Frankenstein and macbeth

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Frankenstein and macbeth

  1. 1. Noah Isobel Hamish Senam MacaulayAndrus Jack Tolani Tom Kumbirai Lucien Jorge Talia Joe Jubed LukeGeorgia Hannah Chester Miriam Jessica Erlyne Phoebe Safa Jay Whiteboard 10R5 Room 9
  2. 2. Noah Isobel Hamish Senam MacaulayAndrus Jack Tolani Tom Kumbirai Lucien Jorge Talia Joe Jubed LukeGeorgia Hannah Chester Miriam Jessica Erlyne Phoebe Safa Jay Whiteboard 10R5 Room 9
  3. 3. Whiteboard Door W i n d o w Macaulay Talia Jay Joe Lucien Kumbirai TomSenam JessicaHannah Jorge Andrus Isobel Noah Safa Chester Tolani Miriam Georgia Luke Jack Erlyne Jubed Hamish Phoebe
  4. 4. MacauleyAndrus Tom Jorge Jubed Georgia Chester Miriam Erlyne Phoebe Safa Jay Whiteboard 10R5 Room 9 Skills
  5. 5. Homework Due Monday 13 Jan Conduct thorough research to fill in the highlighted sections of your Frankenstein Context sheet Skilled work will 1. Conduct the research with Frankenstein in mind 2. Produce clear, accurate bullet points for each highlighted section 3. Provide a reference for every source Excellent work will 1. Make clear links to Frankenstein 2. Succeed in condensing wide-ranging, complex information into clear, detailed bullet points 3. Display a high level of accuracy in referencing
  6. 6. What do SKILLED and EXCELLENT work look like? Macbeth Political Context: The Gunpowder Plot SKILLED EXAMPLE •The Gunpowder plot happened in 1605 when a group of Catholic conspirators tried to blow up Parliament and kill King James •Macbeth was written in 1606 •Macbeth shows the dangers of treason and suggests that Shakespeare was against the Gunpowder plot. References – BBC Bitesize; Shakespeare online EXCELLENT EXAMPLE •When Macbeth was written in 1606, James was King of both England and Scotland. •In 1605, a small group of Catholic conspirators, angry at (Protestant) King James’ lack of support, hatched a plot to blow up parliament in London and kill James. •The plot was foiled, the conspirators were convicted of high treason and were publicly executed. •Shakespeare had some links to the conspirators. •Macbeth, the only Shakespeare play set in Scotland, could be seen as Shakespeare’s way of distancing himself from the conspirators, showing his support for James and illustrating the dangers of treason. •References - http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/higher/english/macbeth/background/revision/1/ •http://www.shakespeare-online.com/biography/gunpowderplot.html
  7. 7. Self-Assessment • Look again at the Success Criteria for your Context homework. Using these criteria, write: • What Went Well? (WWW) • Even Better If… (EBI)
  8. 8. Our next CA What are you expected to do? • AO1: Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; selecting and evaluating relevant quotations to illustrate and support your interpretations • AO2: Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings • AO3: Explain links between texts, evaluating writers’ different ways of expressing meaning and achieving effects • AO4: Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to you and other readers in different contexts and at different times • OUTCOME: 2000 word comparative essay worth 25% of GCSE Literature in Controlled Conditions. Formative Assessment Title: Explore the ways the natural world in is presented Frankenstein and Macbeth. Controlled Assessment Title: Explore the ways the theme of ‘the unnatural’ is presented and developed in Frankenstein and Macbeth. -AO2 has greater weighting -About 2000 words. -Clean copy of scenes/chapters/text used in the C.A. -4 hours given. c. 20 lessons + 4 for Controlled Assessment Throughout, students are collating their own quotation banks, character profiles and contextual information.
  9. 9. There are 4 Assessment Objectives for this CA The one we will focus on for the next couple of lessons is: AO4 Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to self and other readers in different contexts at different times Why? Because this is what lots of people leave out – you cannot achieve a C grade without AO4
  10. 10. Instructions • On your tables, share your work to complete your Context sheets. • Don’t just copy…use your question cards to help structure your discussions.
  11. 11. Think – Pair - Share • What was the most interesting thing you learned today?
  12. 12. Science The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Women The Gothic Paradise Lost Romanticism Mary Shelley The writing of Frankenstein Quotation Bank – to be filled in throughout the Unit Fill in this table throughout the Unit by adding relevant Frankenstein quotations to each section
  13. 13. Science The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Women The Gothic Paradise Lost Romanticism Mary Shelley The writing of Frankenstein
  14. 14. Definition of ‘unnatural’ adjective 1. contrary to the ordinary course of nature; abnormal e.g. The monster was ‘born’ in an unnatural way • (of feelings or behaviour) contrary to what is seen as normal, conventional, or acceptable e.g. The monster feels that Victor’s attitude towards him (his ‘creature’) is unnatural
  15. 15. Definition of ‘theme’ • noun 1. an idea that recurs in or is central to a work of art or literature e.g. love and conflict are major themes in ‘Romeo and Juliet’
  16. 16. In literature, themes may be revealed through a number of methods… Allusion i.e. references to other texts Plot/structure Character Language Setting -What happens? -how do events unfold? In what environment do events occur? Techniques e.g. alliteration, assonance, repetition, antithesis, emotive language, imagery, metaphor, simile, personification, symbolism, motifs, word choice, dialogue, hyperbole, pathos Also: syntax (sentence length, rhythm). -what they say and to whom -behaviour/actions -appearance -other characters’ comments -other characters’ actions The title Time When do events occur? E.g. day/night; season? References to context Always ask yourself: what is the EFFECT of these methods? What do they tell you about the theme?
  17. 17. • LO: To become confident in using annotation to analyse quotations Keywords: Annotation – Analysis –
  18. 18. It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld the accomplishment of my toils. How do we annotate well? Have you...identified a Technique? Linked to Evidence from the quotation? Suggested the author’s Purpose? Suggested the Effect on the reader Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible?
  19. 19. T The author’s use of language / words / tone of voice is significant. Imagery is significant in this section. The imagery of .... is especially significant in this section. The author uses setting to convey ... The characterisation of ... is developed in this section. Structurally, this section is significant. E We can see this in the quotation ... We hear the character described as ... The word ... demonstrates this. Arguably, the most significant words are ... and ... The image of the ... is crucial to our understanding. P The author seems to be suggesting ... The author is, perhaps, exploring the idea of ... The author is explaining, illustrating, uncovering, hiding, illuminating, developing, E The words suggest / imply / convey ... This word / phrase / image / character makes me think of ... because... This conveys feelings of ... because.... The word / image contains several ideas. For example... E The author seems to be exploring the them / idea of ... From one perspective we could say ... From another we might consider... Developing the interpretation further, we could argue that... This links with..... Write your quotation up into a full TEPEE paragraph answering the question, ‘In what ways does Mary Shelley portray the monster’s ‘birth’ .
  20. 20. • LO: To explore how setting is used to present Frankenstein’s creation of the Monster as unnatural • Keywords: Unnatural Antithesis Pathetic fallacy
  21. 21. • Stick your chapter 4 ‘quotation strips’ down the left-hand side of one page. Stick your chapter 5 ‘quotation strip’ down the left-hand side of the next page. • Using the focus question, ‘how is setting used to present Frankenstein’s creation of the Monster as unnatural’, annotate at least two quotations from each strip in detail. Skilled annotations will 1. Identify examples of how setting is used to present Frankenstein’s creation of the Monster as unnatural 2. Explain how setting affects the reader’s response, linking to context where possible. Excellent annotations will 1. Develop precise, perceptive analysis of how setting is used to present Frankenstein’s creation of the Monster as unnatural 2. Provide increasingly detailed explanations of how setting affects the reader’s response, linking to context where possible.
