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5 The Logical Framework - a short course for NGOs


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A series of modules on project cycle, planning and the logical framework, aimed at team leaders of international NGOs in developing countries.

There is a handout to go with this module, a Logframe with blanks.

Published in: Business

5 The Logical Framework - a short course for NGOs

  1. 1. Project Planning 3 The Logical Framework
  2. 2. Overview of this session <ul><li>Review project cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The LFA process </li></ul><ul><li>The Logical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing LF </li></ul><ul><li>Using LF to guide M&E </li></ul>
  3. 3. Generic Project Cycle Identification Appraisal Negotiation and Approval Implementation & Monitoring Evaluation
  4. 4. Project Cycle Stages: Identification Appraisal Negotiation and Approval Implementation and Monitoring Evaluation and Closure
  5. 6. Developing the Logical Framework
  6. 7. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>In German: </li></ul><ul><li>ZOPP (Zielorientierte Projektplanung) </li></ul><ul><li>In English: </li></ul><ul><li>GOPP- Goal Oriented Project Planning </li></ul><ul><li>OOPP- Objective Oriented Project Planning </li></ul>
  7. 8. Organisations Using the Logframe <ul><li>USAID, USA </li></ul><ul><li>GTZ, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>DfID, Great-Britain </li></ul><ul><li>NORAD, Norway </li></ul><ul><li>DANIDA, Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>AUSAID, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Intercooperation, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France </li></ul><ul><li>DGCD, Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission </li></ul><ul><li>DGCS - Min. of For. Aff., Italy </li></ul><ul><li>ICAX - Min. of Industry, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>SIDA, Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>UNIDO, Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>FINNIDA - Min. of For. Aff., Finland </li></ul><ul><li>HELLASCO, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>WWF </li></ul><ul><li>Int. Federation of Red Cross </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP </li></ul><ul><li>FAO </li></ul>
  8. 9. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>“ a quality-based understanding of planning.. based on a participatory and transparent .. planning process, aimed towards the needs of partners and target groups, in which the key elements of a project are agreed on step by step, in teams, with those concerned, and recorded transparently ” (GTZ, 2005) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>provides a systematic structure for identification, planning, and management of projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed in a workshop setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with principal interest groups. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Advantages of the logical framework <ul><li>Problems are analysed systematically </li></ul><ul><li>The objectives are clear, logical and measurable </li></ul><ul><li>The risks and conditions for success of a project are taken into account </li></ul><ul><li>There is an objective basis for monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>Your project proposal will be coherent
  11. 12. The logical framework approach <ul><li>Decide what you will do </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how you will do it </li></ul><ul><li>Logframe </li></ul><ul><li>Activity planning </li></ul><ul><li>Resources planning </li></ul>Analysis phase Planning phase
  12. 13. The logical framework approach <ul><li>Problem analysis : stakeholders, problems, constraints, opportunities, causes and effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of objectives : objectives from the problems, relationships from means to ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the strategy : identify the different strategies to achieve objectives (overall objectives and project purpose or specific objective). </li></ul>Analysis phase
  13. 14. The logical framework approach <ul><li>Logframe : </li></ul><ul><li>define the project structure, test its logic and set measurable objectives, determine means and cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Activity planning : </li></ul><ul><li>plan sequence of activities, time, main stages in the process, responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources planning : </li></ul><ul><li>from the activities, develop inputs and budget. </li></ul>Planning phase
  14. 15. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>The output is a planning matrix, </li></ul><ul><li>the logical project framework, </li></ul><ul><li>which: </li></ul><ul><li>summarizes and structures the main elements of a project , </li></ul><ul><li>and: </li></ul><ul><li>highlights logical linkages between intended inputs, planned activities and expected results . (GTZ) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Pre-project planning <ul><li>In-house exercise by agency </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Action Research </li></ul><ul><li>Situation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Identification: Problem Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Problem Tree
  17. 18. Stakeholder Analysis Secondary Primary Participation Influence on project Importance to Project Key Interests Stakeholders
  18. 19. Project Planning Matrix (PPM) <ul><li>Logframe, Logical Framework (Analysis), LFA </li></ul><ul><li>Table 4 rows and 4 columns: “4x4 matrix” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures clear statement of objectives (distinction between purpose and objectives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces indicators of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses attention on the assumptions and risks involved </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Activity-Oriented Logical Framework MOVs Indicators “Milestones” Activities (Inputs) MOVs Indicators Outputs MOVs Indicators Purpose Assumptions Risks MOVs Means of Verification Indicators Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs) Goal
  20. 21. <ul><li>What makes the Logical Framework “logical” and how does this help plan a project? </li></ul>
