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Cognitive behavioral therapy

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is an integrative approach in psychotherapy that changes the client way of thinking and his way of living

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

  1. 1. JOSHUA J. BATALLA IP Cognitive Therapy
  2. 2. Theory of Personality • A Person’s charachteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting Personality • all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating Thinking or Cognition • Cognitive therapy perceives psychological problems as stemming from commonplace processes such as faulty thinking making incorrect inferences on the basis of inadequate or incorrect information and failing to distinguish between fantasy and reality.. CT on Personality
  3. 3. July 18, 1921 Providence, Rhode Island  “Tim”  His parents were Jewish Immigrant  His family suffered the loss of first two children.  At age 7, Broke his arm and developed acutely serious bone infection which required surgery  He missed being promoted into Second grade  Bad case of whooping cough, chronic Childhood asthma  Interest in Nature
  4. 4. SignificantChildhood Events Event: His mother was too emotional Broke his arm; developed serious bone infection Interest in Nature Repercussions: He became sensitive to others with strong Emotions He developed blood and injury phobia Became his primary motivation in entering medical school Piqued his interest in knowing “ what makes people tick; what makes them happy or sad and confident or insecure
  5. 5. Cognitive Therapy at Present  Short Term Approach  Most number of research published  Cured Thousands for Depressions and other psychological disorder  Scientific  Active  Present Focus  Learning Focus
  6. 6. Aaron T. Beck M.D “Father of Cognitive Therapy” Professions: Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Researcher, Professor, Author President Emeritus of Beck Institute of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Recognized as one of the 10 individuals who shaped the face of American Psychiatry Known for: Psychotherapy, Psychopathology, Suicide And Psychometrics
  7. 7. Development of Theory • Results from anger turned inward against the self, emerging outwardly as the patient’s “need to suffer” Psychoanalytic View of Depression Beck’s Experiment The Conclusio n • “There’s still the unconscious hostility, but the way it’s showing up in the dreams is that the patient has a need to suffer and the need to suffer is then being expressed in these negative dreams.” Depressed Person Dreams with more themes of hostility Dreams of being the subject of an unpleasant occurrence
  8. 8. Development of Theory • Results from anger turned inward against the self, emerging outwardly as the patient’s “need to suffer” Psychoanalytic View of Depression Beck’s Experiment The Conclusion • “The motivation was not to suffer but to get positive reinforcement of some type.” • “Dreams are representations of the way the patient perceives himself or herself, and the way they perceive their experiences, and that this could be rock bottom.” Depressed Person Will be upset by success Reacted positively to successful outcomes
  9. 9. View on Human Nature  1. An organism needs to process information in an adaptive way in order to survive
  10. 10. View on Human Nature 2. Psychological distress is the ultimate consequence of the interaction of the innate, biological, developmental and environmental factors. Biological Psychological Social Mentally Healthy / Psychopathology
  11. 11. View on Human Nature  3. It is our cognitions, which include our thoughts, beliefs and the manner in which we perceive a situation, that are the basis for what we believe, how we act and how we feel. Action Thoughts Emotion Vision
  12. 12. Cognitive Model Core Belief Intermediate Beliefs Automatic Thoughts Reactions: Emotional Behavioral Physiological Situation I am incompetent Attitude: It’s terrible to fail Rule: I should give up if a challenge seems great. Assumption: If I try do something difficult, I’ll fail. If I avoid doing it, I’ll be okay Sit: Reading a new text AT: This is just too hard. I’m so dumb. I’ll never master this. I’ll never make it as a therapist Emotional: Discouragement Behavioral: Avoids tasks and watches TV instead Physiological: Heaviness in body
  13. 13. View on Human Nature  4. The Cognitive model proposes that dysfunctional thinking ( which influences the patient’s mood and behavior) is common to all psychological disturbances
  14. 14. Cognitive Distortions Black or white Catastrophi sizing Discounting the positive Emotional reasoning Labeling Magnification /minimization Mental filter Mind- reading Overgeneral ization Personalizat ion Should and must Tunnel vision
  15. 15. Depression Vicious Cycle 1) Stressful Experience 2) Negative explanatory Style 3) Depressed Mood 4) Cognitive Changes 5) Behavioral Changes
  16. 16. Therapeutic Approach 1) Building a strong therapeutic Alliance Empathy Caring Optimism Essential Techniques
  17. 17. Therapeutic Approach • Sample use of Three-Question Technique: 2. Socratic Questioning Essential Techniques
  18. 18. Therapeutic Approach • Therapy involves formulating the case of the clients in “cognitive terms.” (Cognitive Conceptualization) 3. Educating the client about the Cognitive Model Essential Techniques Initial Questions To Ponder On • What is the patient diagnosis(es)? • What are his current problems? How did these problems develop and how are they maintained? • What dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs are associated with the problems? What reactions (emotional, physiological, and behavioral) are associated with his thinking?
  19. 19. Therapeutic Approach • “… the first step … is to help clients identify their automatic thoughts and images. These thoughts and images are the most readily understood aspect of the cognitive model because clients can easily “catch” them, and because clients can quickly see the direct connection between their thoughts and their negative feelings and dysfunctional behaviors.” 4. Identifying and Challenging Automatic Thoughts and Images Essential Techniques Are you aware of anything that you are saying to yourself that may be causing you to feel this badly? Can you imagine what kinds of self- statements, thoughts, or images you are having that could cause you to feel this way? Have you noticed any thoughts or images you have that kind of drift through your mind while you have been feeling this way?
  20. 20. Therapeutic Approach • This is important because automatic thoughts are often based on cognitive distortions 5. Identifying and Challenging Cognitive Distortions Essential Techniques Example: Decatastrophizing/ Scaling
  21. 21. Therapeutic Approach 6. Identifying and Challenging Intermediate Beliefs 7. Identifying and Challenging Core Beliefs 8. Homework Essential Techniques
  22. 22. Commonly Used Techniques 1. Thought-stopping Replacing a negative thought with a newly identified positive one Yelling to oneself or out loud, “Stop it!” when a negative thought is identified Placing a rubber band on one’s writs and snapping it whenever one has a negative thought Actively diverting one’s thoughts to more pleasant thoughts Participating in a relaxation exercise in order to “move” one’s thoughts to a different place
  23. 23. Commonly Used Techniques 2. Imagery-changing Following Images to Completion Jumping Ahead in Time Coping in the Image Changing the Image Reality-Testing the Image Repeating the Image Image-stopping Image- Distracting
  24. 24. Commonly Used Techniques 3. Rational-emotional role play It allows the client to debate between the rational and emotional parts of themselves
  25. 25. Commonly Used Techniques 4. Behavioral and Emotive Techniques Example: Case A mother who insists that she is a bad mother because she yells too much Behavioral Approach To develop additional parenting skills such as the use of a sticker chart Emotive Technique To yell into a pillow every time she becomes overwhelmed with her children
  26. 26. Recent Activities: Becks Institute current researches focuses on: Cognitive Therapy for schizophrenia Cognitive Therapy for suicide prevention Dissemination of cognitive therapy to community settings
  27. 27. References:  David G. Myers Psychology 10th Edition  Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Gerald Corey  Cognitive Therapy – Gale  Neukrug, Edward. Counselling theory and practice. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning: Belmont. CA. 2011  Annual Reviews Conversations: A Conversation with Aaron T. Beck Thank You!

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