  22. 22. “Who shall conceive the horrors of my secret toil as I dabbled among the unhallowed damps of the grave or tortured the living animal to animate the lifeless clay?” Skilled Annotation T setting E P To suggest that the place where Frankenstein collects the materials for his work is unholy. E “unhallowed” conveys the idea that Frankenstein’s work is unlawful and against God. E This idea is strengthened by the fact that Frankenstein conducts is work in “secret”. Excellent Annotation T setting E P descriptions of Frankenstein’s working environment illustrate that his “toil” is unnatural. E “unhallowed” suggests that Frankenstein’s work is unholy and against God; “damps of the grave” emphasises how Frankenstein is dealing not with life, but death. E The use of dark, damp settings to provoke unease in the reader is common in Gothic Fiction. By using this technique, Shelley strengthens the theme of the unnatural, which is prevalent in this type of fiction. How is setting is used to present Frankenstein’s creation of the Monster as unnatural? Extension – Choose your best annotation. Write it up into a full TEPEE paragraph. Have you...identified a Technique? Linked to Evidence from the quotation? Suggested the author’s Purpose? Suggested the Effect on the reader Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible?
  23. 23. Choose your ‘best annotation’ from last lesson Have you... • identified a Technique? • Linked to Evidence from the quotation? • Suggested the author’s Purpose? • Suggested the Effect on the reader • Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible? • Write which aspect of TEPEE you find most difficult
  24. 24. How is setting is used to present Frankenstein’s creation of the Monster as unnatural? “my workshop of filthy creation” Antithesis “It was a most beautiful season” Have you...identified a Technique? Linked to Evidence from the quotation? Suggested the author’s Purpose? Suggested the Effect on the reader Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible?
  25. 25. How is setting is used to present Frankenstein’s creation of the Monster as unnatural? Pathetic Fallacy “morning, dismal and wet, at length dawned” Have you...identified a Technique? Linked to Evidence from the quotation? Suggested the author’s Purpose? Suggested the Effect on the reader Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible?
  26. 26. • LO: To explore how the characterisation of Victor is used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural • Keywords: Obsessed Compelled Mental and physical distress -what they say and to whom -behaviour/actions -appearance -other characters’ comments -other characters’ actions
  27. 27. • Stick your chapter 4 ‘quotation strip’ down the left-hand side of one page. • Using the focus question, ‘how is the characterisation of Victor used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural’, annotate at least two quotations from this strip in detail. Skilled annotations will 1. Identify examples of how the characterisation of Victor is used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural. 2. Explain how characterisation affects the reader’s response, linking to context where possible. Excellent annotations will 1. Develop precise, perceptive analysis of how the characterisation of Victor is used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural. 2. Provide increasingly detailed explanations of how characterisation affects the reader’s response, linking to context where possible.
  28. 28. Focus question: how is the characterisation of Victor used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural ? -annotate at least two quotations from each strip in detail. Have you...identified a Technique? Linked to Evidence from the quotation? Suggested the author’s Purpose? Suggested the Effect on the reader Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible? “No one can conceive the variety of feelings which bore me onwards, like a hurricane, in the first enthusiasm of success.” (chapter 5) Skilled Annotation T Simile E P To illustrate the stormy, violent nature of Victor’s obsession E “hurricane” suggests that these feelings which compel Victor forwards may be destructive E This destructive simile foreshadows the violent events which will occur as a result of Victor’s unnatural obsession with creating life. Excellent Annotation T Simile E P To introduce the idea that Victor is being compelled to move forwards in his work by the violent, unstoppable force of his obsession. E a “hurricane” is an extreme weather event with often disastrous consequences, suggesting that Victor’s labours too may have a destructive outcome. E Here, Mary Shelley seems to be exploring the idea that Victor is not in fact in control of his actions and may be being driven forwards by some unnatural force.
  29. 29. • Stick your chapter 5 ‘quotation strip’ down the left-hand side of the next page. • Using the focus question, ‘how is the characterisation of Victor used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural’, annotate one quotation from this strip in detail. Then share your annotations with other students on your table. Skilled annotations will 1. Identify examples of how the characterisation of Victor is used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural. 2. Explain how characterisation affects the reader’s response, linking to context where possible. Excellent annotations will 1. Develop precise, perceptive analysis of how the characterisation of Victor is used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural. 2. Provide increasingly detailed explanations of how characterisation affects the reader’s response, linking to context where possible.
  30. 30. Focus question: how is the characterisation of Victor used to present his creation of the Monster as unnatural ? -annotate one quotation from each strip in detail. Then share! Have you...identified a Technique? Linked to Evidence from the quotation? Suggested the author’s Purpose? Suggested the Effect on the reader Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible? “I started from my sleep with horror; a cold dew covered my forehead, my teeth chattered, and every limb became convulsed.” (chapter 5) Skilled Annotation T The detailed description of Victor’s physical and mental distress E P To illustrate that the creation of the monster has had a damaging effect on Victor’s wellbeing. E “convulsed” suggests that Victor’s body and mind are reacting violently against his unnatural actions. E This links to the monster’s “convulsive motion” as it woke up, suggesting that both Victor and his creation will suffer as a result of Victor’s experiment. Excellent Annotation T The detailed description of Victor’s physical and mental distress. E P To explore the idea that Victor’s creation of the monster will have extreme, damaging consequences. E “convulsed” implies a violent, uncontrolled movement, suggesting perhaps the violent chain of events that Victor has set in motion. E linking to the “convulsive motion” which “agitated” the limbs of the monster as it awoke and indeed to the way in which the murderer George Foster’s limbs “were set in motion” when Giovanni Aldini performed his famous demonstration of the electro-stimulation technique in 1803.
  31. 31. Exploring how the characterisation of the Monster contributes to the theme of ‘the unnatural’ in Frankenstein. • Key ideas: The monster’s appearance Victor’s attitude towards the Monster • Key words: Demoniacal Benevolent
  32. 32. Tasks to be finished for Homework for Monday 27th January • Using the ‘focus questions’ on the quotation strips, do at least one full TEPEE annotation for 1. the red strip; 2. the green strip; 3. the orange strip. Extension – choose your own quotations to annotate! • Choose any two annotations you have done this term which you feel confident about. Write them up into full TEPEE paragraphs.
  33. 33. T The author’s use of language / words / tone of voice is significant. Imagery is significant in this section. The imagery of .... is especially significant in this section. The author uses setting to convey ... The characterisation of ... is developed in this section. Structurally, this section is significant. E We can see this in the quotation ... We hear the character described as ... The word ... demonstrates this. Arguably, the most significant words are ... and ... The image of the ... is crucial to our understanding. P The author seems to be suggesting ... The author is, perhaps, exploring the idea of ... The author is explaining, illustrating, uncovering, hiding, illuminating, developing, E The words suggest / imply / convey ... This word / phrase / image / character makes me think of ... because... This conveys feelings of ... because.... The word / image contains several ideas. For example... E The author seems to be exploring the them / idea of ... From one perspective we could say ... From another we might consider... Developing the interpretation further, we could argue that... This links with..... This idea is repeated when......
  34. 34. • LO: To explore the features of Skilled and Excellent TEPEE paragraphs Keywords: Sophistication – the ability to handle complex ideas and to develop and argument Interpretation – the ability to see deeper meanings Analysis – involves engagement with different parts of the text; attempts to find patterns in the text
  35. 35. • Focus on either the Skilled or Excellent example • Read the paragraph carefully • Highlight the different aspects of TEPEE • Draw arrows to show where the writer has met the various criteria • Linking to the criteria, suggest where the writer could improve!
  36. 36. A Skilled Paragraph Draw arrows to show where the writer has provided: Mary Shelley describes Victor’s creation of the Monster as unnatural by explaining the negative effects the ‘birth’ of the Monster had on Victor’s state of mind. Mary Shelley uses a dynamic verb to describe Victor’s waking when she describes how he ‘started’ from his sleep. Shelley describes Victor’s waking in this way to suggest how nervous and anxious he is after creating the monster. The word ‘started’ implies a quick, jerky movement which may reflect Victor’s jumpy state of mind. This links with the jerky, ‘convulsive’ motion the Monster made when it woke up which also makes me think of the way in which the corpse of the murderer George Foster moved when Aldini applied the galvanic process in 1803. Clear understanding of the writer’s ideas Relevant and appropriate quotations Clear grasp of the significance of some aspects of context Clear understanding of features of language and structure Topic Sentence Technique/ Evidence Purpose Effect Explanation How could this paragraph be improved?
