Listening - all concepts


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Listening - all concepts

  1. 1. University of Kashmir IMBA 1 SEM 2013 M . M.Shaw
  2. 2. Listening as the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages”. - The International Listening Association The word “Listen” derives its roots in the Germanic language from the word “Hlysnan” which means to pay attention. The first communication skill we engage in the moment we are born is listening. It is how we learn and acquire language.
  3. 3. The most basic of all human needs is the need to understand and be understood. The best way to understand people is to listen to them. — Ralph Nicholas
  4. 4. Presented by: Nadia Aslam
  8. 8. TYPES OF LISTENING Presented by: Nida Riyaz Saniya Saba
  9. 9. It is the first and foremost type of listening in which we learn to discern the difference in sound. The best example of discrimnative listening as a phenomenon is the way a child learns to speak. For example: - Singling out a single noise from a noisy crowd. Listeners primary concern is to understand the message. Listeners are successful when the meaning they assign to messages is as close as possible to that which the sender intended. E.g; Listening to lectures
  10. 10. APPRECIATIVE LISTENING When the listener gains pleasure/satisfaction from listening to a certain type of music, poetry or even the stirring words of a great leader. Appreciative sources might also include:  Particular charismatic speakers or Entertainers COMREHENSIVE LISTENING Comprehensive listening is what the message means to the listeners and how they understand it in different ways. Listening comprehension involves:  Speech decoding (sound, word, accent recognition)  Comprehending (identify central theme, concentrate and understand, deduce incomplete information, decode unfamiliar words).  Oral discourse(critical skills, attitude analysis, inferential skills).
  11. 11.  Critical listening is that type of listening where listeners have to evaluate the message.  Listeners have to critically respond to the message and give their opinions.  It focuses on spoken message and the emotions of the individual.  It includes understanding the non-verbal cues.  Involves listening to other  This form of listening involves analysis, critical thinking as well judgment person by putting oneself in the physiological position of that other person .
  12. 12. Presented by: Nida Rasheed
  13. 13.  A way of listening and responding to another person that improves mutual understanding.  A way of paying attention to other people that can make them feel that you are listening them.
  15. 15.  Listening without responding.  Interest in understanding what the other person is saying.  The speaker is not interrupted in any way..
  16. 16. PRINCIPLES OF LISTENING Presented by: Ishret Fayaz
  17. 17. STOP TALKING PREPARE YOURSELF TO LISTEN  Don't talk, listen.  When somebody else is talking listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, talk over them or finish their sentences for them.  Stop, just listen  Relax.  Focus on the speaker.  Put other things out of mind
  18. 18. Put the speaker at ease • Help the speaker to feel free to speak • Nod or use other gestures • or words to encourage them to continue • Maintain eye contact but don’t stare Remove distractions • Focus on what is being said. • Avoid unnecessary interruptions
  19. 19. Empathize.. Be Patient  Try to understand the  A pause, even a long pause, other person’s point of view.  Let go of pre-conceived ideas.  By having an open mind we can more fully empathise with the speaker. does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished.  Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it.
  20. 20. Listen to the toneA •Try to be impartial. •Don't become irritated. •Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive It helps you to understand the emphasis of what is being said.
  21. 21. •Listen for ideas-not words •The most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. •You need to get the whole picture not just isolated pieces and bits. Wait and watch for non verbal communication
  22. 22. Presented by: Imrez Ashraf
  23. 23.   Determine the concepts and central ideas of the message The best gauge to know whether you are listening or just hearing is whether or not you are actively looking for the central idea of what is being said.     Learn to adapt to the speakers Appearance, Personality and Delivery Don’t judge a book by its cover. Not every one is blessed with dashing looks Beyond appearance ,we should also spend some time coming to peace with the fact that there are different personalities, styles and levels of abilities.
