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Thing-centered design and the design of services

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Thing-centered design and the design of services

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Materials from a guest lecture I recently gave at the TU/Delft Industrial Design Engineering department. I really enjoyed teaching a new of way of thinking in services, from the perspective of things. Thanks to Prof. Elisa Giaccardi and
Iohanna Nicenboim for inviting me.

Materials from a guest lecture I recently gave at the TU/Delft Industrial Design Engineering department. I really enjoyed teaching a new of way of thinking in services, from the perspective of things. Thanks to Prof. Elisa Giaccardi and
Iohanna Nicenboim for inviting me.

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Thing-centered design and the design of services

  1. 1. Thing-centered design and the design of services Majid Iqbal Special Advisor, RVO.NL Ministry of Economic Affairs & Climate 22/11/17 guest lecture at the TU/Delft Industrial Design Engineering Department
  2. 2. People & things Motivations & expectations Demand & supply Arrangements & agreements Performance & affordance Engagement & fulfillment Outcome & experience With these words, you can define or describe any service there is, ever was, or ever will be. These words describe their essence. © 2017 Designcoders.org
  3. 3. To understand something is not to be able to define it or describe it. Instead, taking something that we think we already know and making it unknown thrills us afresh with its reality and deepens our understanding of it. ~ Kenya Hara 3
  4. 4. “Time slots” March 30, 2017 Dutch airspace 4 © 2017 Designcoders.org
  5. 5. © 2017 Designcoders.org 5 Services are agreements between people, about arrangements between things. People can be humans or machines, and things can be tangible or intangible. The arrangements are for performances and affordances towards the fulfillment of needs. The agreements are about outcomes and experiences that each side will get, and both sides will go through.
  6. 6. 6 performance affordance outcome experience Arrangements between things Agreements between people © 2017 Designcoders.org
  7. 7. © 2017 Designcoders.org 7 shortcomings superpower shortfall surplus Things have a shortcoming when they’re not in the right condition or state to be useful and valuable. They suffer shortfalls when they need additional resources at a particular place and time. Things act upon other things to render them to a preferred condition or state. Fixing the shortcomings of other things is a superpower. Things project surpluses that fill shortfalls of other things, at a particular time and place. © 2017 Designcoders.org
  8. 8. RX8 RX7 RX6 RX5 CA4 CA3 CA2 CA1 cr AX AC1 AC2 AC3 AC4 XR5 XR6 XR7 XR8 ax © 2017 Designcoders.org Spectrum of shortcomings and shortfalls Spectrum of superpowers and surpluses
  9. 9. RX8 RX7 RX6 RX5 CA4 CA3 CA2 CA1 cr AX AC1 AC2 AC3 AC4 XR5 XR6 XR7 XR8 ax © 2017 Designcoders.org Spectrum of shortcomings and shortfalls Spectrum of superpowers and surpluses
  10. 10. RX8 RX7 RX6 RX5 CA4 CA3 CA2 CA1 cr AX AC1 AC2 AC3 AC4 XR5 XR6 XR7 XR8 ax © 2017 Designcoders.org Spectrum of shortcomings and shortfalls Spectrum of superpowers and surpluses
  11. 11. 11 © 2017 Designcoders.org Real estate The airport runway is a remarkable piece of prime real estate that gets repeatedly placed and taken off the market every two minutes
  12. 12. RunwayAircraft © 2017 Designcoders.org
  13. 13. “Time slots” 13 © 2017 Designcoders.org
  14. 14. Clothes Washing machine © 2017 Designcoders.org
  15. 15. © 2016 Amazon, Inc. Package Drone
  16. 16. Thing 1 Thing 2 PRACTICE EXERCISE 1 Think of a service. Any service. What things are at the heart of it? What thing is in need? What thing is in deed? Think of the simple horizontal social arrangement between Thing 1 and Thing 2. (Dr Seuss fans know to watch out for the cat in the hat). It may be for performance or for affordance. Use the styrofoam balls and skewers to construct the simplest of models. If you’re done with one, practice with one or two more examples. © 2017 Designcoders.org
  17. 17. 17 The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes ~ Marcel Proust
  18. 18. © 2017 Designcoders.org Paris metro Three days 10 tickets, 10 journeys EUR 14,90
  19. 19. PRACTICE EXERCISE 2 Think of your own experience through public transportation. What are all the things you noticed? What sort of arrangements were they in? Model this arrangements to form pairs. They join all these pairs to visualize the larger configuration.
  20. 20. ©2017Designcoders.org BIG THINGS AND SMALL What things do you see? Big things and small. Tangible and intangible. Big things and tall. A thing is a thing, no matter how small.
  21. 21. ©2017Designcoders.org THING 1 AND THING 2 Do you notice pairs of things? What sort of horizontal social arrangements do they form? Each pair is the basis for a service.
  22. 22. ©2017Designcoders.org INVISIBLE THINGS Some things are obviously there, while others are not. Invisible things include spaces, boundaries, and pathways
  23. 23. ©2017Designcoders.org The OV Chipkaart Model Money, photo, face, identity, card, card reader, tickets, and tokens come together to form the chipkaart configuration.
