Next Step 2014 presentation by Prof. Rajender Singh from Jiwaji University


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Next Step 2014 presentation by Prof. Rajender Singh from Jiwaji University

  1. 1. Next step 2014 Using Sports for Good
  2. 2. Tackling . the NCDs Burden using Sports and Activities Dr. Rajender Singh HOD & Director, Physical Edu. Jiwaji University, Gwalior {M.P}
  3. 3. 1. BRIEF FACTS ABOUT BURDEN OF NCDs ON THE WORLD :- 1.1 Non communicable diseases (NCDs) kill more than 36 million people each year. 1.2 Nearly 80% of NCD deaths - 29 million - occur in low- and middleincome countries.
  4. 4. 1.3 More than nine million of all deaths attributed to NCDs occur before the age of 60. 1.4 90% of these "premature" deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries of the world.
  5. 5. 17.5 million 4.2 million 7.6 million 1.3 million
  8. 8. 1. Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for death globally and is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and for 5–10% in the European Region. ( WHO 2009) 2. Every year in the European Region nearly one million deaths are attributed to physical inactivity . Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009.
  9. 9. BURDEN OF NCDs IN INDIA 1.5 Non Communicable Disease causing more premature death in India as per World Bank report. 1.6 Heart Disease have replaced TB and sepsis as two of five leading cause of death between 1990 and 2010. 1.7 Diet related risks are leading factors in India for premature death.
  10. 10. CAUSES OF PREMATURE DEATH IN INDIA IN 1990(As per report of world bank and Institute of health matrix and evaluation and University of Washington)
  11. 11. CAUSES OF PREMATURE DEATH IN INDIA IN 2010 (As per report of world bank and Institute of health matrix and evaluation and University of Washington)
  12. 12. CAUSES OF PREMATURE DEATH IN INDIA 1. According to report people are living longer in South Asian Countries then ever before. 2. Quality of life has not improved because NCDs.
  13. 13. 3.The potential has increased for Ischemic heart disease or coronary artery disease upto 73% low back pain upto 63% and diabetes upto 104%. 4. Rapid shift in disease burden place in poor people in High risk of not having access to health care and push them deeper into poverty(Timothy Evans, Director of Health Neutrisian and Population at the World Bank)
  14. 14. 1) To reduce the risk factors for non communicable diseases that stem from unhealthy diets and physical inactivity by means of essential public health action and healthpromoting and disease preventing measures. (2) To increase the overall awareness and understanding of the influences of diet and physical activity on health and of the positive impact of preventive interventions. May 2004 ,WHO
  15. 15. (3) To encourage ◦ the development, strengthening and implementation of global, regional, national and community policies. action plans to improve diets and increase physical activity that are sustainable, comprehensive, and actively engage all sectors, including civil society, the private sector and the media.
  16. 16. (4) To monitor scientific data and key influences on diet and physical activity; to support research in a broad spectrum of relevant areas, including evaluation of intervention. (5) To strengthen the human resources needed in this domain to enhance and sustain health.
  17. 17. What is Sport: Sport has been defined as “all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental wellbeing, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels” (1).  Physical activity, on the other hand, has been defined as “any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure above resting level” (2). 1) European Sports Charter (revised). Brussels, Council of Europe, 2001. 2) Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christensen GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 1985, 100:126–131.
  18. 18. Benefits of Sports 1.Physical activity is a key determinant of energy expenditure, and thus is fundamental to energy balance and weight control. 2.Physical activity reduces risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes and has substantial benefits for many conditions, not only those associated with obesity.
  19. 19. 3. The beneficial effects of physical activity on the metabolic syndrome are mediated by mechanisms beyond controlling excess body weight.
  20. 20. 4. Different types and amounts of physical activity are required for different health outcomes: 5. At least 30 minutes of regular, moderateintensity physical activity on most days reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, cancer. colon cancer and breast
  21. 21. 6. Muscle strengthening and balance training can reduce falls and increase functional status among older adults. 7. More activity may be required for weight control.
  22. 22. 8.Exercise reduces Blood Pressure High blood pressure (above 140/90) the main cause of Heart Attack is and Stroke. 9.Exercise prevents Atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) 10. Exercise reduces cholesterol level in blood and WHO 2002 that prevents heart attack.
  23. 23. 10. Increases muscle and bone strength 11.Increases lean muscle and decreases body fat 12. Helps control weight 13.Enhances your psychological well-being, reduces depression 14.Reduces symptoms of improves your general mood anxiety and
  24. 24. The term “yoga” is derived from Sanskrit root “yuj” which means union. •Yoga is a psycho-somatic-spiritual discipline for achieving union & harmony between our mind, body and soul • the ultimate union of our individual consciousness with the Universal consciousness
  25. 25.  Yoga is mind-body technique which involves relaxation, meditation and a set of physical exercises performed in sync with breathing
  26. 26. Eight steps of Yoga
  27. 27. 1 st STEP-YAMA Principles of right relationship to the world and universal ethics. Nonviolence, non-harming, Awareness and gentleness in action, truthfulness, nonstealing. Ahimsa: non-aggression, nonviolence; constructive thought and speech.  
  28. 28. 2 nd STEP- NIYAMA Principles of right relationship with the Self; disciplines; observances. Shaucha: Learning the art of purity. Purity of body; cleanliness; Good food- and health habits, The practice of eveness of thoughts, speech, and discrimination. 
  29. 29. 3 RD STEP-ASANA  Practice of postures. (= asanas.) This third limb of Oga is often misunderstood to be what Oga is. In fact, it is only one of eight limbs.
