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Play and Learn


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Play and Learn

  1. 1. Play to Learn Game-Based LearningSeville, 2010Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  2. 2. Related Studies & Literature “Digital natives”, “Millennial Children”, “Screen-agers”? Gee (2004) suggests learning is Empowering Learners Problem Solving Gaining Understanding But “gamers play to fulfill a social need and not for the challenge of the game.” Gee, J. (2004). Learning by design: Games as learning machines. Paper presented at the Game Developers Conference, San Jose, CAProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  3. 3. Related Studies & Literature Have Never Played Games for Learning Never Played 43% Have Played 57% “Young people often perceive the use of games for education as an un-serious activity.” (Pivec, 2010)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  4. 4. Related Studies & Literature “The desire to make learning fun and the opinion that video games are a powerful learning tool.” (Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association, 2006, p14)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  5. 5. Related Studies & Literature “We need to revamp old pedagogy to take advantage of these new educational tools” (Federation of American Scientists, 2006, p.10).Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  6. 6. Related Studies & Literature Perceive skills from Playing Games 10% Hand/Eye Co-ordination 7% 45% None 20% Knowledge 18% Social Skills Other “Both the students and the teachers, and those employed in education, that do not look upon digital games as an effective learning resource.” (Pivec, 2010)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  7. 7. Related Studies & Literature “Video games are beneficial in developing linguistic, creative and strategic skills and intellectual capacities” (European Committee on Culture & Education, 2009, p.11).Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  8. 8. Related Studies & Literature Clark (2004) suggests that games provide Low risk learning environment Cognitive upskilling Motivation to re-engage Clark C. (2004). The principles of game based learning. Paper presented at the NETC/LSC Conference, Crystal City, VAProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  9. 9. Related Studies & Literature “Video games can stimulate learning of facts and skills such as strategic thinking, creativity, cooperation and innovative thinking, which are important skills in the information society” (European Parliament, 2009, p.4).Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  10. 10. Related Studies & Literature Kasvi (2000) states that games promote learning with Motivation and Challenge Feedback and Interactivity Goals and Objectives Communication and Collaboration Kasvi, J. (2000). Not just fun and games - Internet games as a training medium. Cosiga - Learning With Computerised Simulation Games.(pp. 23-34): HUT EspooProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  11. 11. Related Studies & Literature But only if the games are designed appropriately utilized correctly within the curriculum promote re-cursive learning (Pivec, 2010)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  12. 12. Related Studies & Literature “Some debate that there is no substancial proof that players learn from digital games.” (Subrahmanyam et al., 2000)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  13. 13. Related Studies & Literature “Sex and violence in videogames is a social issue that confronts us all, yet as society we are inconsistent.” (Kearney & Pivec, 2007)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  14. 14. Related Studies & Literature 100 Parent’s awareness of what games their children are playing 80 60 40 Awarness of the Games 20 Have rules about Play 0 1999 2006 2008Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  15. 15. Related Studies & Literature Dorval & Pepin (1986) suggested that games such as “Tetris” promote spatial abilities needed for Maths and Science. Dorval, M., & Pepin, M. (1986). Effect of playing a video game on a measure of spatial visualization. Perceptual Motor Skills, 62, 159-162.Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  16. 16. Game Genres for Learning Digital game genres played by Students 23% Role Play Games 22% First Person Shooters Adventure Games 20% 20% Puzzle Games 5% 10% Other Genres Do not play games Other Genres include Driving, Fighting, Strategy, Sports, SimulationsProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  17. 17. Game Genres for Learning Counter Strike (FPS) • Visual Searching • Divided Attention • Decision Processing • Fine Motor SkillsProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  18. 18. Game Genres for Learning Dimexian (FPS) • Scatter Plots • Linear Analysis • Co-ordinate Systems • Linear Equations • Basic AlgebraProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  19. 19. Game Genres for Learning Neverwinter Nights (RPG) • Literacy • Communication • CollaborationProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  20. 20. Game Genres for Learning Disaster at Harperville (RPG) • First Year Journalism • Searching for Facts • Monitoring Situations • Interviewing TechniquesProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  21. 21. Game Genres for Learning Penguin Club (Chat Room) • Socialization • Game skills • Basic skillsProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  22. 22. Game Genres for Learning Mingoville (Online) • English Language • Literacy • Explorative Learning • Social CollaborationProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  23. 23. Game Genres for Learning Buzz (Party Game) • Factual Knowledge • Memory Retention • RepetitionProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  24. 24. Game Genres for Learning InQuizitor (iPhone) • Quiz Game • Mini Games • Curriculum Linked • Study AidProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  25. 25. Game Genres for Learning “Most high-end computer and console games will cost anywhere between US$10 to $25 million and most never recover their development costs.” (Federation of American Scientists, 2006)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  26. 26. Game Design for Learning “The Game Design Summer School for students brings insights into Educational Game Design and the Game Development Industry” (, 2010)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  27. 27. Game Design for LearningProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  28. 28. Game Design for LearningProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  29. 29. Game Design for Learning Dr Maja Pivec