  24. 24. That was quick! Notice how with just a few rules you were able to quickly model a complex system? How easy was it to build on each others’ configurations?
  25. 25. What can we learn about systems and services from the Cuboro marble track system? © 1986 Matthias Etter 25 If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them. ~ Henry David Thoreau
  26. 26. Ce n’est pas un avion © 2017 Designcoders.org 26
  27. 27. © 2017 Designcoders.org Services are a means to an end Experiences are the means; outcomes are the end. The costs and benefits add up over the job or journey represented by the marble track. The intent of design is to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs. However, the whole is other than the sum of its parts (Kurt Koffka) so, every now and then, we find ourselves surprised by lower benefits and higher costs. Why? BEGIN END experiences outcomes 27
  28. 28. Services are systems The simplest of services is a system, hence structure drives behaviour. A system is an interconnected set of elements that is coherently organized in a way that achieves something. The least obvious part of a system is often the most crucial determinant of its behavior. ~ Donnella Meadows We need to see what the aggregation of many small actions looks like when added together ~ John Thackara © 2017 Designcoders.org I am ready to fly I am flying I’m walking on sunshine I’m boarding 28
  29. 29. A complex system that works is invariably found to have evolved from a simple system that worked. A complex system designed from scratch never works and cannot be patched up to make it work. You have to start over with a working simple system. ~ John Gall Systemantics: How Systems Really Work and How They Fail, John Gall, 1975 29
  30. 30. © 2017 Designcoders.org 2010 2015 2020 Castles in the air As customer needs change in every imaginable way, and with new ways of fulfilling them, the design of a service must and evolve to produce the desired effect. When the beauty of the effect is inseparable from the complexity of it, the design of the service should allow the marble to run every which way. Services then provide the infrastructure and organization, for castles in the air. 30
  31. 31. maps messages identity address payments © 2017 Designcoders.org Components of can be services themselves. Components do one job and do it well. Services as components can make design modular and more adaptive to change and innovation. How? Their use across a diversity of applications or environments exposes them sooner to all kinds of risks. Learning collectively from their failures, they trigger changes and innovation through fixes and upgrades. 31
  32. 32. © 2016 Tipping Point, Universiteit Gent “Never before have the possibilities for action been so abundant. Never before has the potential to interconnect all these actions been so great.” The OpenStructures (OS) project initiates a construction system where everyone designs for everyone. What happens if people design objects according to a shared modular grid, a common open standard that stimulates the exchange of parts, components, experiences and ideas and aspires to build things together? 32
  33. 33. © 2017 Amazon, Inc. 33
  34. 34. © 2017 Designcoders.org 2/WHY capability 1/WHO user 1/WHO agent 1/WHO customer 1/WHO provider 2/WHY artifact 2/WHY resource 2/WHY event 34 1 WHO People Who promises to pay for and make use of the service; and who promises to provide and deliver it 2 WHY Things Why the need for a service exists, and why it is possible to fulfill those needs; the promises of supply and demand 3 HOW Arrangements between things How demand and supply engage each other to set up performances and affordances 4 WHAT Agreements between people What experiences does each side go through and what outcomes do they get; the payoff and payments
  35. 35. © 2017 Designcoders.org pilot airline aircraft tracking time slot clearance ATC controller surgeon surgery patient imaging monitor images radiology radiologist voter vote counting voting ballot county volunteer user customer artifact capability event resource provider agent general model air traffic control medical imaging elections district 35
  36. 36. who who what what why why why why how how how how who who what what who who what what who who what what why why why why how how how how =+ © 2017 Designcoders.org 36 agreements between people (outcome & experience) arrangements between things (performance & affordance) 16 definitive statements on the concept of a service The 16x Frame
  37. 37. © 2017 Designcoders.org © 2017 Designcoders.org models concepts configurations 37 3ACTASK 2RRESOURCE 4UG EXPERIENCE 1G AGENT 4KL OUTCOME 1L PROVIDER 3CA ACTIVITY 2CCAPABILITY 2A ARTIFACT 3RX AVAILABILITY 1UUSER 4GUEXPERIENCE 1KCUSTOMER 4LKOUTCOME 2X EVENT 3XRACCESS 3ACTASK 2RRESOURCE 4UG EXPERIENCE 1G AGENT 4KL OUTCOME 1L PROVIDER 3CA ACTIVITY 2CCAPABILITY 2A ARTIFACT 3RX AVAILABILITY 1UUSER 4GUEXPERIENCE 1KCUSTOMER 4LKOUTCOME 2X EVENT 3XRACCESS 3ACTASK 2RRESOURCE 4UG EXPERIENCE 1G AGENT 4KL OUTCOME 1L PROVIDER 3CA ACTIVITY 2CCAPABILITY 2A ARTIFACT 3RX AVAILABILITY 1UUSER 4GUEXPERIENCE 1KCUSTOMER 4LKOUTCOME 2X EVENT 3XRACCESS 3ACTASK 2RRESOURCE 4UG EXPERIENCE 1G AGENT 4KL OUTCOME 1L PROVIDER 3CA ACTIVITY 2CCAPABILITY 2A ARTIFACT 3RX AVAILABILITY 1UUSER 4GUEXPERIENCE 1KCUSTOMER 4LKOUTCOME 2X EVENT 3XRACCESS
  38. 38. Questions? Majid Iqbal @mxiqbal

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