  37. 37. An Excellent Paragraph Draw arrows where the writer has provided: In illustrating the negative effects of the ‘birth’ of the Monster on Victor’s state of mind, Mary Shelley suggests that his creation of the Monster is an unnatural act. The startling imagery employed to describe the dream which ‘disturbed’ Victor’s sleep conveys his mental turmoil. An example of this imagery is seen in the antithesis between the initial description of Elizabeth in Victor’s dream vision as being ‘in the bloom of health’ and the later description of her as ‘livid with the hue of death’. In describing Victor’s dream so vividly, Mary Shelley provides the reader with a stark understanding of Victor’s disturbed mental state. The reader may interpret this antithesis between ‘bloom of health’ and ‘hue of death’ in various different ways. We may, in this description, recognise the degeneration of Victor’s mental and physical state during the creation of the Monster. An alternative interpretation might be to understand Victor’s hallucination as foreshadowing Elizabeth’s eventual fate. Developing this interpretation further, we could argue that in describing Victor’s hallucination, Mary Shelley may be exploring the tensions which exist between Victor’s dual role as creator and destroyer. By committing his unnatural act in creating the Monster, he goes on to destroy his own health and happiness and is ultimately responsible for the deaths of his closest family and friends. This idea of the scientist as both creator and destroyer may have piqued the interest of Mary Shelley’s contemporary readership, many of whom may have been suspicious, even frightened by the potential outcomes of experiments by scientists such as Galvani and Aldini. In the largely Christian society of the early 19th century, many people may have been concerned that the Galvanic techniques being practiced by these scientists were against God and against nature. Topic Sentence Technique /Evidence Purpose Effect Explanation Sophisticated engagement with the writer’s ideas and attitudes Sophisticated analysis of aspects of language and structure Imaginatively selected supporting textual detail Perceptive and imaginative comment on the significance of context Sophisticated interpretations of the text How could this paragraph be improved?
  38. 38. • Choose one of the paragraphs you wrote for homework. • Swap with your partner. • Use the checklist to suggest the ways their paragraph is Skilled/Excellent. • How can they improve? • Swap back. Make sure the checklist is stuck under the paragraph! • Look at your partner’s comments. Write a target for your future work. Peer Assessment
  39. 39. Heads Up! (Note in your planners!) • During Friday’s lesson, you will work independently to answer the question, • ‘Explore the ways in which Mary Shelley presents Victor Frankenstein as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deed he has committed?’ • You can prepare for this task (and for your CA) by: -Looking carefully at teacher feedback in your books -Organising your quotations using your ‘top quotations’ grid -Making sure the ‘ongoing context grid’ in your book is up to date -Writing some practice paragraphs and self-assessing them using the criteria we looked at yesterday
  40. 40. Skilled work will 1. Make clear links between quotation and context. 2. Suggest at least one possible effect on a contemporary reader and one possible effect on a modern reader. Explain why. Excellent work will 1. Make insightful links between quotation and context. 2. Make thoughtful comparisons between possible effects on contemporary and modern readers, providing clear justifications for your reasoning. Fill in your sheet to 1.explain how the selected Frankenstein quotations link to different contexts and 2.suggest possible effects on contemporary and modern readers.
  41. 41. What do SKILLED and EXCELLENT work look like? The night has been unruly: where we lay, Our chimneys were blown down; and, as they say, Lamentings heard i' the air; strange screams of death (Macbeth Act 2, Scene 3) How does this Macbeth quotation link to the context of The Gothic in literature? The “unruly” night-time conditions described here are common in Gothic literature, where the weather often reflects mood in the text. Effect (contemporary audience) A contemporary audience might have understood the description of this “unruly” night to be quite frightening because they may have believed that bad weather is sinister in real life. Effect (modern reader) On the other hand, a modern audience are very used to seeing Gothic features in literature, tv and films and may find this description clichéd. How does this Macbeth quotation link to the context of The Gothic in literature? This quotation includes a number of features which are commonly found in Gothic literature. For example, the personification of the night as “unruly” suggests that the weather has unnatural, sinister power. In addition, the mysterious reference to “Lamentings heard i’the air” and “strange screams of death” suggests unworldly forces, another feature of Gothic literature. Effect (contemporary audience) It is likely that a contemporary audience would have been more superstitious than a modern audience and might have been disturbed, even frightened by the descriptions of these “lamentings” and “strange screams”, perhaps believing them to be true. Effect (modern audience) A modern audience, on the other hand, would be likely to understand that these Gothic features are dramatic techniques. Although we may find them somewhat clichéd, we enjoy the way they add tension and drama.
  42. 42. 1. On your tables, work on one box (10 minutes) Jessica, Chester, Miriam, Hannah – Paradise Lost Erlyne, Noah, Phoebe, Safa – The Gothic Jorge, Lucien, Kumbirai, Talia – Women Georgia, Joe, Luke, Jubed – Science Tom, Andrus, Senam, Tolani - Romanticism Jack, Jay, Isobel, McCauley, Hamish – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner 2. The people in bold will stay at their tables to teach other students. Other group members, divide and collect information (10 minutes) 3. All groups come back together to share information. Each member of the class MUST have detailed information in each box! (10 minutes) Instructions
  43. 43. Like one who, on a lonely road, Doth walk in fear and dread, And, having once turned round, walks on, And turns no more his head; Because he knows a frightful fiend Doth close behind him tread. (p11) 1.Annotate this stanza to explain how it links to the story of Frankenstein. 2.Effect (contemporary reader): 3.Effect(modern reader): The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
  44. 44. An opportunity to prepare! • During tomorrow’s lesson, you will work independently to answer the question, • ‘Explore the ways in which Mary Shelley presents Victor Frankenstein as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deed he has committed?’ • You may use lesson time today to prepare for this task (and for your CA) by: -Looking carefully at teacher feedback in your books -Organising your quotations using your ‘top quotations’ grid -Making sure the ‘ongoing context grid’ in your book is up to date -Writing some practice paragraphs and self-assessing them using the criteria we looked at on Monday. -Asking your teacher for help!!
  45. 45. Independent writing task • Answer the question in full TEPEE paragraphs: • ‘Explore the ways in which Mary Shelley presents Victor Frankenstein as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deed he has committed?’
  46. 46. • Look again at the paragraphs you wrote on Friday. • Please write an honest: WWW: what you were pleased with EBI: what you found difficult Independent writing task
  47. 47. Clarifying Context for Frankenstein • When thinking about linking Frankenstein to context: • All must be able to link to Science and Gothic Features and to understand that early 19th century England was a very Christian society. • Most will be able to link to Women, The myth of Prometheus, information about how Mary Shelley wrote ‘Frankenstein’. • Some might be able to link to The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Paradise Lost, Romanticism.
  48. 48. Homework Due Monday 10 Feb Conduct thorough research to fill in the highlighted sections of your Macbeth Context sheet Skilled work will 1. Conduct the research with Macbeth in mind 2. Produce clear, accurate bullet points for each highlighted section 3. Provide a reference for every source Excellent work will 1. Make clear links to Macbeth 2. Succeed in condensing wide-ranging, complex information into clear, detailed bullet points 3. Display a high level of accuracy in referencing
  49. 49. Watching Polanski’s Macbeth • This is active watching! • Look for and make notes on the following 4 areas: -Unnatural attitudes -Unnatural deeds -The effects of unnatural deeds on characters’ mental/physical states -Unnatural powers
  50. 50. Steps towards our CA! • c.6 lessons on Macbeth • c.2 lessons comparing Macbeth and Frankenstein • 1 lesson Formative Assessment • 1 lesson to respond to Formative feedback • 1 lesson planning and cover sheet • Then CA!
  51. 51. • Formative title: In what ways are the main characters in Frankenstein and Macbeth presented as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deeds they have committed? • CA title: Explore the ways the theme of ‘the unnatural’ is presented and developed in Frankenstein and Macbeth.
