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High density orcharding in fruit crops.

High Density Planting of Horticultural Crops By Dr. Suraj Prakash

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High density orcharding in fruit crops.

  1. 1. High density orcharding in fruit crops
  2. 2.  High density orcharding is the practice of accommodating higher number of plants of the same species per unit area by planting at a closer spacing than that is planted under traditional system.
  3. 3.  Increased sunlight capture per unit area  Land use efficiency  Appropriate vegetative reproductive balance of the plants.
  4. 4.  Low vegetative growth  Low productivity per plant
  5. 5.  Planting system  Canopy management  Use of dwarfing rootstock/Interstock  Training  Shoot pruning  Root pruning  Use of growth regulators
  6. 6. Crop Spacing Planting density plants per ha Yield (t/ha) % increase over traditional methods Mango cv. Amrapali 2.5m x 2.5m 1600 19.2 250% Citrus (Kinnow) 1.8m x 1.8m 3000 20 200% Banana 1.4m x 1.4m 4444 145.44 250% Pineapple 25cm x 35 cm x 90cm 64000 90.0 200% Guava 1m x 2m 5000 50 250%
  7. 7. Experiences at B P S A C on high density orcharding in fruit crops
  8. 8. Treatment 1997 1999 2001 2003 7.5 m x 7.5 m 2.54 7.13 29.05 47.1 7.5 m x 5.0 m 1.73 9.6 22.24 45.64 5.0 m x 5.0 m 1.88 25.58 38.26 50.97 2.5 m x 7.5 m 1.91 16.75 24.87 32.53 2.5 m x 5.0 m 1.98 26.12 34.22 56.66 2.5 m x 2.5 m 1.51 20.94 28.2 31.95 S.E.m 0.23 0.59 1.53 4.83 C.D. at 5% 0.64 1.77 4.61 14.52
  9. 9. Treatments LAI 7.5 m x 7.5 m 2.14 7.5 m x 5.0 m 2.12 5.0 m x 5.0 m 2.24 2.5 m x 7.5 m 2.59 2.5 m x 5.0 m 2.46 2.5 m x 2.5 m 3.38 S.E.m 0.16 C.D. at 5% 0.47
  10. 10. Treatment 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Cumulative yield 7.5 m x 7.5 m 0.82 4.92 1.25 14.55 2.32 23.82 4.00 28.12 4.35 33.57 115.82 7.5 m x 5.0 m 1.07 4.66 1.06 9.42 1.95 22.25 3.52 27.12 3.95 31.77 102.02 5.0 m x 5.0 m 1.47 3.26 0.82 11.2 2.05 24.92 3.09 28.00 3.75 32.72 107.73 2.5 m x 7.5 m 1.06 4.01 1.03 9.25 1.93 17.62 2.95 19.25 3.00 21.17 104.39 2.5 m x 5.0 m 0.94 3.89 0.95 10.92 1.57 12.75 2.60 14.45 1.95 15.67 78.88 2.5 m x 2.5 m 0.96 3.27 0.73 6.81 0.98 7.90 1.58 8.60 1.00 7.62 45.53
  11. 11. Treatment 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Cumulative yield (q/ha) 7.5 m x 7.5 m 1.47 8.77 2.23 25.90 4.13 42.42 7.12 50.05 7.74 59.80 206.17 7.5 m x 5.0 m 2.85 12.43 2.83 25.15 5.21 59.40 9.40 72.45 10.55 84.82 272.40 5.0 m x 5.0 m 5.87 13.04 3.28 37.00 8.20 99.70 12.36 112.00 15.00 130.90 430.92 2.5 m x 7.5 m 5.65 21.41 5.50 59.81 10.31 93.95 15.75 102.60 16.02 112.85 557.46 2.5 m x 5.0 m 7.51 31.16 7.60 87.38 12.56 102.00 20.80 115.60 15.60 125.40 639.01 2.5 m x 2.5 m 15.32 52.36 11.68 108.96 15.68 126.40 25.28 137.10 16.0 122.00 728.48
  12. 12.  Severe pruning in alternate rows every three years
  13. 13.  Possible strategy  Planting at a spacing of 5 m x 5 m  Shoot pruning in alternate years when fruiting is not expected
  14. 14. No pruning Pruning to 60% of canopy Pruning to 80% of canopy
  15. 15. Month 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 January 27.0 0  12.0 February 0.0 12.0 20.0 March 16.0 0  0.0 April 0.0 18.0 38.5 May 86.0 49.0 138.1 June 60.0 101.0 606.5 July 368.0 226.0 251.2 August 210.0 152.0 423.5 September 319.0 183.0 305.8 October 95.0 58.0 198.0 November 24.0 13.0 0.0 December 34.0 23.0 0.0 Total 1239.0 835.0 1993.6
  16. 16.  For production of 1 kg of guava cv Sardar, the total water requirement is 68.02 litre
  17. 17.  Benefit cost ratio of Ultra High Density guava orcharding for a period of 5 years is 3.1 as compared to 2.9 traditional system orcharding.  Net profit per year, fifth year onwards under Ultra High Density orcharding is Rs.3.39 lakh/ha compared to Rs.1.68 lakh/ha in traditional system
  18. 18.  Keeping in view yield and gross income, pruning of guava plants thrice a year viz. March, May and October to 50% of shoot length can be recommended for maximization of income from Ultra-high density guava orchard growing under Bihar conditions.  Application of 60% of recommended dose of fertilizer and irrigation at 60% PE was found to be most suitable
  19. 19. UHDO at Chakradharpur
  20. 20. Place Area (acre) Deoghar 8 Chakrdharpur 6 Hazaribag 2 Ranchi 2 Saraikela 1
  21. 21.  Research papers – 3 No.  Presentation in symposiums: 6 No
  22. 22.  High density orcharding in  Peach  Kaghji Kalan  Pomegranate  Ber  Kinnow  Litchi
  23. 23.  Fine-tuning canopy management strategies  Standardization of nutrient and water management strategies

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High Density Planting of Horticultural Crops By Dr. Suraj Prakash

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