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SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdf

This content covers the necessary theories and related mathematical problems of Solid Waste Management Course which basically is prepared for the undergraduate students of BSc in Civil Engineering program.

1 of 150
Solid and Hazardous Waste
Management
Lecture prepared by
‘Dr. Hasanliketo beliefthat solidwasteisa valuableraw
materialslocatedat a wrongplace’
Md. Mahmudul HASAN, Engr., PhD
Associate Professor and Head
Dept. of Civil Engg.
BAUST, Saidpur
(Former: Assistant Prof., Dept. of Civil Engg., UAP
Head & Assistant Prof., Dept. of Civil Engg., UITS)
Course Code: CE 4241
Corse Title: Environmental Engineering III
(Solid Waste Management)
Credit Hour: 2.0
Contact Hour: 120 min/ week (2 classes per week)
Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN
Course Information:
2
Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN
Reference Books
3
Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN
Reference Books
4
1. Introduction to Solid Waste Management (Chapter 1)
2. Sources, Types & Characteristics of Solid Wastes (Chapter 2)
3. Physical and Chemical Properties of Solid Wastes (Chapter 2)
4. Solid Wastes Generation (Chapter 2)
5. On-site Handling, Storage, Processing and Collection of Solid
Wastes (Chapter 3, 4)
6. Transfer Stations and Transport (Chapter 4)
7. Ultimate Disposal of Solid Wastes (Chapter 6, 7, 8, 9)
8. Resources and Energy Recovery (Chapter 5)
9. Soil Pollution
10. Industrial Solid Waste Collection and Disposal
11. Hazardous Waste Management (Chapter 10)
Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN
Course Outline:
5
Learning Outcomes (LO):
Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN
Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to:
1. Analyze different categories of solid waste with specific management
practices.
2. Design different collection systems with optimizing routes, time, cost
and resource recovery (energy and materials).
3. Conceptualize different strategies with implementation of source
reduction, on-site handling, treatment, re-use and recycling options of
solid waste.
6

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SWM L1-L14_drhasan (Part 1).pdf

