Chemical tests for urine

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Chemical tests for urine

  1. 1. Chemical Tests for Urine
  2. 2. Heat and Acetic Acid Test (Protein)
  3. 3. A. Heat and Acetic Acid Test (Protein) <ul><li>Principle: based on precipitation by heat and coagulation by acids. (See chapter 4) </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill test tube with urine (2/3 full) centrifuge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat the upper 2cm of the urine and observe the cloudiness. (Due to phosphates not albumin ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 2 to 3 drops of 10% acetic acid . Cloudiness due to phosphates will disappear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat the heating. Persistent cloudiness indicates albumin. (Proteinuria) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>If cloudiness developed at 40-60° C and disappears upon boiling but reappears on cooling, the protein present is called Bence-Jones protein . This protein is encountered in: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperglobulinemia - A condition characterized by abnormally large amounts of globulins in the blood. And in </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple myeloma - also known as plasma cell myeloma , is the second-most common cancer of the blood . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Test for Sugar (Benedict ’ s Test)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Principle: Reduction of Cupric (blue) to Cuprous (brick red) by the reducing sugars.* </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place 5cc. Of Benedict’s reagent (Copper sulfate, sodium carbonate, and sodium citrate) in a test tube. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 8 to 10 drops of urine, mix by shaking and boil vigorously in water bath for 5mins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive result: Brick red ppt. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Test For Bilirubin (Foam Test)
  8. 8. <ul><li>Principle: Bilirubin if present colors the foam yellow to green. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place 5ml urine in a test tube. Place cover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shake the urine vigorously for 3 mins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Bilirubin is present, the foam produced will have a yellow to light green color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In patients with proteinuria, bilirubin bound to albumin can also appear in urine.* </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Test For Blood </li></ul>(Benzidine Test)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Principle: The peroxide activity of the blood decomposes hydrogen peroxide and the liberated oxygen oxidizes the benzidine. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place 1cc of Benzidine solution in a test tube. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 0.5cc of urine which was previously filtered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 0.3cc of H 2 O 2 to the mixture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix and observe for a change in color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive result: Green or blue color. (Hematuria) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Test For Chlorides (Fantus Test)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Principle: AgNO 3 reacts with the chloride in urine to precipitate AgCl. Any excess AgNO 3 reacts with Potassium Chromate to form reddish ppt. Of Ag 2 CrO 4 . The appearance of which indicates end point. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place 10 drops of urine to a test tube and one drop k 2 CrO 4 solution as indicator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add drop by drop 2.9% AgNO 3 solution until a permanent red brown color (end point) is developed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of drops consumed represent amount of chloride present. Normally 6 to12 drops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May indicate Hyperchloremia if it exceed 12. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Feces <ul><li>Are food materials which escaped the digestive process and are passed through the large intestine to the outside. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Composition of Feces <ul><li>Indigestible and unabsorbed food residue. Eg. Vegetable fibers, muscle fibers, iron compounds, calcium salts. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions from gastro intestinal tract. Eg. Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Excreted materials like mucous and bile pigments. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria like Esheria Coli. </li></ul><ul><li>Ephithelial cells and other pathological constituents like blood and pus . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Physical Characteristics <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult fecal material is normally brown in color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus this attributed to hydrobilirubin (reduced) and storcobilin (from bile pigments). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>But, the colors are dependent upon the nature of the diet, and also upon certain drugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow - milk diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark gray - Chocolate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark green - Spinach; calomel due to biliverdin*. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark brown or black - Bismuth and Iron compounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red - Neoprontosil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clay color - connected with X-ray examinations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Abnormal Colors (pathological) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden yellow- due to unchanged bilirubin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green - Diarrhea of children with faulty carbohydrate metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay color- Deficiency in bile; observed in conditions such as jaundice when there is obstruction of the bile duct so that bile cannot reach the intestine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red streaks of blood - can be due to bleeding hemorrhoids. Can also be carcinoma* and other lesions of the rectum or anus. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Odor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The offensive odor is due to indole and skatole* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other gases contributing to the odor includes methane and hydrogen sulfide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offensive odor is accentuated by a diet consisting largely of meat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very foul odor may suggest ulceration in the intestines or rectum. Also observed in cancer, syphilis and gangrenous dysentery.* </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal reaction is slightly acidic or slightly alkaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is acidic when there is predominance of carbohydrate food in the diet; alkaline when there excess of protein material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This reaction can be tested with litmus paper or alizarin indicator </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Form and consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These vary from a thin pastry discharge to a firmly formed stools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, these again may vary depending upon the condition of the individual and his diet. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Variations in the form and consistency which are pathological includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft or watery stools- indicates diarrhea or administration of cathartics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very hard- indicates constipation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Rounded Scybalous- Atony of the colon as in infection of the appendix. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flattened ribbon-like stools- obstruction of the colon. (may indicate colon cancer). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Amount </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 80 to 200 grams per day are eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually it is eliminated together with variable amounts of gases such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen- when milk predominates the diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methane- vegetable diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen- meat or mixed diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In all cases CO 2 and H 2 S are present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bulk increases if large amounts of vegetable is present in the diet. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Chemical Tests

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