  30. 30. Asanas are the heart of Hatha Yoga 1.Stretching that maintains and enhances flexibility 2.Many poses are a form of isometric strengthening exercise, which involve the contraction of muscles without moving the joint. 3.Isometric exercise is often used in physical therapy for the rehabilitation of injured joints. 
  31. 31. 4 th STEP-PRANAYAMA  Pranayama is the control and regulation of breathing. Pranayama has a soothening and balancing effect on the nervous system and consists of different breathing exercises.
  32. 32. The Art of withdrawing the attention of the five senses from the outside world to the inner world. Becoming one with the inner experience.
  33. 33. The Art of focus and concentration. Onepointedness that leads to meditation. Dharana steadies the mind. It translates as ‘immovable concentration of the mind’.  he essential idea is to hold the concentration or focus of attention in one direction.
  34. 34. Deep meditation. Connectedness with all things. Dhyana makes one forget the body and the world.
  35. 35. Complete absorption and union with our true Self, Antaryamin (the indweller), the union with higher consciousness. When we succeed in becoming so absorbed in something that our mind becomes completely one with it, we are in a state of samadhi. Samadhi literally means: to bring together, to merge.
  36. 36. Meditation is a technique in which the meditator seeks not only to reach a deep state of relaxation, but to quiet the mind. The mind is a chattering monkey that one tries to make quiet with meditation.
  37. 37. Madanmohan et al (1983) studied the effect of shavasan and savitri pranayam (a yoga-breathing technique characterized by slow, rhythmical and deep breathing cycles) in trained subjects (yoga training > 1 year) 1.Significant decrease in oxygen consumption, heart rate and diastolic blood pressure. 2.They attributed it to the ability of the subjects to achieve a state of deep psychosomatic relaxation.
  38. 38. 3. Shavasan alone has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hypertension 4. This was attributed to a decrease in the frequency and intensity of proprioceptive and enteroceptive impulse traffic reaching the hypothalamus
  39. 39. 1.Bera and Rajapurkar (1993) have reported that yoga training results in significant improvement in cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic threshold 2.Madanmohan et al (2004) have demonstrated that two months of yoga training decreases basal heart rate, blood pressure
  40. 40. 1.Yoga and meditation decrease this sympathetic tone and reduce feelings of stress and anxiety 2.Many modern health problems are worsened by stress and anxiety Yoga works to decrease sympathetic tone
  41. 41. 3.Significant signal increases were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, hippocampus/parahippocampus, temporal lobe, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and pre- and post-central gyri during meditation. 4.This indicates that the practice of meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system. ◦ Neuroreport. 2000 May 15;11(7):1581-5. Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. Lazar SW,…, Benson H.
  42. 42. 1 . Yoga has been reported to increase the quality of sleep. 2.Yoga practice decreases Anxiety levels 3.Yoga improves cognitive functions 4.Yoga practices alter brain blood flow and brain metabolism
  43. 43. 1.More than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and duration compared with the control groups. ◦ Cochrane Database Systematic Rev. 2000
  44. 44. 1.Persons with breast or prostate cancer were taught to use Yoga. 2.Significant improvements were seen in overall quality of life, symptoms of stress, and sleep quality.  Carlson LE, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress … in breast and prostate cancer outpatients.  Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 May;29(4):448-74
  45. 45. 1.Causes the development of new blood vessels in the heart and other muscles. 2.Enlarges the arteries that supply blood to the heart. 3.Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure.
  46. 46. EFFECTS OF SPORTS ON CANCER 1. Exercise helps to prevent obesity, a major risk factor for several types of cancer. 2. Exercise enhances immune function. 3.Exercise activates antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from free radical damage. WHO 2002
  47. 47. 1. Increase insulin sensitivity. 2. Control blood glucose. 3. Control Weight/Lower body fat. 4. Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. WHO 2002
  48. 48. Exercise can help prevent depression. In fact, recent studies have shown that exercise was found to be just as effective (despite a slower initial response) as antidepressant medication for treatment of depression. 1.Exercise reduces health problems , making you feel better. 2.Exercise helps you sleep better. 3.Exercise controls weight, enhancing selfesteem. WHO 2002
  49. 49.  Short-term benefits: 1.Boost alertness (possibly by triggering the release of epinephrine and nor epinephrine). 2.Improve memory. 3.Improve intellectual function. 4.Spark creativity.  Long-term benefits: 1. Exercise has been shown to slow and even reverse age-related decline in mental function and loss of short-term memory. A report of Surgeon general, Physical and health, 1996 Activity
  50. 50. Governments have a central role, in cooperation with other stakeholders, to create an environment that empowers and encourages behaviour changes by individuals, families and communities, to make:1. positive, life-enhancing decisions on healthy diets and promotion of physical activity in Schools, Colleges and Universities in India .
  51. 51. 2. Non communicable diseases impose a significant economic burden on already strained health systems, and inflict great costs on society, hence it is recommended that physical educators, Yoga experts be appointed in Villages for providing Scientific programme to the villagers of all ages.
  52. 52.  3. Health is a key determinant of development of economic growth, hence money spent on development of sports facilities and programme be enhanced by Panchayats, Municipals Corporations, Schools, College & Universities in India and it should be considered as good investments for healthy citizens rather than expenditure.
  53. 53.  If you fail, never give up because F.A.I.L. means " first Attempt In Learning "  End is not the end, infact E.N.D. means " Effort Never Dies "  If you get No as an answer, remember N.O. means " Next Opportunity ". So Let's be positive- A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  54. 54. Let us Join hands to promote sports for healthy India by 2030 THANK YOU