  52. 52. Goals to make sure we do really well in the CA! • Greater independence in selecting quotations • Increasing precision in describing authors’ methods/techniques with reference to: Language – referring to specific techniques Structure – making links with other parts of the text Form – the way language is presented (we will meet a lot of this in Macbeth!) • Making links between texts • Building confidence in linking to Contexts
  53. 53. In literature, themes may be revealed through a number of methods… Allusion i.e. references to other texts Plot/structure Character Language Setting -What happens? -how do events unfold? In what environment do events occur? Techniques e.g. alliteration, assonance, repetition, antithesis, emotive language, imagery, metaphor, simile, personification, symbolism, motifs, word choice, dialogue, hyperbole, pathos; connotations Also: syntax (sentence length, rhythm). -what they say and to whom -behaviour/actions -appearance -other characters’ comments -other characters’ actions The title Time When do events occur? E.g. day/night; season? References to context Always ask yourself: what is the EFFECT of these methods? What do they tell you about the theme?
  54. 54. LO: To explore the ways Shakespeare uses language and form to present Lady Macbeth’s attitudes as unnatural Keywords: soliloquy subvert
  55. 55. Group Reading • You are going to work together on your tables to practice reading this speech aloud a number of times. • Each time the person reading comes to a piece of punctuation, the next person takes over. • You may choose how you wish to read this speech. Is your Lady Macbeth excited? Is she frightened? You may wish to experiment with how fast/slow/loud/soft you read. • Try and make the speech ‘flow’, as if only one person were reading.
  56. 56. Group Task (for feedback to whole class) In your groups: 1: Find examples of the techniques below in this soliloquy. 2: Comment on Shakespeare’s purpose and the effect on the audience (think: how did this particular technique affect the way you read?) 3: If you can, try and add further explanation. Can you link to context? To other parts of the text? Jessica, Chester, Miriam, Hannah – Enjambment Erlyne, Noah, Phoebe, Safa – Imperative verbs Jorge, Lucien, Kumbirai, Talia – Specific word choice: ‘nature’ Georgia, Joe, Luke, Jubed – Monosyllabic words Tom, Andrus, Senam, Macaulay– Alliteration and sibilance Jack, Jay, Isobel, Tolani, Hamish – lexical field: Femininity
  57. 57. Come, you spirits That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full Of direst cruelty! Make thick my blood; Stop up the access and passage to remorse, That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between The effect and it! Come to my woman's breasts, And take my milk for gall, you murdering ministers, Wherever in your sightless substances You wait on nature's mischief! Come, thick night, And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, That my keen knife see not the wound it makes, Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, To cry 'Hold, hold!'
  58. 58. Think – Pair – Share: In what ways do these two clips offer different interpretations of why Lady Macbeth might want to kill King Duncan?
  59. 59. I have given suck, and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have pluck'd my nipple from his boneless gums, And dash'd the brains out, had I so sworn as you Have done to this.
  60. 60. Homework for Monday 3rd March 1. Do detailed annotations on extract from Act 1 Scene 7 (p 4 of your booklet) 2. Write at least one detailed TEPEE paragraph answering the question: ‘How does Shakespeare present Lady Macbeth’s attitudes as unnatural?’ • In your answer, you could think about her attitudes towards: -femininity/family life; human kindness; the king; power; her husband Skilled paragraphs will 1. Show a clear understanding of Shakespeare’s ideas 2. Include relevant, well-chosen quotations 3. Provide clear analysis of Shakespeare’s techniques 4. Show a clear grasp of the significance of some aspects of context Excellent paragraphs will 1. Show sophisticated engagement with Shakespeare’s ideas 2. Include imaginatively selected quotations 3. Provide sophisticated, detailed analysis of Shakespeare’s techniques 4. Provide perceptive and imaginative comment on the significance of context
  61. 61. Extension: For 2 differing interpretations of Lady Macbeth’s ‘come you spirits’ speech, google: “BBc off by heart the raven” Click on the first item which comes up! Kate Fleetwood as Lady Macbeth Kate Fleetwood as Lady Macbeth
  62. 62. LO: To explore the ways Shakespeare presents Macbeth and Lady Macbeth as being highly influenced by the unnatural deed they have committed. Keyword: Mental effects
  63. 63. • http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/mac beth-act-2-scene-2-hearing-noises- workshop/13719.html
  64. 64. MACBETH There's one did laugh in's sleep, and one cried 'Murder!' That they did wake each other: I stood and heard them: But they did say their prayers, and address'd them Again to sleep. LADY MACBETH There are two lodged together. MACBETH One cried 'God bless us!' and 'Amen' the other; As they had seen me with these hangman's hands.** Listening their fear, I could not say 'Amen,' When they did say 'God bless us!' LADY MACBETH Consider it not so deeply. MACBETH But wherefore could not I pronounce 'Amen'? I had most need of blessing, and 'Amen' Stuck in my throat. LADY MACBETH These deeds must not be thought After these ways; so, it will make us mad. MACBETH Methought I heard a voice cry 'Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep', the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the ravell'd sleeve of care, The death of each day's life, sore labour's bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course, Chief nourisher in life's feast,-- LADY MACBETH What do you mean?** MACBETH Still it cried 'Sleep no more!' to all the house: 'Glamis hath murder'd sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more; Macbeth shall sleep no more.' Context hint – traitors in Shakespeare’s time were executed by being hung, drawn and quartered. Context hint – Think about the fact that in Shakespeare’s time, the Monarch (King or Queen) was understood as God’s chosen representative on earth. Explanation hint – think about foreshadowing. Technique hint – multiple, elaborate metaphors Technique hint – simple diction, contrast with Macbeth’s elaborate metaphorsEffect hint – relentless repetition conveys a sense of Macbeth’s being trapped by his guilt. **= challenge
  65. 65. MACBETH “Macbeth does murder sleep”', Skilled Annotation T: Alliteration E P.: the repetition of the ‘m’ sound at the beginning of the words ‘Macbeth’ and ‘murder’ forges a link between the character of Macbeth and the act of murder. E : This linking suggests at this point in the play that Macbeth will, during the remainder of the drama, be closely associated with murder and killing. E: This indeed turns out to be the case. In fact, it could be argued that having committed the unnatural act of killing King Duncan, Macbeth becomes locked into a spiral of destruction: he brutally orders of the murder of his friend Banquo and of the MacDuff household and causes the majority of Scottish nobility to turn against him. Ultimately, the train of events which begin with the murder of Duncan,lead to Macbeth’s own destruction. Shakespeare therefore, through the character of Macbeth, condemns treason. As such, he supports the reign of James I. Excellent Annotation T: Alliteration E P.: The alliteration of the ‘m’ sound at the beginning of the words ‘Macbeth’ and ‘murder’ forges a link between the character of Macbeth and the act of murder. E : This linking is further emphasised by the stress on the first syllable of ‘murder’ caused by the iambic metre of the line. This linking suggests that from this point onwards, ‘Macbeth’ and ‘murder’ will be inextricably linked. E: This indeed turns out to be the case. Far from enjoying a happy reign, Macbeth, in his role as king, is plagued by intense insecurity. This insecurity causes him to embark on a brutal killing spree, alienating those around him and ultimately leading to his own death. As such, Macbeth could be read as a cautionary tale in which Shakespeare warns any would-be traitors of the fate which would await them if they attempted any attack on James I. This interpretation is supported by the fact that Macbeth was written only one year after the Gunpowder plot of 1605 in which a group of Catholic plotters attempted to kill King James. Moving beyond analysis of language (words used) to discuss form (how language is delivered). Offers an interesting interpretation which engages with the whole play Insightful, well-backed up interpretation of the text... ...which leads to a well- argued comment on context. This Excellent annotation is not perfect but it improves on the Skilled example by does the following things well...