  21. 22. Assumptions <ul><li>Something we take to be true. </li></ul><ul><li>We expect it will happen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. we expect the sun to rise each morning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assumption: the sun will be in the sky every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a safe assumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumption: “we can buy from Thailand supplies like pickups” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this safe? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. ‘ Logic Model’ <ul><li>The core of the Logical Framework is the &quot;logic model&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>This takes the form of a series of statements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If these Activities are done, and these Assumptions are true, then these Outputs will be delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If these Outputs are delivered, and these Assumptions a r e t r u e , then this Purpose will be achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If this Purpose is achieved, and these Assumptions a r e t r u e , then this Goal will be achieved. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Logic of the Framework INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS PURPOSE GOAL Activities lead to outputs IF… Outputs lead to Purpose IF… Purpose leads to Goal IF… ASSUMPTIONS We must make some assumptions “ IF …. THEN ….”
  24. 25. Logic of the Framework Overall objective Results Activities + + + Assumptions Assumptions Assumptions Conditions Project Purpose
  25. 26. Take a break
  26. 27. <ul><li>Writing a Log Frame </li></ul>
  27. 28. Exercise <ul><li>Choose a project </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer(s) to write on flip chart </li></ul><ul><li>We will write a Logframe as we go </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just one sample point in each box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write when you see </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Step One <ul><li>Top Down </li></ul><ul><li>Write the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Logframe Step One <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also Development Objective, Development Purpose or effective objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high ideal, resulting from development vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fits the wider context of the programme structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond control of project but project contributes directly to it </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Logframe Step One <ul><li>Purpose (Objective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of specific achievement for the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within project scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be realistic given available resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be measurable: who will be reached, what will change, when and where it will occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs: decrease, increase, improve, enhance, strengthen… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives for measurable change: more, longer, greater… </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Logframe Step One <ul><li>Outputs – specific project outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Activities – the project strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs – what is needed (include a summary of the budget) </li></ul>
  32. 33. Step Two <ul><li>Work Across </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Means of Verification </li></ul>
  33. 34. Indicators and Verification <ul><li>Measurable Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QQT: Quality, Quantity and Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what, how much, when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t confuse indicators with outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output –TBAs trained in new method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicator - number of TBAs correctly using new method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Means of Verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you measure the indicator </li></ul></ul>Step Two
  34. 35. Step Three <ul><li>Work Up </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions and Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the external factors out of your control </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Assumptions and Risks Step Three <ul><li>Assumption: “we can get permission to visit villages 6 times” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a safe assumption? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, it becomes a Risk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Risk requires analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it likely? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much will it impact our project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency Plan </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Logical Framework Basic Principles <ul><li>It should be concise. Normally not more than two sides of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be a free-standing document - clear when you read it for the first time. Avoid acronyms, jargon &c. </li></ul><ul><li>If beneficiaries are included in the project, they should also help design the Logical Framework. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a basis for monitoring and evaluation later. So it must be kept under regular review and amended whenever the project changes course. </li></ul>
  37. 38. CATWOE Test <ul><li>C ustomer for the project (Who pays?) </li></ul><ul><li>A gents for the project (who does what?) </li></ul><ul><li>T ransformation the project intends to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>W orldview or major assumption of the change (development hypothesis) </li></ul><ul><li>O wner of the project (who are the beneficiaries) </li></ul><ul><li>E nvironmental Constraints (natural, social, political, economic) facing the project </li></ul>
  38. 39. A New Method you may see <ul><li>Results -Oriented Logical Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Results-Based Management (RBM) </li></ul><ul><li>modify the logical framework to be more &quot;results-oriented&quot; and less input-oriented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change some columns </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Results-Oriented Logical Framework More detail on a PMF (next slide) Outputs Resources Outcome Purpose Indicators Impact Goal Assumptions/ Risk Performance Measurement Expected Results Narrative Summary
  40. 41. Performance Monitoring Framework Method of Verification Performance Indicator Output Outcome
  41. 42. Discussion <ul><li>Questions and follow ups </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
  42. 43. Thank you GrKuN
  43. 44. Produced by Tony Hobbs Health Unlimited, Ratanakiri, Cambodia With the support of Australian Volunteers International © 2009 HU. Use with Acknowledgement