved, and these Assumptions a r e t r u e , then this Goal will be achieved. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Logic of the Framework INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS PURPOSE GOAL Activities lead to outputs IF… Outputs lead to Purpose IF… Purpose leads to Goal IF… ASSUMPTIONS We must make some assumptions “ IF …. THEN ….”
    24. 25. Logic of the Framework Overall objective Results Activities + + + Assumptions Assumptions Assumptions Conditions Project Purpose
    25. 26. Take a break
    26. 27. <ul><li>Writing a Log Frame </li></ul>
    27. 28. Exercise <ul><li>Choose a project </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer(s) to write on flip chart </li></ul><ul><li>We will write a Logframe as we go </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just one sample point in each box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write when you see </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Step One <ul><li>Top Down </li></ul><ul><li>Write the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Logframe Step One <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also Development Objective, Development Purpose or effective objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high ideal, resulting from development vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fits the wider context of the programme structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond control of project but project contributes directly to it </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Logframe Step One <ul><li>Purpose (Objective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of specific achievement for the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within project scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be realistic given available resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be measurable: who will be reached, what will change, when and where it will occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs: decrease, increase, improve, enhance, strengthen… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives for measurable change: more, longer, greater… </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Logframe Step One <ul><li>Outputs – specific project outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Activities – the project strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs – what is needed (include a summary of the budget) </li></ul>
    32. 33. Step Two <ul><li>Work Across </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Verification </li></ul>
    33. 34. Indicators and Verification <ul><li>Measurable Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QQT: Quality, Quantity and Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what, how much, when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t confuse indicators with outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output –TBAs trained in new method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicator - number of TBAs correctly using new method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Means of Verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you measure the indicator </li></ul></ul>Step Two
    34. 35. Step Three <ul><li>Work Up </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions and Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the external factors out of your control </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Assumptions and Risks Step Three <ul><li>Assumption: “we can get permission to visit villages 6 times” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a safe assumption? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, it becomes a Risk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Risk requires analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it likely? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much will it impact our project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency Plan </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Logical Framework Basic Principles <ul><li>It should be concise. Normally not more than two sides of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be a free-standing document - clear when you read it for the first time. Avoid acronyms, jargon &c. </li></ul><ul><li>If beneficiaries are included in the project, they should also help design the Logical Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a basis for monitoring and evaluation later. So it must be kept under regular review and amended whenever the project changes course. </li></ul>
    37. 38. CATWOE Test <ul><li>C ustomer for the project (Who pays?) </li></ul><ul><li>A gents for the project (who does what?) </li></ul><ul><li>T ransformation the project intends to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>W orldview or major assumption of the change (development hypothesis) </li></ul><ul><li>O wner of the project (who are the beneficiaries) </li></ul><ul><li>E nvironmental Constraints (natural, social, political, economic) facing the project </li></ul>
    38. 39. A New Method you may see <ul><li>Results -Oriented Logical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Results-Based Management (RBM) </li></ul><ul><li>modify the logical framework to be more &quot;results-oriented&quot; and less input-oriented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change some columns </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Results-Oriented Logical Framework More detail on a PMF (next slide) Outputs Resources Outcome Purpose Indicators Impact Goal Assumptions/ Risk Performance Measurement Expected Results Narrative Summary
    40. 41. Performance Monitoring Framework Method of Verification Performance Indicator Output Outcome
    41. 42. Discussion <ul><li>Questions and follow ups </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
    42. 43. Thank you GrKuN
    43. 44. Produced by Tony Hobbs Health Unlimited, Ratanakiri, Cambodia www.healthunlimited.org With the support of Australian Volunteers International www.australianvolunteers.com © 2009 HU. Use with Acknowledgement