Ethnography research 1


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Ethnograpy Research

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  • Observe/interview users in their workplace and collect subjective/objective quantitative/qualitative data.
  • Refine the goals and the process used.
  • discuss findings with developers and act as “substitute users in a ‘user-centered’ systems design process” (Bently et al., 1992).
  • Discovery! - Identifies assumptions that maybe taken for granted by system designers
  • Context too specific, not generalizable to other organizations or systems. ‘ Going native’ – develops a bias for analysis and interpretation. Must negotiate access Time & Money (hiring, training, managing, conducting, analyzing data, etc.) Data is messy and often unstructured. Too much data, not enough time to tell a complete story. How do you assess significance? (Did we learn something new, valuable?)
  • Ethnography research 1

    1. 1. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1 Free Powerpoint Templates ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Research Seminar 1 Joshua J. Batalla MP-1-1
    2. 2. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2 ETHNOGRAPHY • Introduction – What is Ethnography? – Usage of Ethnography – Benificiary of the Study • Methodology – How to conduct it. – How to collect and analyze data. – How to write a report. – Dos & Don’ts – Advantages & Disadvantages – Sample Ethnography in PH • Relevance to our course Ethno: people or folk; Graphy: describe something = Ethnography: describing and understanding another way of life from the native point of view (Neuman, 2007)
    3. 3. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3 ETHNOGRAPHY: The systematic study and documentation of human activity without imposing a prior interpretation on it via immersion in the environment of it and observation of the routine tasks that comprise it “Make the implicit explicit” Defined as: a method of observing human interactions in social settings and activities (Burke & Kirk, 2001) as the observation of people in their ‘cultural context’ the study and systematic recording of human cultures; also : a descriptive work produced from such research (Merriam-Webster Online) Rather than studying people from the outside, you learn from people from the inside
    4. 4. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4 Anthropology: • Study of cultures, relationships, humans and their environment • Anthropologists live within an community for an extended period of time: interacting, studying, participating, researching • Return to home community with research, write paper/book on the culture of community The application of anthropological techniques is ethnography. Ethnography literally means the writings or report of anthropology study What is ETHNOGRAPHY ? :
    5. 5. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5 Ethnography Principles of Ethnography«  Holism -Focuses on relations among activities and not on a single tasks or single isolated individuals -Everything connected to everything else Inductive- started without a single hypothesis Study people in their native habitats -e.g. Home, office, school, library, hospital,  community.
    6. 6. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6 Emic – inside (Hall, 2003) Etic – outside (Hall, 2003) Key informant / key actor – individual of group who closely interacts with ethnographer (Fetterman, 1998) Culture - beliefs, values, behaviors of a cohesive people (Morse and Richards, 2002) Ethnographer’s Jargon
    7. 7. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7 Roots of Traditional Ethnography Anthropology Sociology Social Psychology Folklore Studies Linguistics
    8. 8. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 8 Principles of ethnography • Holism – focus on relations among activities and not on single tasks or single isolated individuals – everything connected to everything else • Natives’ point(s) of view – how people see their own worlds – opportunity to engage with customers • Study people in their native habitats – e.g., home, office, school, library, hospital, community...
    9. 9. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9   Cultural Anthropology Sociology Business Organizational Psychology Where is it Used?
    10. 10. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10 Methodology Step 1: Preparation Step 2: Field Study Step 3: Analysis Step 4: Reporting
    11. 11. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11(Rose et al., 1995) Step 1: Preparation • Familiarize yourself with: – Organization policies – Work culture – Current System & its history • Identify the Focus of the Study – Set initial goals and prepare questions. – Can be guided by designer goals • Gain access and permission • Gate-keepers vs. Sponsors
    12. 12. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12(Rose et al., 1995) Step 2: Field Study • Field notes, audio, or video recording. • Follow any leads Establish rapport with managers and users.Establish rapport with managers and users. Record everything:Record everything: your visits, observations, impressions, feelings, hunches, emerging questions, etc.your visits, observations, impressions, feelings, hunches, emerging questions, etc. ASAP for accuracyASAP for accuracy Be Meticulous!!!Be Meticulous!!!
    13. 13. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13(Rose et al., 1995) Step 3: Analysis • Compile data into databases: – Numerical – Textual – Multimedia • Quantify data and compile statistics. • Reduce and Interpret Data. • Review and Redevelop Ideas.
    14. 14. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 14(Rose et al., 1995) Step 4: Reporting • Consider multiple audiences and respective goals. • Prepare a report and present the findings. • Have debriefing meetings
    15. 15. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15 Visuals can be important in supporting written text Photo: L.Manderson
    16. 16. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 16 (Randall/Rouncefield, CSCW 1996 Tutorial) Ethnographic Report – Purpose Statement – Executive Summary – Main Body – Future Research – Appendix – Debriefing
    17. 17. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17(Nielsen, 2002) Dos & Don’ts Don’t • Ask simple Yes/No questions • Ask leading questions • Use unfamiliar jargon • Lead/guide the ‘user’ Do • Ask open-ended questions • Phrase questions properly to avoid bias • Speak their language • Let user notice things on his/her own
    18. 18. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 18 Advantages • ‘Real-world’ data • Provides in-depth understanding of people in an organization. • Discovery • Can be economical (if you ‘do it yourself’).
    19. 19. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19 Disadvantages • Context too specific • ‘Going native’ • Must negotiate access • Time & Money • Data is messy and often unstructured. • How do you assess significance?
    20. 20. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 20 Sample Ethnography in Phillipines • Martin F. Manalansan - Global Divas: Filipino Gay Men in the Diaspora • Ethnography of Ifugao ethnographic-project.php#ixzz2HC71oFh1 • Class and Gender in the Philippines: Ethnographic Interviews with Female Employer-Female Domestic Dyads ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2011 Dissertation Author: Emelda Tabao Driscoll
    21. 21. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 21 The New ‘Ethnographic’ Methods Arrival on the Business Scene In the 1990s, various methods began to pop-up that resembled traditional Ethnography, with a special emphasis on— Actionable Insights into things like… Consumer behavior Consumer preferences for product features, form, material and color Patterns of use and purchase Organizational Development
    22. 22. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 22 Some of the Names for these New Methods ‘Shadowing’ ‘Day-in-the-Life Studies’ ‘Ethnography Lite’ ‘Consumer Ethnography’ ‘Field Observation’ ‘Contextual Inquiry’ ‘Contextual Research’ ‘New Product Ethnography’ (Cagan and Vogel) ‘Observational Research’ (Abrams)
    23. 23. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 23 Organizational Behavior • is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work. • diverse field of disciplines , including management, psychology, organizational theory, statistics, social psychology, anthropology, information technology, human stress management, counseling, psychometric, ergonomics, sociology and ethics
    24. 24. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 24 Goals of OD • To Describe • To Understand • To Predict • To Control
    25. 25. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 25 Questions anyone?? Thank You for Lending your Ears ^^