  24. 24.  Curb and overcome Show the speaker you are listening .  It takes very little to jerk our  Head nods  Leaning forward    Making eye contact distractions       attention away from the work of listening… Obstacles… External noises. Psychological activity (worry, self consciousness, preoccupation) Physical conditions ( temperature ,odour ,light , visual distractions etc) Semantic distractions ( dialects , accents , vocabulary) Technological distractions Stop trying to Jump in and Talk
  25. 25. Presented by: Samra Altaf
  26. 26. Listening is the most powerful form of acknowledgment …a way of saying, “You are important.”
  27. 27. Listening builds Listening creates stronger relationships.. acceptance and openness Creates a desire to cooperate among people because they feel accepted and acknowledged. Conveys the message that “I am not judging you.”
  28. 28. • Listening leads to learning Openness encourages personal growth and learning. • Listening reduces stress and tension.. Minimizes confusion and misunderstanding, eliminating related stress and tension.
  29. 29. Listening is critical in conflict resolution Much conflict comes from the need to be heard. Successful resolution depends on being a non- anxious presence.
  30. 30. Presented by: Fariya Tahir
  31. 31. Listening is a far more complex process that most people think {THILL and BOVEE } Most of us listen at or below a 25% efficiency rate, remember only about half of what is said during a 10 minute conversation, and forget half of that within 48 hours. ”.
  32. 32. Resisting Distractions    Distractions at physical or mental level. We have a pace of thinking faster than speaking, our attention begins to wander while we listen to someone. Make conscious effort to bring our mind back.  Be alert to the speakers message that is to be transmitted.  Don’t be distracted by physical appearance and mannerisms of the speaker. Concentrate on the message that the speaker tries to convey.  Focus More On the Manner Of Listening than on the Matter Of Listening  Skilled listeners focus on listening more to the message than to the matter of listening.  Each speech contains a limited number of points.  Our adapting to a right manner of listening makes us identify these points which, together convey the main message.
  33. 33. DELAYING EVALUATION  Give speaker adequate time to say.  Do not jump to TAKING NOTES  Learn how to record what we listen.  Learning to take notes to keep a track of the speaker’s message should be the main thrust of the listener. conclusions.  How a listener drives the  Premature judgment hampers effective listening.  Remember a good listener keeps his/her mind open for ideas or information and his/her main thrust of the speakers message home is also very important  Note taking technique is to acquire main points by writing the key words used by he speaker.
  34. 34. Be alert to your Body Language What you do with your hands, eyes, face and postures sends out signals as to whether you are or aren’t listening to and understanding what the other person is saying. These include… Yawning, sighing ,Frowning Crossing arms at chest etc In conversations consider the following mannerisms Smiling frequently, looking into your eyes, keeping eyes wide open indicates that the person shows interest in you and what you are saying.
  35. 35. Acknowledging the Speaker In addition, the active listeners usually acknowledge the speaker verbally by comments such as ‘Umm’, ‘I see’, ‘Really?’ Listen to someone by paying attention… the greatest compliment we can give to another person.
  36. 36. Noise:  Interior,  Semantic  Situational Information overload . All this information can weigh on our ability to take in or receive and adequately process and evaluate what we take in through our sensory channels.
  37. 37. Speaker Perception Sometimes we label the speaker as uninteresting, not a good speaker, boring or we can look beyond the perceptions we may have of the speaker. Self Perceptions and Personal Biases Self perceptions and personal biases can include: Egocentrism Ethnocentrism Personal biases Know-it-all attitude
  38. 38. Presented by: Ziya Manzoor
  39. 39. Our emotions are involved in business like everything else in our lives, whether those emotions are: Excitement, Pride, Pleasure, Frustration, Anger, or Something more subtle.
  40. 40. Role of emotions in listening To listen is also to communicate, and there are two emotional factors that affect most conversations: 1. 2. How you feel about the other person’s idea What you believe the other person feels about your ideas
  41. 41. Emotions are integrally linked to decision making Effective Communication Skills Emotional awareness
  42. 42. Effective communication requires both thinking and feeling Beware of your own emotions
  43. 43. HEARING VS LISTENING Presented by: Sumaira Nissar
  44. 44. Difference between Hearing and Listening HEARING • Hearing is the process of perceiving sound produced by any source in the environment. • Hearing is merely the ability of ear to sense sound around one LISTENING • Listening is the process of deriving meaning from organized sounds. • Listening is more complex than merely hearing as it consists of four stages • Sensing, Attending, Understanding Interpreting, Remembering and Responding • Listening is more of conscious effort to interpret the sounds requiring concentration of the mind.