  30. 30. Game Design for Learning 5 Day course - 3 ECTS 3 x 30 minute lectures per day 3 x 90 minute practical per day Group work 3 students in each group. Educational video game design Concept design, design documents, development plan. Group assessment:  Innovation, quality, completeness.Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  31. 31. Game Design for Learning Learning outcomes of the course…. Educational game design Pedagogical terminology Professional proposal requirements Digital Game Industry awareness Self-reflection of learning process Improvement of written and conversational EnglishProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  32. 32. Game Design for Learning Lectures covering all required aspects Handouts for exercises Sample documents provided Website references and supplemental readings Question & Answer sessions with Industry ExpertsProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  33. 33. Game Design for Learning The Golden Pineapple Game Design AwardsProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  34. 34. Game Design for Learning Submission Requirements • Concept Design Document • Sample Graphics • Business Plan • Target Audience AnalysisProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  35. 35. Game Design for Learning Dr Maja Pivec
  36. 36. Gender in Computer Games Target Audience Analysis Guy Gamers versus Girl Gamers Gender Neutral Game DesignProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  37. 37. Gender in Computer Games Guys like to…. Girls like to…. “Win” within the game Adventure within the game be punished for failure be forgiven for failure have competition have low frustrationProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  38. 38. Gender in Computer Games Guys like …. Girls like …. First Person Shooters Sims Games Real Time Strategy Adventure Games Racing Games Activity Games Strategy Games Animal Games Role Play Games Role Play GamesProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  39. 39. Gender in Computer Games Gender Neutral Design Role Play Games Fantasy & Humor Rewards not Punishment Complex Activities and Storyline Likeable central CharacterProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  40. 40. Gender in Computer Games Faith Conners “Mirrors Edge” (EA Digital)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  41. 41. Gender in Computer Games Lara Croft “Tomb Raider” (Crystal Dynamics)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  42. 42. Gender in Computer Games Samus Aran “Metroid Prime” (Retro Studios)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  43. 43. Gender in Computer Games Master Chief “Halo” (Bungie)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  44. 44. Gender in Computer Games Duke “Duke Nukem” (3D Realms).Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  45. 45. Gender in Computer Games Mario “Mario Series” (Nintendo)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  46. 46. Gender in Computer Games Star Wars Galaxies (Sony Online) World of Warcraft (Blizzard Entertainment)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  47. 47. Gender in Computer Games Spore (Maxis) Aion (Aion Development)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  48. 48. Gender in Computer Games Coca-Cola (Superbowl Advertisement)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  49. 49. Gender in Computer Games “Nearly 80% of the students emotionally connected with the virtual characters.” (Dias, et al., 2006)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  50. 50. How the Learning Occurs “As skills and abilities are attained, the player advances through the game and increments their knowledge.” (Kearney & Pivec, 2007)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  51. 51. How the Learning Occurs Macro Game Cycle Reflection-in-Action (Declarative, Procedural, Strategic Knowledge) System feedback Judgements Behaviour Player Abilities Level 99 Debriefing Reflection-on-Action Instructional 4 Learning Design 3 Outcomes 2 Level Completed Game Level 1 Social Environment (Abilities incremented) Characteristics (Affective Learning) Judgements System Micro Game Cycle feedback (Skill based Learning, Cognitive Abilities) Behaviour Kearney, P. & Pivec, M. (2007). Recursive loops of game based learningProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  52. 52. How the Learning Occurs “Affective learning includes feelings of confidence, self-efficacy, attitudes, preferences, and dispositions” (Garris et al., 2002, p.457).Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  53. 53. Level Up for Teachers “Teachers cannot be expected to know how to integrate the games into their lessons to achieve the desired learning outcomes.” (Pivec, Koubek, & Dondi, 2004) & (Pivec, 2008)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  54. 54. Level Up for Teachers “65% of teachers were interested in the use of games in the classroom.” (Project Tomorrow, 2008) But need support with: Choosing appropriate resource/games How to implement games within the lesson How to assess the learning outcomesProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  55. 55. Level Up for Teachers Perceived Learning Outcomes from Playing Games Teachers Players 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% ICT Skills Motoric Social Skills Knowledge (Pivec, 2010) H/O ThinkingProfessor Dr Maja Pivec
  56. 56. Level Up for Teachers “The objective is not to turn the teachers into computer game players, but to encourage them to critique them for use within their lessons.” (Becker, 2007)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  57. 57. Level Up for Teachers Resources, Methodologies, Tools, Samples, Ratings, Ideas, Experts.Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  58. 58. Level Up for Teachers Linking Young Designers, Industry, and Teachers.Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  59. 59. Level Up for Teachers Downloadable Videos, Games, and Resources.Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  60. 60. Level Up for Teachers Game Reviews and Best Practice Examples.Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  61. 61. Games for Learning “If learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, practice, or study, then Digital Games can be successfully used as supplement to traditional teaching and support quality learning.” (Pivec, 2010)Professor Dr Maja Pivec
  62. 62. Play to Learn Professor DI Dr. Maja Pivec All characters portrayed remain the property of their respective owners