  66. 66. T The author’s use of language / words / tone of voice is significant. Imagery is significant in this section. The imagery of .... is especially significant in this section. The author uses setting to convey ... The characterisation of ... is developed in this section. Structurally, this section is significant. E We can see this in the quotation ... We hear the character described as ... The word ... demonstrates this. Arguably, the most significant words are ... and ... The image of the ... is crucial to our understanding. P The author seems to be suggesting ... The author is, perhaps, exploring the idea of ... The author is explaining, illustrating, uncovering, hiding, illuminating, developing, E The words suggest / imply / convey ... This word / phrase / image / character makes me think of ... because... This conveys feelings of ... because.... The word / image contains several ideas. For example... E The author seems to be exploring the them / idea of ... From one perspective we could say ... From another we might consider... Developing the interpretation further, we could argue that... This links with..... This idea is repeated when......
  67. 67. MACBETH There's one did laugh in's sleep, and one cried 'Murder!' That they did wake each other: I stood and heard them: But they did say their prayers, and address'd them Again to sleep. LADY MACBETH There are two lodged together. MACBETH One cried 'God bless us!' and 'Amen' the other; As they had seen me with these hangman's hands.** Listening their fear, I could not say 'Amen,' When they did say 'God bless us!' LADY MACBETH Consider it not so deeply. MACBETH But wherefore could not I pronounce 'Amen'? I had most need of blessing, and 'Amen' Stuck in my throat. LADY MACBETH These deeds must not be thought After these ways; so, it will make us mad. MACBETH Methought I heard a voice cry 'Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep', the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the ravell'd sleeve of care, The death of each day's life, sore labour's bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course, Chief nourisher in life's feast,-- LADY MACBETH What do you mean?** MACBETH Still it cried 'Sleep no more!' to all the house: 'Glamis hath murder'd sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more; Macbeth shall sleep no more.' Context hint – traitors in Shakespeare’s time were executed by being hung, drawn and quartered. Context hint – Think about the fact that in Shakespeare’s time, the Monarch (King or Queen) was understood as God’s chosen representative on earth. Explanation hint – think about foreshadowing. Technique hint – multiple, elaborate metaphors Technique hint – simple diction, contrast with Macbeth’s elaborate metaphorsEffect hint – relentless repetition conveys a sense of Macbeth’s being trapped by his guilt. **= challenge
  68. 68. Homework for Monday 10th March Firstly, using your checklist and your Skilled and Excellent models, self- assess the paragraph you wrote for your last homework. Write an honest statement about where you need to improve in future annotations and paragraphs. Secondly, you must have completed: 2 detailed TEPEE annotations on Act 2 Scene 2 (pgs 7 & 8) 2 detailed TEPEE annotations on Act 5 Scene 1 (pgs 5 & 6) 3 detailed TEPEE annotations on the Witches (pgs 9-13) Remember: • Always link your annotations to the theme of the unnatural. Use the section headings in your Macbeth extracts booklet to help you do this. • When choosing your quotations, think carefully about what links you can make with Frankenstein
  69. 69. „In what ways does Shakespeare present Lady Macbeth‟s attitudes as unnatural?‟ One of the main ways that Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth as an abnormal or unnatural character is the violent attitude she displays towards children. In Lady Macbeth’s soliloquy in Act I Scene 5, Shakespeare uses vivid imagery as Lady Macbeth invites “spirits” to “Come to my woman’s breasts,/ and take my milk for gall…” Here, the playwright seems to be suggesting Lady Macbeth’s extremely unnatural and unusual attitude towards children. For most mothers, their “milk” is used to nourish their children. Lady Macbeth, on the other hand, seems to want to turn her “milk” into “gall”, or poison, to kill her child. This vivid image creates a sense of shock in the audience because we expect mothers to want to keep their children safe, rather than harm them. It is likely that a Shakespearean audience would have been particularly shocked by Lady Macbeth’s cruelty. In the early 17th century, women did not have the independence to choose whether they wanted to have children or not. They were expected to marry and to have children and be at the centre of family life. It is likely, therefore, that a contemporary audience might have seen Lady Macbeth’s attitudes towards children here as even more unnatural than a modern audience, as today it is accepted that some women do not want to have children. Skilled Paragraph A clear understanding of Shakespeare’s ideas Clear analysis of Shakespeare’s techniques Relevant, well chosen quotations A clear grasp of the significance of some aspects of context
  70. 70. „In what ways does Shakespeare present Lady Macbeth‟s attitudes as unnatural?‟ One of the main ways that Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth as an abnormal or unnatural character is her rejection of the maternal instinct. In Lady Macbeth’s soliloquy in Act I Scene 5, Shakespeare uses vivid imagery as Lady Macbeth invites “spirits” to “Come to my woman’s breasts,/ and take my milk for gall…” Here, the playwright seems to be suggesting Lady Macbeth’s extremely unnatural and unusual attitude towards children. For most mothers, their “milk” is used to nourish their children. Lady Macbeth, on the other hand, seems to want to turn her “milk” into “gall”, or poison, to kill her child. This vivid image creates a sense of shock in the audience. In particular, the juxtaposition of mother‟s “milk”, usually associated with nourishment and “gall” is unsettling and off-putting. In this manner, Lady Macbeth‟s attitude towards children may be seen as highly unnatural because we expect mothers to want to keep their children safe, rather than harm them. This unnatural attitude is reinforced later in the play, in Act 1 Scene 7, where Lady Macbeth is trying to convince her husband to commit the murder of King Duncan. She reveals that she has “given suck”, or breastfed, and understands the tender bond between mother and child. However, in an outburst of extreme cruelty, she claims that “I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have pluck‟d my nipple from his boneless gums,/ and dash‟d the brains out…” This revolting image illustrates Lady Macbeth‟s unnatural, abnormal attitudes with shocking clarity. While a modern audience may be shocked by the image itself, it is possible that a contemporary audience may have been even more shocked by Lady Macbeth‟s subversion of the expected role of women. Early 17th century England was a highly patriarchal society and women were expected to submit to their expected roles as wives and mothers. Lady Macbeth‟s rejection of this role would have struck contemporary audiences as extremely abnormal and suspicious. Excellent Paragraph sophisticated engagement with Shakespeare’s ideas imaginatively selected quotations sophisticated, detailed analysis of Shakespeare’s techniques perceptive and imaginative comment on the significance of context
  71. 71. Lady Macbeth and unnatural attitudes Self-assessment checklist • Understanding/engagement with the writer’s ideas (circle) skilled excellent • Quotation choice (circle) skilled excellent • Analysis of Shakespeare’s techniques (circle) skilled excellent • Comment on the significance of context (circle) skilled excellent • To improve in my future writing I need to:
  72. 72. Discussion • Macbeth’s journey through the play begins with anxiety and ends with cruelty, while Lady Macbeth’s journey begins in cruelty and ends in anxiety. • Do you agree?
  73. 73. In what ways are Macbeth and Lady Macbeth presented as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deed they have committed? Macbeth hears voices Act 2,Sc2 M: Methought I heard a voice cry, ‘Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep’ ... LM: These deeds must not be thought/ After these ways; so, it will make us mad. Lady Macbeth is plagued by fits of sleepwalking: Act 5,Sc 1 LM: Out, damned spot! Out, I say! (TheMurderofKingDuncan) (TheMurderofBanquo) Macbeth’s hallucination of Banquo’s ghost Act 3, Sc 4 M Never shake/ thy gory locks at me. ... LM: Fie, for shame Macbeth’s insomnia Act 3, Sc 4 LM: You lack the season of all natures, sleep. (MacbethgoestovisittheWitcheswhotell him:hemustbewareMacduff;hewillnotbe harmedbymanbornofwoman;hewillbesafe untilBirnamwoodcomestoDunsinane) Macbeth orders the murder of MacDuff’s wife and children Act 4, Sc 1 M: The castle of Macduff I will surprise Lady Macbeth commits suicide: Act 5, Sc 5 Seyton: The Queen, My Lord, is dead. ... M: Out, Out, brief candle! 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cruelty/AnxietyCruelty/Anxiety Low Low High High Macbeth: increasing cruelty? Lady Macbeth: increasing anxiety? Cruelty Anxiety
  74. 74. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dgbbtUbgcM
  75. 75. angry frustrated anguished sinister guilty scared mocking panicked devastated horrified sympathetic child-like LADY MACBETH Tone Out, damned spot! out, I say!— ………………………………………. Fie, my lord, fie! a soldier, and afeard? ………………………………………… Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him. ……………………………………….. The thane of Fife had a wife: where is she now?— ………………………………………… What, will these hands ne'er be clean?— ………………………………………… Here's the smell of the blood still: all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. ………………………………………... Oh, oh, oh! ………………………………………… Choose one or two adjectives to describe Lady Macbeth’s tone for each quotation. Challenge: Explain the purpose of these abrupt changes in tone. What is the effect on the audience?