  45. 45. When you are quiet, people will think you are listening. But in order to hear what the other person is saying, you have to stop thinking about anything else and focus your attention on what is being said.  You can actually listen without hearing. There are several reasons for this. If you are planning your response while the other person is talking, there is no way you will hear what they are saying.   Or you may daydream while another person is talking. This happens when you are not that interested in what someone is talking about. Again, you won't be able to hear what is being said while your mind is preoccupied Another issue is when you don't want to hear what is being said. In this case your hearing actually shuts down so you don't have to listen to something you don't want to. This can also happen when you don't agree with the person.
  46. 46. Effective communication Effective communication can only occur when each person is interested in hearing what the other is saying. Both people have to make the effort to be good listeners. This requires patience, respect, and courtesy. Productive interaction takes int ention and effort on the part of everyone involved.
  47. 47. There are two distinct processes involved in listening comprehension. 1.Top-down: In this process prior knowledge is employed to understand the meaning of a message. 2.Bottom-up: In this process linguistic Knowledge is used to understand the meaning of a message.
  48. 48. Presented by: Farkhanda Manzoor
  49. 49.  People-Oriented  Content-Oriented Approach Approach  Talks about “we” more than “you” or “they”  Concerned about their feelings.  Provide clear verbal and nonverbal clues  Content-oriented are interested more in what is said rather than who is saying it or what they are feeling.  Rejects information that is not supported with evidence or expert opinion. • Graphs and charts are good tools to use when speaking with content-oriented listeners.
  50. 50.  Action oriented  Interested in 1. what will be done, 2. what actions will happen, 3. when and who will do them.  Concise and focus on work expectations.  Time Oriented  People who are time-oriented have their eyes constantly on the clock.  Want quick and brief messages.  Interrupt speakers of how much time is left
  51. 51. Presented by: Bareen Gundroo
  52. 52. Effective Listener; Mythical creature ? Does such thing exist?  What do we mean by an effective listener?  We might define effective listeners as those; a) with sensitivity to context, language and nuance b) b) Who don’t view listening as the pause before they talk
  53. 53. Will be:  Fully Present And In the Moment With You: Will keep  Keep Eye Contact With You:
  54. 54.  Will Nod, Smile And Give You Auditory Feedback  Will Parrot Back What You Are Saying When Appropriate  Will Only Finish Your Sentence When Appropriate.  Will Ask You Thoughtful and Open-ended Questions About What You Are Talking About:  Won’t interrupt and Won’t impose “solutions.”  Will Encourage You To Continue Talking.  Goes By the 80% Listening, 20% Talking Rule.  Will Keep The Conversation Focused on Your Topic of Discussion.  Listener Knows How to Empathize With You:  Pay attention to what isn’t said— to nonverbal cues.
  55. 55. SILENCE IN LISTENING Presented by: Tuba Hamid
  56. 56. 1. Allowing SILENCE in a conversation puts pressure on the other person. 2. SILENCE can indicate hostility or disagreement. 3. SILENCE can indicate profoundness such as respect, awe, or horror. 4.SILENCE can indicate contemplation. 5.SILENCE can indicate empathy.
  57. 57. • While its almost never an indication of indifference,silence can indicate that the other person is having negative emotions •Sometimes we listen to someone that leaves us speechless because it really goes beyond words.Listening to someone taking about a dreadful trauma they have endured,or a beautiful,almost scared interaction with another human being or a description of an awesome natural event •Silence can be an indication of empathy when we are really tuning in to how the other person is feeling about what they are saying,we are listening more to their voice,cadence and speed rather than the acted words and so replying with words may not be the attended response.