Martial Arts have an ancient tradition of body, mind and spirit training.Various forms of martial arts have been practiced in China, India and Japan since antiquity. According to legend, Chinese martial arts originated during the semi-mythical Xia Dynasty ( ) more than 4,000 years ago and include wushu, kung fu, qigong, and t’ai chi. 3
In modern times, Chinese martial arts have spawned the genre ofcinema known as the martial arts ﬁlm, with martial artists and actors such as Jet Li and Jackie Chan. http://www.everythingaction.com/2009/12/11/action-adventure-classic-who-am-i/ 5
The historical origin of Japanese martial arts can be found in the warrior traditions of the samurai. Japanese martial art forms include gendai budōand koryū types like jujutsu,as well as sumo, judo, kendo, aikido, kyudō, and karate. 6
"Spirit of the Peacock" Chinese Dance Yang Liping has woven songs and dances of her native Yunnan Province into a successful show.
modern dance company Cloud Gate Dance Theatre of Taiwan Photo by Lois Greenﬁeld
Kalari payattu, an Indian martial art, originated in South India and is one of the oldest ﬁghting systems in existence. http://jugalbandi.info/2010/01/martial-arts-vedic-style-kalaripayattu/ 11
Some of the choreographed sparring in kalari payat can be applied to dance. Kathakali dancers who knew martial artswere believed to be markedly better than the other performers. 12
Some traditional Indian dance schools still incorporate kalari payat as part of their exercise regimen. 13
India Bharatanatyam Bharata Natyam or Chadhir Attam, a classical dance formfrom the South Indian stateof Tamil Nadu, is practiced inmodern times predominantly by women.
bharata natyam Mudrasare symbolic or ritual gestures in Hinduism and Buddhism. While some mudrās involve the entire body, most are performed with the hands and ﬁngers.
...refers mainly to the dances ofSub-Saharan Africa.
African dances teach social patterns andvalues and help people work, mature, praiseor criticize members of the community while celebrating festivals and funerals, competing, reciting history, proverbs and poetry; and to encounter gods. 17
Adowa, a funeral dance, from Ghana,...graces the funeral with digniﬁed walking movements and today is performed at festivals and other special social events.
Throughout Africa, the sound and the rhythm of the drumexpress the mood of the people. 19
Such is the power of the drumto evoke emotions, and to touch the souls of those who hear its rhythms. 24
However, nomadic groups such as the Maasai do not traditionally use drums, but ratheruse their human voice as musical accompaniment. 25
Middle Eastern dance (Arabic dance) or Belly Dance, originated in Egypt and N. Africa,and as a style is also quite popular in India, where it has deep cultural roots. 26
Raqs baladi, (literally "dance of country", or "folk" dance) is the folkloric style, danced socially by men and women of all agesin some Middle Eastern countries, usually at festive occasions such as weddings. from: afterwork.myﬁnejob.com Nath Keo a Cambodian-Canadian, male belly dancer
Raqs sharqi (literally "Dance of the Near East") is the stylemore familiar to Westerners, performed in restaurants and cabaretsaround the world. It is more commonly performed by female dancers but is also sometimes danced by men. Sadie American belly dancer
Rock Apes of Gibraltar, Andalusian Gypsy dance
Furia Flamencas style is uniquein that it combines the traditional gypsy with the more modern ﬂamenco http://www.joyofmotion.org/Resident%20companies/furiaﬂamenca.htm 31
Traditional Folk Dancing Ibiza, Spain photo from SuperStock 1954-2097
The term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical importance in European culture andhistory; typically originated before the 20th century. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditionaldance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_dance 33
UKRAINIAN FOLK DANCE HOPAK http://www.barynya.com/mp3/barynya_trio.stm
The term "folk dance" is reserved for danceswhich are to a signiﬁcant degreebound by tradition and originatedin the times when the distinction existed between the dances of "common folk" and the dances of the "high society". 35 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_dance
Italian folk dancing revolves around the Tarantella, a quick dancewith dancers moving around, which is ofttimes finished at weddings. It originated in southern Italia. 36
Catalan French celebrating the French national holiday with the traditional folk dance Sardanain Laroque des Alberes, Pyrenees_Orientales, Languedoc_Roussillon, South France. photo: SuperStock 1848-33075 37
Traditional English Morris Folk Dancing 38http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/2098196/Traditional-English-Morris-dancing-faces-extinction.html
Most of the true Scottish Highland dances are connected with ancient folk customs.The present form evolved through the centuries as reﬁnement in the general form of dance occurred, but the original basic steps and the themes were passed on through the years. http://www.strathdonpipeband.com/LearningCenter/Dancing/HighlandDancing/tabid/65/Default.aspx 39
A number of modern ballroom dances originated from folk dances. Some dance forms are Waltz, Polka, Mazurka, Marche, Scottish, Rondeau and the Bourree. Bourree is a French folk dance with many varieties, characteristically danced with quick, skipping steps. Carols and Baroque dances are other popular traditional dances found in France and throughout Europe. 39
The Waltz, the oldest of the ballroom dances, isconsidered by some as the “mother of present day dances” and the “backbone dance” of the ballroom. The Waltz is a truly romantic dance and is comprised of soft, round, ﬂowing movements. http://www.travelandleisure.com/slideshows/where-and-how-to-go-dancing-with-the-stars/2 41
The polka is a gay, fast-traveling dance that is easy to learn, but requires lots of energy.The polka was originally a Czech peasant dance. http://www.nerdylorrin.net/jerry/WebLogs/Geoff/Krakow-DanceShow-Polka.jpg 42
The Mazurka is a sultry seductive couple dancefound in much of western, central and northern Europe. The form most often danced in France is a variation combining the basic mazurka step and the waltz step. http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/50/10050-004-C68DBE5C.jpg 43
English Country Dance is based on the Baroque Contredanses from the French Court of Louis XIV. In 1710, a French book,Feuillets Recuil de Contredanse ﬁrst recorded information about Country Dance footwork. English Country dancing went to North America with the colonists.In New England especially, country dance was extremely popular through the early 1800s. 44
Traditional English Country Dance http://www.strangegirl.com/emma/3music.php 45
Ballet, a formal dance form with roots in the 15th century courts of the Italian Renaissance, began as a danced version ofthe sport, fencing, and featured very little choreography, and absolutely no ballerinas. 46 http://dance.lovetoknow.com/Who_Invented_Ballet
French Court of King Louis XIVhttp://www.dancer.com/hist.php http://www.seahorse-design.com/wordpress/?p=173
After the death of King Louis XIV,ballet continued to develop and evolve over the remaining years of theeighteenth century. The art form went on to be developed in Russia and France, and all variations found inclassical style are rooted in the original French technique of King Louis XIV’s royal court. 48
Until 1681, ballets were danced entirely by men! Women weren’t introduced to the opera-ballet stage until the Paris Opera production of Le Triomphe de l’Amour. Featured in this production wasMademoiselle de Lafontaine – who is attributed as being the ﬁrstprofessional female ballet dancer. http://californiaballet.ﬁles.wordpress.com/2010/05/triomphe.jpg 49
Legendary French ballerina Marie Annede Camargo was born in Brussels in 1710. Marie became thedarling of French ballet audiences when she debuted at the Paris Opera ballet in 1726. 50