  76. 76. LADY MACBETH Out, damned spot! out, I say!--One: two: why, then, 'tis time to do't.--Hell is murky!--Fie, my lord, fie! a soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?--Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him. Doctor Do you mark that? LADY MACBETH The thane of Fife had a wife: where is she now?-- What, will these hands ne'er be clean?--No more o' that, my lord, no more o' that: you mar all with this starting. Doctor Go to, go to; you have known what you should not. Gentlewoman She has spoke what she should not, I am sure of that: heaven knows what she has known. LADY MACBETH Here's the smell of the blood still: all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh, oh, oh!
  77. 77. ‘Explore the ways in which Mary Shelley presents Victor Frankenstein as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deed he has committed?’ In your answer, consider: • The physical and mental effects on Victor as a result of his creation of the monster.
  78. 78. Please do your homework TEPEE annotations in your books! • Your formative assignment will take place on Thursday 13th March. The title will be: • In what ways are the main characters in Frankenstein and Macbeth presented as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deeds they have committed? • You will plan for your Controlled Assessment on Tuesday 18th March. • You will begin writing your Controlled Assessment on Friday 21st March. The title will be: • Explore the ways the theme of ‘the unnatural’ is presented and developed in Frankenstein and Macbeth.
  79. 79. • What is the Purpose and Effect of Lady Macbeth’s changes in tone in Act 5 Scene 1? (i.e. What do these changes in tone tell the audience about her mental state? How do they make the audience feel?) • (look at the blue sheet you filled in yesterday and at pg 6 of your extracts book).
  80. 80. LADY MACBETH Out, damned spot! out, I say!--One: two: why, then, 'tis time to do't.--Hell is murky!--Fie, my lord, fie! a soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?--Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him. Doctor Do you mark that? LADY MACBETH The thane of Fife had a wife: where is she now?-- What, will these hands ne'er be clean?--No more o' that, my lord, no more o' that: you mar all with this starting. Doctor Go to, go to; you have known what you should not. Gentlewoman She has spoke what she should not, I am sure of that: heaven knows what she has known. LADY MACBETH Here's the smell of the blood still: all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh, oh, oh! Act 5 Scene 1 (pg 6)
  81. 81. • LO: To explore the ways Shakespeare uses setting and characterisation to present the Witches as unnatural
  82. 82. The Witches Readthrough! • Turn to page 9.
  83. 83. Read through pgs 9 & 10 in your Macbeth extracts booklet. Find and underline quotations which link • Setting • The appearance of the Witches • What the Witches say to the theme of the unnatural. Starter
  84. 84. • LO: To explore the ways Shakespeare uses setting and characterisation to present the Witches as unnatural
  85. 85. Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches First Witch When shall we three meet again In thunder, lightning, or in rain? Second Witch When the hurlyburly's done, When the battle's lost and won. Third Witch That will be ere the set of sun. First Witch Where the place? Second Witch Upon the heath. Third Witch There to meet with Macbeth. First Witch I come, Graymalkin! Second Witch Paddock calls. Third Witch Anon. ALL Fair is foul, and foul is fair: Hover through the fog and filthy air. Exeunt Act 1 Scene 1 (pg 9)
  86. 86. Thunder. Enter the three Witches *** Enter MACBETH and BANQUO MACBETH So foul and fair a day I have not seen. BANQUO How far is't call'd to Forres? What are these So wither'd and so wild in their attire, That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, And yet are on't? Live you? or are you aught That man may question? You seem to understand me, By each at once her chappy finger laying Upon her skinny lips: you should be women, And yet your beards forbid me to interpret That you are so. MACBETH Speak, if you can: what are you? First Witch All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane of Glamis! Second Witch All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, thane of Cawdor! Third Witch All hail, Macbeth, thou shalt be king hereafter! Act 1 Scene 3 (pg 10)
  87. 87. Choose one quotation and write it on one side of your card. (or choose a different quotation you are confident you can link to ‘the unnatural’) ACT 1 SCENE 1 (A desert place.) *** Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches *** Fair is foul, and foul is fair: Hover through the fog and filthy air. *** What are these So wither'd and so wild in their attire, *** That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, And yet are on't? *** Live you? *** you should be women, And yet your beards forbid me to interpret That you are so *** All hail, Macbeth, thou shalt be king hereafter!
  88. 88. On the other side of the card, briefly note down 1. a technique and 2. the effects of this technique on the audience. Technique bank: Stage direction Pathetic fallacy Setting Paradox (as statement which contains 2 opposite facts) Alliteration Imagery Questions Physical description Prophecy When trying to come up with ‘effects’, think about: What the word/phrase/image suggests implies or conveys. What the word/phrase/image makes you think of. How the word/phase/image makes you feel.
  89. 89. QUIZ – QUIZ - TRADE • Wander around the room, displaying your quotation/word, and find a partner. High five them. • Talk to your partner about your quote. What have they got to add? Aim for detail and depth. • Talk about their quote/word. What have you got to add? Aim for detail and depth. • SAY THANK YOU AND TRADE! This is active learning: no leaning or sitting!
  90. 90. A gentle reminder • You have homework due for Monday’s lesson. • You may use all of the notes we have done in class and the models you have been given to help you... But DO NOT just copy the models you have been given! • Heads up... Your books will be taken in for marking at the end of Monday’s lesson!
  91. 91. Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches Skilled Annotation T: Pathetic fallacy E P. Shakespeare has used pathetic fallacy to mark the entrance of the Witches in order to suggest the unsettling influence they have on the plot of the play. E :’Thunder and lightning’ are violent weather conditions which can be destructive. Here, at the opening of Macbeth, ‘Thunder and lightning’ are used to reflect the Witches’ violent, destructive personalities and to foreshadow the damaging influence they will have during the play. E:This use of “Thunder and lightning” to mark the Witches’ entrance is repeated throughout the play. As such, their continued, unsettling influence is emphasised each time we meet them. Many members of a Contemporary audience would have genuinely believed in, and have been scared by the power of Witches and magic. Therefore, they would probably have viewed this use of pathetic fallacy as supporting their view of Witches as evil and destructive. Excellent Annotation T: Stage directions and pathetic fallacy E P. Dramatists use stage directions to explain to directors and actors how they wish the play to be performed. Here, Shakespeare has instructed that the Witches’ entrance should be accompanied by unsettled weather conditions to suggest the unsettling influence they have on the plot of the play. E :This use of pathetic fallacy to reflect the Witches’ violent, destructive personalities is also aurally and visually interesting for the audience. Here, as the play opens, light and sound are used to seize the audience’s attention . Tension is heightened as the on- stage depiction of sinister weather conditions encourages the audience to predict disturbing events to come. E:This use of “Thunder and lightning” to mark the Witches’ entrance is repeated throughout the play. As such, their continued, unsettling influence throughout the play is reiterated each time we meet them. While modern audiences may view the linking of stormy weather with evil deeds as somewhat clichéd, it is likely that contemporary audiences, many of whom would have genuinely believed in, and have been scared by the power of Witches and magic may have viewed this use of pathetic fallacy as supporting their view of Witches as evil and destructive. Providing sophisticated analysis of Shakespeare’s techniques by moving beyond analysis of language (words used) to discuss form (stage directions are a specific aspect of a play’s form). Offers an interesting interpretation which makes it clear that the writer has engaged with the idea that plays are written to be performed. an insightful comment on the significance of context to different audiences at different times This Excellent annotation is not perfect but it improves on the Skilled example by does the following things well...
  92. 92. • LO: To explore how the Witches’ prophecies emphasise the theme of the unnatural in Macbeth.
