SISTER LETTY G. KUAN
RETIREMENT AND ROLE
GETTING TO KNOW THE FILIPINO
Born on November 19, 1936 in Katipunan-Dipolog,
Zamboanga del Norte
Master degree in Nursing and Guidance and
She also holds a Doctoral degree in Education.
Has a vast contribution to the University of the
Philippines College of Nursing Faculty and
She is now a Professor Emeritus, a title awarded
only to a few who met the strict criteria.
She has two Masters Degrees, M.A in Nursing
and M.S in Education, Major in Guidance and
Counseling, culminating in Doctor of
Education (Guidance and Counseling).
★ Has a Clinical Fellowship and Specialization
in Neuropsychology in University of Paris,
France (Salpetriere hospital).
★ Neurogerontology in Watertown, New York
(Good Samaritan Hospital ) and Syracuse
University, New York.
She also had Bioethics formal training at Institute
of Religion, Ethics and Law at Baylor College of
Medicine in Houston, Texas.
She is a recipient of the Metrobank Foundation
“Outstanding Teacher’s Award” in 1995 and an
“Award of Continuing Integrity and Excellence in
Service” in 2004. (ACIES)
Her religious community is the Notre Dame de Vie
founded in France in 1932.
As a former member of the Board of Nursing her
latest legacy the Nursing Community is without a
She authored several books giving her insights in the
areas of Gerontology, Care of Older Persons and Bioethics
and Essence of Caring.
Concepts of illness and health care intervention in an urban
by Kuan, Letty Gurdiel; [Quezon City]: 1975.
Understanding the Filipino elderly: a textbook for nurses and
related health professional
by Kuan, Letty G.; Dipolog City: Jesus G. Kuan Foundation,
Essence of Caring
by Letty G. Kuan,
National Teacher Training Center for the Health Professions,
University of the
Philippines Manila, Learning Resources Unit, 1993
AND OTHER BOOKS...
Pag-aaruga Sa Mga Taong May Edad Na.
by Kuan, Letty G.; Quezon City: UP-KAT, 1998
Bioethics in Nursing
by Kuan, Letty G.; Manila: Educational Pub.
RETIREMENT AND ROLE
CONCEPTUAL MODEL (as studied and researched by the
Determinants of Fruitful Aging
• Prepared retirement
Change of Life
Retirement – is an inevitable change in one’s life.
It is evident in the increasing statistics of aging
population accompanied by related disabilities
and increased dependence.
- this developmental stage, even at later part of
life, must be considered desirable and satisfying
through the determination of factors that will
help the person enjoy his remaining years of life.
is of primary importance to prepare
early in life by cultivating other role of
options at age 50-60 in order to have a
rewarding retirement period even
amidst the presence of role
discontinuities experienced by this age
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS AND CONCEPTS
Physiological Age- is the endurance of cells and
tissues to withstand the wear-and-tear
phenomenon of the human body.
-some individuals are gifted with the strong
genetic affinity to stay young for a long time period.
Role – Refers to the set of shared expectations
focused upon a particular position. These may
include beliefs about what goals or values the
position incumbent is to pursue and the norms that
will govern his behavior.
It is also the set shared expectations from the
retirees socialization experiences and the
values internalized while preparing for the
position as well as the adaptations to the
expectations socially defined for the position
For every social role there is complementary set of
roles in the social structure among which interaction
Change of Life - is the period between near
retirement and post-retirement years. In
medico-physiological terms, this equates with
the climacteric period of adjustment and readjustment to another tempo of life.
★ Retiree – is an individual who has left the
position occupied for the past years of
productive life because he/she has reached the
prescribed retirement age or has completed the
required years of service.
Discontinuity - is the interruption in
the line of status enjoyed or performed.
The interruption may be brought about by
an accident, emergency, and change of
position or retirement.
★ Coping Approaches- Refer to the
interventions or measures applied to solve
a problematic situation or state in order to
restore or maintain equilibrium and
DETERMINANTS OF POSITIVE
PERCEPTIONS IN RETIREMENT AND
POSITIVE REACTIONS TOWARD ROLE
1. Health Status - refer to physiological and mental
state of the respondents, classified as either sickly
2. Income – (economic level) refers to the financial
affluence of the respondent which can be classified
as poor, moderate, or rich.
3. Work Status (according to Webster’s dictionary)status of an individual according to his/her work.
4. Family Constellation – Means the type of family
composition described either close knit or
extended family where three or more
generations of family members live under one
roof; or distanced family, whose members live in
separate dwelling units; or nuclear type of family
where only husband, wife and children live
5. Self-Preparation (according to Webster’s
dictionary) - it is preparing of self to the
possible outcomes in life.
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Health status dictates the capacities and
the type of role one takes both for the
present and for the future.
- It fits for the everyone to maintain
and promote health at all ages because
only proper care of the mind and body is
needed to maintain health in old age.
2. Family constellation is a positive index
regarding retirement positively and also in
reacting to role discontinuities.
~ In the Philippines, the family undoubtedly
stands as the security or trusting bank where all
members, young and old can always run and get
~When one retires, the shock of the role
discontinuities is softened because the family not
only cushions the impact, but also offers gainful
substitutes, as in providing monetary support,
absorbing emotional strains that often times with
discontinuities and other forms of surrogating.
3. Income has a high correlation with both the
perception of retirement and reactions towards
- Since income is one of the factors that secure the
outlook of individual, efforts must be exerted to
save and spend money wisely while still actively
earning in order to have some reserved when one
- It also implies that retirement pensions should be
adjusted to meet the demands of the elderly.
- This should be done in order to have a more
relevant and realistic pension and benefits
4. Work status goes hand and hand with
economic security that generates decent
~ For the retired, it implies that retirement
should not be conceptualized as a period of no
work because capabilities to function get
sharpened and refined as they practice it on a
~ Work enhances the aspects of self-esteem
and contributes to the feeling of wellness even
and old age.
5. Self-preparation which are said to be
both therapeutic and recreational in
essence pays its worth in old age.
~This does not only account
professionalism or expertise but also
benevolent work as in charitable actions
with the colleagues.
~ Self-preparation is investing not in
monetary benefits but in something that
gives them and dignity; enhance their
feelings of self-worth and happiness.
6. To cope with the changes
brought by retirement, one must
cultivate interest in recreational
activities to channel feelings of
depression or isolation and
facing realities through
confrontation with some issues.
7. To perceive retirement positively, it requires early
socialization of the various roles we take in life.
The best place to start is at home extending to
schools, neighbourhoods, The community and
society in general.
In retirement, their fellow retirees are their own
best advocates. To facilitate this, barriers to full
participation in the areas where important
decisions are rich should be eliminated in order to
give recognition and appreciation of the
knowledge, wisdom, experience and values which
are the social assets that make the retired age and
the custodians’ folk wisdom.
8. Government agency to construct holistic preretirement preparation program which will take
care of the retiree’s finances, psychological,
emotional, and social needs.
9. Retirement should be recognized as the
fulfillment of every individual’ s birthright and
must be lived meaningfully.
“I have grown and sown and now I
can reap the reward and blessing
of a life lived in joy and love, for I
too have made others grow. ”
~ Prof. Letty Gurdiel Kuan, RN, RGC, EdD~