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Bilingualism

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Bilingualism

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Bilingualism

  1. 1. Bilingualism According to Webster's dictionary (1961) bilingual is defined as 'having or using two languages especially as spoken with the fluency charactenstic of a native speaker; a person using two languages especially habitually and with control like that of a native speaker' and bilingualism as 'the constant oral use of two languages'.
  2. 2. Types of Bilingualism
  3. 3. Additive bilingualism and subtractive bilingualism • Coordinate bilingualism is also called as subtractive bilingualism and Compound bilingualism is called as Additive bilingualism
  4. 4. Early bilingualism • Simultaneous early bilingualism refers to a child who learns two languages at the same time, from birth. This generally produces a strong bilingualism, called additive bilingualism. This also implies that the child's language development is bilingual. • Successive early bilingualism refers to a child who has already partially acquired a first language and then learns a second language early in childhood (for example, when a child moves to an environment where the dominant language is not his native language). This generally produces a strong bilingualism (or additive bilingualism), but the child must be given time to learn the second language, because the second language is learned at the same time as the child learns to speak. This implies that the language development of the child is partly bilingual.
  5. 5. Late bilingualism • refers to bilingualism when the second language is learned after the age of 6 or 7; especially when it is learned in adolescence or adulthood. Late bilingualism is a consecutive bilingualism which occurs after the acquisition of the first language (after the childhood language development period). This is what also distinguishes it from early bilingualism. With the first language already acquired, the late bilingual uses their experience to learn the second language.
  6. 6. Passive bilingualism • refers to being able to understand a second language without being able to speak it. Children who respond in a relevant way in English when they are addressed in French could become passive bilinguals, as their mastery of oral expression in French decreases.
  7. 7. Causes of Bilingualism Top 5 reasons monolinguals should consider using a language in their environment to promote bilingualism for their children.
  8. 8. Reason 1: • The experience of acquiring a second language has great knock-on effects for children. Studies have looked at areas as far-ranging as maths and creativity, and found that either bilinguals come out ahead of monolinguals, or they are the same – no negative effects from properly introduced bilingualism.
  9. 9. Reason 2: • Learning another language makes you more empathetic to others who are struggling to speak your language. And we can all use a little more empathy in our world.
  10. 10. Reason 3: • Especially for expats: Having your kids learn some (or a lot) of the local language helps them feel more at home in the place they live, and they can take a little bit of it with them when you move on.
  11. 11. Reason 4: • Acquiring a additional language at a young age (any language!) has the potential to turn your kids into better learners of other languages later on in life.
  12. 12. Reason 5: • New research has found that active bilinguals do better in terms of aging – on average, they develop age-related memory diseases (Alzheimer’s) up to five years later than monolinguals. Managing more than one language is gymnastics for the brain, and keeps it healthy longer.
  13. 13. θæŋk ju !

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