  93. 93. Think-Pair-Share What happens as a result of these prophecies? Act 1 Scene 3 First Witch All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane of Glamis! Second Witch All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, thane of Cawdor! Third Witch All hail, Macbeth, thou shalt be king hereafter! Act 4 Scene 1 First Apparition Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! beware Macduff; Beware the thane of Fife. Dismiss me. Enough.
  94. 94. Discuss • To what extent are the Witches the driving force behind Macbeth’s unnatural deeds: -in killing King Duncan? -in killing MacDuff’s wife and children? In your books, write a brief paragraph to explain the link between the Witches’ prophecies and the theme of the unnatural in Macbeth.
  95. 95. • You may use the remainder of this lesson to work on your homework which is due for Monday.
  96. 96. Monday 10th March • The difference between an annotation and a full paragraph – topic sentences • Introductions • Comparisons • Conclusions • (take in books!)
  97. 97. • Please remember to hand in your books at the end of today’s lesson.
  98. 98. What we’re doing this week: Monday 10th – CA Essay Writing Skills • Thinking about our title • Developing TEPEE annotations into successful TEPEE paragraphs • Hitting those Assessment Objectives (AOs) Wednesday 12th – CA Preparation Workshop • preparing for your CA step by step Thursday 13th – Formative Assignment • Independent working. Notes are allowed.
  99. 99. Our CA Title • Explore the ways the theme of ‘the unnatural’ is presented and developed in Frankenstein and Macbeth.
  100. 100. T: hyperbole E: “catastrophe.” P: The author is, perhaps, suggesting that as the Monster comes to life, Victor finally realises that the work he has been engaged in is deeply unnatural. E: The word “catastrophe” conveys ideas of great misfortune, upheaval and even devastation. E: It is indeed likely that a contemporary reader of Frankenstein would have felt unease when reading about Victor’s creation of the Monster, making links between Victor’s experiments and experiments conducted by contemporary scientists such as Aldini. Turning TEPEE annotations into full TEPEE paragraphs Have you...identified a Technique? Linked to Evidence from the quotation? Suggested the author’s Purpose? Suggested the Effect on the reader Explained your ideas, linking to context where possible?
  101. 101. T: hyperbole E: “catastrophe.” P: The author is, perhaps, suggesting that as the Monster comes to life, Victor finally realises that the work he has been engaged in is deeply unnatural. E: The word “catastrophe” conveys ideas of great misfortune, upheaval and even devastation. Victor’s use of exaggeration here suggests the depth of his horror as he becomes aware of the reality of his unnatural deed. It also encourages the reader to predict that the consequences of this deed may be catastrophic both for Victor and for society at large. E: It is indeed likely that a contemporary reader of Frankenstein would have felt unease when reading about Victor’s creation of the Monster, making links between Victor’s experiments and experiments conducted by contemporary scientists such as Aldini. In 1803, for example, Aldini conducted a public experiment in London where he attempted to reanimate the corpse of the murderer George Foster. On learning about the catastrophic consequences of Victor Frankenstein’s experiments, contemporary readers may have feared that similar, terrifying events could take place if scientists such as Aldini were successful. One possible interpretation of Frankenstein, therefore, is as a warning against meddling with nature. Turning TEPEE annotations into full TEPEE paragraphs Step 1: Making sure you have developed the ‘Effect’ and ‘Explanation’ parts of your annotation fully The ‘Explanation’ Explained Here, you could: -Expand your ideas further, providing additional detail -Link to the historical context (background) of when the text was written -Suggest how contemporary and modern readers might interpret the text differently -Provide a link to another part of the same text -Provide a link to the other text ++Can you provide a combination of more than one of the above?
  102. 102. hyperbole “catastrophe.” The author is, perhaps, suggesting that as the Monster comes to life, Victor finally realises that the work he has been engaged in is deeply unnatural. The word “catastrophe” conveys ideas of great misfortune, upheaval and even devastation. Victor’s use of exaggeration here suggests the depth of his horror as he becomes aware of the reality of his unnatural deed. It also encourages the reader to predict that the consequences of this deed may be catastrophic both for Victor and for society at large. It is indeed likely that a contemporary reader of Frankenstein would have felt unease when reading about Victor’s creation of the Monster, making links between Victor’s experiments and experiments conducted by contemporary scientists such as Aldini. In 1803, for example, Aldini conducted a public experiment in London where he attempted to reanimate the corpse of the murderer George Foster. On learning about the catastrophic consequences of Victor Frankenstein’s experiments, contemporary readers may have feared that similar, terrifying events could take place if scientists such as Aldini were successful. One possible interpretation of Frankenstein, therefore, is as a warning against meddling with nature. Turning TEPEE annotations into full TEPEE paragraphs Step 2: Getting rid of the TEPEE abbreviations
  103. 103. In Chapter 5, Mary Shelley uses hyperbole in describing Victor’s reaction to the monster’s coming to life. For example, at the moment of the Monster’s ‘birth’, Victor describes this event as a “catastrophe.” The author is, perhaps, suggesting that as the Monster comes to life, Victor finally realises that the work he has been engaged in is deeply unnatural. The word “catastrophe” conveys ideas of great misfortune, upheaval and even devastation. Victor’s use of exaggeration here suggests the depth of his horror as he becomes aware of the reality of his unnatural deed. It also encourages the reader to predict that the consequences of this deed may be catastrophic both for Victor and for society at large. It is indeed likely that a contemporary reader of Frankenstein would have felt unease when reading about Victor’s creation of the Monster, making links between Victor’s experiments and experiments conducted by contemporary scientists such as Aldini. In 1803, for example, Aldini conducted a public experiment in London where he attempted to reanimate the corpse of the murderer George Foster. On learning about the catastrophic consequences of Victor Frankenstein’s experiments, contemporary readers may have feared that similar, terrifying events could take place if scientists such as Aldini were successful. One possible interpretation of Frankenstein, therefore, is as a warning against meddling with nature. Turning TEPEE annotations into full TEPEE paragraphs Step 3: Making sure you always write in full sentences.
  104. 104. An important way that the theme of the unnatural is presented and developed in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein , is through the unnatural deed committed by the novel’s main character, Victor Frankenstein, and the consequences of this. In Chapter 5, Mary Shelley uses hyperbole in describing Victor’s reaction to the monster’s coming to life. For example, at the moment of the Monster’s ‘birth’, Victor describes this event as a “catastrophe.” The author is, perhaps, suggesting that as the Monster comes to life, Victor finally realises that the work he has been engaged in is deeply unnatural. The word “catastrophe” conveys ideas of great misfortune, upheaval and even devastation. Victor’s use of exaggeration here suggests the depth of his horror as he becomes aware of the reality of his unnatural deed. It also encourages the reader to predict that the consequences of this deed may be catastrophic both for Victor and for society at large. It is indeed likely that a contemporary reader of Frankenstein would have felt unease when reading about Victor’s creation of the Monster, making links between Victor’s experiments and experiments conducted by contemporary scientists such as Aldini. In 1803, for example, Aldini conducted a public experiment in London where he attempted to reanimate the corpse of the murderer George Foster. On learning about the catastrophic consequences of Victor Frankenstein’s experiments, contemporary readers may have feared that similar, terrifying events could take place if scientists such as Aldini were successful. One possible interpretation of Frankenstein, therefore, is as a warning against meddling with nature. Turning TEPEE annotations into full TEPEE paragraphs Step 4: Adding a ‘topic sentence’ to the beginning of each paragraph. A topic sentence summarises the main point you will make in the paragraph
  105. 105. An important way that the theme of the unnatural is presented and developed in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein , is through the unnatural deed committed by the novel’s main character, Victor Frankenstein, and the consequences of this. In Chapter 5, Mary Shelley uses hyperbole in describing Victor’s reaction to the monster’s coming to life. For example, at the moment of the Monster’s ‘birth’, Victor describes this event as a “catastrophe.” The author is, perhaps, suggesting that as the Monster comes to life, Victor finally realises that the work he has been engaged in is deeply unnatural. The word “catastrophe” conveys ideas of great misfortune, upheaval and even devastation. Victor’s use of exaggeration here suggests the depth of his horror as he becomes aware of the reality of his unnatural deed. It also encourages the reader to predict that the consequences of this deed may be catastrophic both for Victor and for society at large. It is indeed likely that a contemporary reader of Frankenstein would have felt unease when reading about Victor’s creation of the Monster, making links between Victor’s experiments and experiments conducted by contemporary scientists such as Aldini. In 1803, for example, Aldini conducted a public experiment in London where he attempted to reanimate the corpse of the murderer George Foster. On learning about the catastrophic consequences of Victor Frankenstein’s experiments, contemporary readers may have feared that similar, terrifying events could take place if scientists such as Aldini were successful. One possible interpretation of Frankenstein, therefore, is as a warning against meddling with nature. Turning TEPEE annotations into full TEPEE paragraphs Step 5: ‘signposting’ where in the text your quotations come from
  106. 106. Our CA: What you will be marked on… • AO1: Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; selecting and evaluating relevant quotations to illustrate and support your interpretations (5%) • AO2: Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings (10%) • AO3: Explain links between texts, evaluating writers’ different ways of expressing meaning and achieving effects (5%) • AO4: Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to you and other readers in different contexts and at different times (5%) • OUTCOME: 2000 word comparative essay worth 25% of GCSE Literature in Controlled Conditions.
