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The concepts and differences in quantitative and qualitative research.

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  1. 1. Main Points  Objectives of quantitative and qualitative research  Main features in quantitative and qualitative research  Data collection  Limitations in quantitative and qualitative research  Concept of using combined research
  2. 2. What is meant by approach? It is the whole design including; assumptions, the process of inquiry, the type of data collected and the measuring of findings.
  3. 3. • The quantitative approach views human phenomena as being able to be measured. It has its roots in positivism
  4. 4. Quantitative research and traditional scientific methods  Quantitative research is similar to traditional scientific methods.  Quantitative Research states in advance the hypothesis and research questions.  Determine the methods of data collection and analysis.  The findings are presented in statistical language.
  5. 5.  Quantitative approach to research involves data collection methods such as survey- structured questionnaire, interviews and observations together with other tools.  On the other hand, in depth interviews and unstructured observations are associated with qualitative research.  Researchers have to choose methods which are appropriate for answering the research questions.
  6. 6. Quantitative research features  quantitative research deals with quantities and numbers while qualitative research deals with quality and description and exploration.  The purpose of quantitative research is to measure concepts or variables that are predetermined objectively and to examine the relationship between them numerically and statistically.
  7. 7. Measurement in Quantitative Research The following criteria should be fulfilled: - Validity - Objectivity (reliability) - Accuracy - Precision
  8. 8. Objective Measurement in Quantitative Research  Objectivity means that the researchers stand outside the phenomena they study. Data collected are free from bias.  Objectivity is ensured by many ways e.g. structured questions, representative sampling and randomization.
  9. 9. Objective Measurement in Quantitative Research (cont.)  Objective measures are more valid and reliable than subjective measures, the later depend on self reports.
  10. 10. Types of Quantitative Data  Data are used to classify and categorize groups.  Examples; numbers, amounts, prevalence, incidence.  Variables can be classified as physical (wt.& Ht.), physiological (attitude, anxiety), social……etc.
  11. 11. Quantitative research features (cont.)  Quantitative research studies the relationship between concepts and variables e.g. the relation between family size and quality of life.  But its hard to avoid the presence of intervening factors. some times qualitative research methods could be useful in this regard.
  12. 12. Quantitative research features (cont.)  quantitative research can provide data to describe the distribution of a characteristic or attributes in population, explore the relationships between them and determine cause and effect relationship.
  13. 13. Quantitative approach as deductive  Quantitative research is a Deductive approach as it begins from theory. It moves from population to sample.  Some quantitative studies are Inductive as they lead to formation of new questions ( generate new hypothesis )
  14. 14. Quantitative research Main feature  Quantitative research is described as producing generalisable findings through randomization and representative sampling. However, the study is no less quantitative if a random representative sample is not used.
  15. 15. Data Collection in Quantitative Research  Questionnaire  Observation schedules Survey  Interviews  All the methods should be pre- determined, structured and standardized.
  16. 16. Limitations of Quantitative Approach  It is difficult to understand human phenomena e.g. when studying human behavior, it is possible only to study what is observable. So the phenomena is revealed partially.  Some researches claim that many influences affect people’s response to questions i.e. it is not purely objective.  Some standardized scales may be
  17. 17. What is qualitative research?  To care for people and promote change in behavior, it is required to understand in-depth concepts such as attitude, experience, believes, motivations and intentions. So, listening and observing may give more information than asking questions.
  18. 18. What is qualitative research? (cont.)  Qualitative research is an approach which seeks to understand , by means of exploration, human experience, perceptions, motivations, intentions and behavior.  It is interactive, inductive, flexible, and reflexive method of data collection and analysis.
  19. 19. Main features of Qualitative Research 1- Exploration 2- Inductive approach 3- Interactive and Reflective 4- Holistic 5- Flexible
  20. 20. 1-Exploration is the essential feature of qualitative approach in order to understand the perceptions and actions of participants. Exploration is to discover new people, customs, and to learn from them. Exploration is a difficult task that requires training and experience. It should be inductive, interactive, reflexive and holistic.
  21. 21. 2- Inductive approach: The purpose of qualitative approach is to develop concepts and generates hypothesis. The researcher is open to ideas which emerge from listening or observing people. The inductive approach is useful when little is known about the
  22. 22. 3- Interactive and Reflexive process To avoid bias in quantitative approach, the researchers try to study phenomena in a detached way. In qualitative studies, researchers use interaction between them and participants to get closer to the topic under study. The researcher becomes an instrument of data collection. The researchers probe, facilitate, and note tone, hesitations and repetition in participants responses.
  23. 23. 3- Interactive and Reflexive process (cont.) There should be trust between participants and researchers. The qualitative research should be reflexive i.e. examining not only what people say and do, but also why they say and do so.
  24. 24. 4- Holistic exploration In quantitative research, the researcher is constrained by a number of variables to be studied. In qualitative research, participants are allowed to put their responses in context.
  25. 25. Main features of Qualitative Research ( cont. ) 5- Flexible methods Qualitative research relies on personal, intimate and private world of participants. So flexible, imaginative, creative and varied strategies are used to facilitate this process. Data collection methods include; interviews, observations, group discussion, analysis of video recording, letters, diaries and other documents. In quantitative research, data collection methods are constructed in advance.
  26. 26. Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods  An old debate between quantitative and qualitative methods can be traced back to the two opposed Greek philosophical visions of human science that emphasize number (Pythagoras) and meaning (Socrates) as the essence of mind.  Qualitative research has been described as noble, good and empowering by some researchers. By others it is; story telling, touchy, feely, biased, subjective, lacking reliability validity and generalisabilty.
  27. 27. Types and purposes of combining methods 1- To develop and enhance the validity of scales, questionnaire and tools. 2- To develop, implement and evaluate interventions. 3- To further explore or test the findings of one method. 4- To study different aspects of the same topics. 5- To explore complex phenomena from different perspectives. 6- To confirm or cross-validate data.