  107. 107. An important way that the theme of the unnatural is presented and developed in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein , is through the unnatural deed committed by the novel’s main character, Victor Frankenstein, and the consequences of this. In Chapter 5, Mary Shelley uses hyperbole in describing Victor’s reaction to the monster’s coming to life. For example, at the moment of the Monster’s ‘birth’, Victor describes this event as a “catastrophe.” The author is, perhaps, suggesting that as the Monster comes to life, Victor finally realises that the work he has been engaged in is deeply unnatural. The word “catastrophe” conveys ideas of great misfortune, upheaval and even devastation. Victor’s use of exaggeration here suggests the depth of his horror as he becomes aware of the reality of his unnatural deed. It also encourages the reader to predict that the consequences of this deed may be catastrophic both for Victor and for society at large. It is indeed likely that a contemporary reader of Frankenstein would have felt unease when reading about Victor’s creation of the Monster, making links between Victor’s experiments and experiments conducted by contemporary scientists such as Aldini. In 1803, for example, Aldini conducted a public experiment in London where he attempted to reanimate the corpse of the murderer George Foster. On learning about the catastrophic consequences of Victor Frankenstein’s experiments, contemporary readers may have feared that similar, terrifying events could take place if scientists such as Aldini were successful. One possible interpretation of Frankenstein, therefore, is as a warning against meddling with nature. In a similar way, the theme of the unnatural is presented and developed in Shakespeare’s Macbeth through the unnatural deed committed by the character of Macbeth and the consequences of this. In Act 2 Scene 2, Shakespeare uses the lexical field of religion to emphasise that Macbeth has committed an unnatural act which is against God in killing King Duncan. For example, Macbeth is troubled that after the murder, he is unable to say the holy word, ‘Amen.’…(to be continued) Using TEPEE to successfully hit our Assessment Objectives! AO1 AO2 AO4 AO3 AO1
  108. 108. Your ongoing homework from now until your controlled assessment will be to conduct individual preparation. By next Monday (17th March) you must have chosen the specific quotations you will use!!
  109. 109. Step 1: Choose 3-4 ‘linking ideas’ you feel confident you can write about in detail for both texts. Choose from: •Unnatural deeds •The effects of unnatural deeds on characters •Unnatural attitudes •Pathetic fallacy •Non-human characters Step 2: For each area, choose the supporting quotations you will use for both Frankenstein and Macbeth Step 3: Decide how you will analyse these quotations and make links between texts but you may not plan out your whole paragraphs This ‘structure’ sheet is to help you organise your ideas. You will not be able to use this in your Controlled Assessment!! Using your ‘structure’ sheet to help you organise your thoughts Step 4: Briefly decide what you will put in your introduction and conclusion
  110. 110. Unnatural Deeds -Frankenstein Unnatural Deeds -Macbeth The effects of unnatural deeds on the characters who commit them- Frankenstein The effects of unnatural deeds on the characters who commit them - Macbeth Unnatural Attitudes -Frankenstein Unnatural Attitudes -Macbeth Pathetic Fallacy -Frankenstein Pathetic Fallacy -Macbeth Non-human characters -Frankenstein Non-human characters -Macbeth Chapter 5 - The night of, and the morning after the creation of the Monster: •“It was on a dreary night of November...” •“It was already one in the morning; the rain pattered dismally against the panes..” •“Morning, dismal and wet, at length dawned” •“although drenched by the rain which poured from a black and comfortless sky.” Act 1 Scene 1 – •“Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches” •“When shall we three meet again/ In thunder, lightning, or in rain?” Act 1 Scene 3 – •“Thunder. Enter the three Witches” Chapter 5 – The appearance of the Monster •“yellow skin” • “watery eyes” • “his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips.” •Act 1 Scene 3 – Banquo describes the Witches •“What are these/ So wither'd and so wild in their attire…” •“That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth…” •“you should be women,/ And yet your beards forbid me to interpret/ That you are so.” Chapter 10 – Victor meets the Monster for the first time •“I trembled with rage and horror…” •“‘Devil, I exclaimed.” •“vile insect” •“Cursed be the day, abhorred devil, in which you first saw light! Cursed (although I curse myself) be the hands that formed you!” Act 1 Scene 5 – Lady Macbeth’s attitudes towards Motherhood •Come to my woman's breasts,/ And take my milk for gall…” Act 1 Scene 7 – Lady Macbeth describes how she would treat her baby, rather than go back on a promise to kill the King •I would, while it was smiling in my face,/ Have pluck'd my nipple from his boneless gums,/ And dash'd the brains out,…” Chapter 5 – Victor’s reaction to the Monster’s birth •“With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony” •“I started from my sleep with horror; a cold dew covered my forehead, my teeth chattered, and every limb became convulsed;” Act 2 Scene 2 – Macbeth after the murder of King Duncan •Methought I heard a voice cry 'Sleep no more!/ Macbeth does murder sleep” Act 5 Scene 1 – Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking scene • “Out, damned spot! out, I say!” Chapter 5 – The Monster comes to life •“I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs.” Act 2 Scene 2 – Directly after the Murder of King Duncan Macbeth •“I have done the deed. Didst thou not hear a noise?”
  111. 111. Introductions The function of your introduction will be to: • Explain what you mean by ‘the unnatural’ • Linking to your essay title, briefly say what you will discuss in your essay
  112. 112. Well my fellow unnaturalists, I’m sure my lecture has been stimulating… ???? What does the unnatural even mean? So confused This is what we don’t want to happen!
  113. 113. “If something is unnatural, it can be described as abnormal, or against the usual course of nature.” AH!!! OH!!! Now I get it! In your introduction, it’s important to define, or explain your central idea!
  114. 114. Conclusions The function of you conclusion is NOT: • To repeat everything you have said in your essay The function of your conclusion IS: • To suggest which text presents and develops the theme of the unnatural in the most effective way. Why?
  115. 115. Independent planning and preparation for your Controlled Assessment Think – Pair - Share What you can do to help yourself prepare
  116. 116. Reminder: Your formative assignment will take place tomorrow. The title will be: In what ways are the main characters in Frankenstein and Macbeth presented as being highly influenced by the ‘unnatural’ deeds they have committed?
  117. 117. Now… using your structure sheet and all your notes, plan the content and structure of your Controlled Assessment essay
  118. 118. Wednesday 12th march • Planning for comparisons: • Give ‘aspects’ • Give sentence starters • (give A3 planning outline – check with Jane 1st) • Homework – independent prep for formative and CA
  119. 119. Thursday 13th march • Formative assignment
  120. 120. Monday 17th March • Formative feedback
  121. 121. Wednesday 19th march • Independent planning for CA
  122. 122. Friday 21st March • Begin CA

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