  • 1. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Lecture prepared by ‘Dr. Hasanliketo beliefthat solidwasteisa valuableraw materialslocatedat a wrongplace’ Md. Mahmudul HASAN, Engr., PhD Associate Professor and Head Dept. of Civil Engg. BAUST, Saidpur (Former: Assistant Prof., Dept. of Civil Engg., UAP Head & Assistant Prof., Dept. of Civil Engg., UITS)
  • 2. Course Code: CE 4241 Corse Title: Environmental Engineering III (Solid Waste Management) Credit Hour: 2.0 Contact Hour: 120 min/ week (2 classes per week) Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Course Information: 2
  • 3. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Reference Books 3
  • 4. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Reference Books 4
  • 5. 1. Introduction to Solid Waste Management (Chapter 1) 2. Sources, Types & Characteristics of Solid Wastes (Chapter 2) 3. Physical and Chemical Properties of Solid Wastes (Chapter 2) 4. Solid Wastes Generation (Chapter 2) 5. On-site Handling, Storage, Processing and Collection of Solid Wastes (Chapter 3, 4) 6. Transfer Stations and Transport (Chapter 4) 7. Ultimate Disposal of Solid Wastes (Chapter 6, 7, 8, 9) 8. Resources and Energy Recovery (Chapter 5) 9. Soil Pollution 10. Industrial Solid Waste Collection and Disposal 11. Hazardous Waste Management (Chapter 10) Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Course Outline: 5
  • 6. Learning Outcomes (LO): Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to: 1. Analyze different categories of solid waste with specific management practices. 2. Design different collection systems with optimizing routes, time, cost and resource recovery (energy and materials). 3. Conceptualize different strategies with implementation of source reduction, on-site handling, treatment, re-use and recycling options of solid waste. 6
  • 7. Learning Outcomes (LO): Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN 7 Attendance: • No marks allocation • 70% class attendance is mandatory to appear at the final examination. Required References: • Supplied class notes. • Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Management by M. Habibur Rahman and Abdullah Al-Muyeed. • Handbook of Solid Waste Management by George Tchobanoglous, Frank Kreith and Marcia E. Williams. Assessment Method Marks Mark distributions on LOs and POs Total LO1 LO2 LO3 PO2 PO3 PO6 Test 1 20 10 Test 2 10 Assignment 10 10 Midterm exam 20 10 10 0 Final exam 50 10 10 30 Total 100 30 30 40 100
  • 8. Chapter 01: Introduction to solid waste and its management
  • 9. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN What is Solid Waste: Solid waste is an inevitable by-product arising from anthropogenic and animals activities (production and consumption) that are normally solid and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. It represents the loss of materials and/or energy for which the generator of the waste has paid. It includes solid and semi-solid materials generated from domestic, commercial and industrial premises or processes including municipal services, water and wastewater treatment plants, air pollution control devices, mining, and agricultural operation. US, EPA defines solid waste as, "any discarded, rejected, abandoned, unwanted or surplus matter, whether or not intended for sale or for recycling, reprocessing, recovery or purification by a separate operation from that which produced the matter; or anything declared by regulation or by an environment protection policy to be waste" 9
  • 10. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN What is Solid Waste: The nature and abundance of solid waste in different countries depends on: o geographic location (region), o climate, o degree of industrialisation, o available resources, o socio-economic conditions, o religious custom, lifestyle and behavior of consumers, o and also on the season of the year. Increasing population, industrialization, urbanization, economic growth and improved standard of living has resulted increase in solid waste generation. Management of these huge quantities of municipal solid waste has become a serious concern for government departments, environmental protection agencies and regulatory bodies. If the waste is not properly managed, the time is not far when our planet will be filled with waste. Besides, waste contains materials that can be recovered; reused and recycled conserving resources; and land required for the disposal. According World Bank, Around the world, waste generation rates are rising. In 2012, the worlds’ cities generated 1.3 billion tonnes of solid waste per year, amounting to a footprint of 1.2 kilograms per person per day. With rapid population growth and urbanization, municipal waste generation is expected to rise to 2.2 billion tonnes by 2025. 1
  • 11. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Figure: Schematic Illustration of the EU Legal Definition of Solid Waste Solid Waste Solid Waste What is Solid Waste: 1
  • 12. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN What is Solid Waste: 1
  • 13. SWM may be defined as the discipline associated with the control, generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste. That is accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and that is also responsive to public attitudes. If solid waste management is to be accomplished in an efficient manner, the functional aspects and relationships involved must be identified and understood clearly. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN What is Solid Waste Management (SWM)? 13
  • 14. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Effects of poor management of solid waste o Traditionally, health and safety have been the major concerns in the management of solid waste with eventual effective disposal. o However, the solid waste management system should consider both short- and long-term effects on the environment (conservation of resources and prevention of pollution), o and the system should be reliable and environmentally compatible. o The following table summarizes the risk/ effects associated with improper management of solid waste: Breeding ground for disease carriers Rats, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, pigs, birds and other disease vectors breed in open dumps, waste storage facilities, piles of rotten refuse, etc. Spread of disease by animals and other vectors, and food Above vectors transmit diseases and pathogenic bacteria from waste to the households; consumption of meat from animals eating infected waste. Spread of diseases by direct contact Neighbourhoods, waste workers, scavengers in developing countries are in direct contact with waste (in case of organised handling, there is a risk of accident). People using recycled materials are also in direct contact with infected materials (not or poorly disinfected). It has beed traced the relationship of 22 human diseases to inadequate solid waste management like Diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid, salmonellosis, plague etc. Air pollution Fine grained materials, pathogens, decomposition of waste generating greenhouse gases and other gases, dust and smoke from burning, etc. cause pollution at transfer stations, communal bins, dumping sites. Soil pollution The mismanagement of solid waste also affects the productivity of soils (due to dumping of unwanted materials) 14
  • 15. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN o Table continued: Contaminated water Leachate and precipitation (may contain metals, organic pollutants, hazardous substance, etc.) from waste piles and open or inadequately protected disposal sites contaminate surface and ground water. Fire risk Piles of waste and gas generated by these present a fire risk. Connection to other services Blockage of drains and sewers increase workloads to those services. Environmental pollution Overall environmental degradation due to contamination of air, water and soil environment via gaseous emission, particulate matter, ash, leachate, piles of unwanted materials, etc. Financial effects The management of solid waste absorbs a huge amount of the municipal budget, and the cost of public cleansing, transportation, and transfer is much higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with that of industrialised countries. The optimisation of productivity of collection vehicles and workers involved in public cleansing and collection services can improve the situation to achieve greater efficiency and cutting the cost of solid waste management systems. There is also indirect financial loss involving the costs associated with the environmental damage. Effects of poor management of solid waste 15
  • 16. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Functional elements of S. waste management Functional elements of waste management system 16
  • 17. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Functional elements of S. waste management Waste Generation: On-site handling, storage and Processing: 17
  • 18. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Functional elements of S. waste management Primary Collection: Transfer Station and Secondary collection: 18
  • 19. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Functional elements of S. waste management Disposal 19
  • 20. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Stages of S. waste management 20
  • 21. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN What is Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM)? The Integrated Solid Waste Management should be based on a logical hierarchy (an order from most preferred to least preferred) of actions. Its operation should be based on local resources, economics and environmental impacts and it should be market-oriented (the market for recycled products and recovered energy is always sensitive to quality, quantity and price) and It should be flexible (the demand of recycled and recovered materials as well as the need for different treatment methods is likely to change over time, which demands flexibility in the design of the scheme). The ISWM aims to manage the solid waste in an environmentally and economically sustainable way having twin goals: (i) To recover maximum possible amount of reusable materials and energy from the solid waste stream through best available practices. (ii) To avoid releasing the energy or matter into the environment as a pollutant. 21
  • 22. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Rational steps in Integrated Solid Waste Management 22
  • 23. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN 4Rs in Integrated Solid Waste Management Reduction of S. Waste: o The highest priority option in ISWM hierarchy. o means to avoid or reduce the solid waste generation at the source. o It involves reducing the amount and/or toxicity of the waste generated. o Waste reduction may occur through the designing, manufacturing, and packaging of products with minimum toxic content, minimum volume of material, or a longer useful life. Waste reduction may also occur at the household, commercial, or industrial facility through selective buying patterns and the reuse of products and materials. Reusing of S. Waste: o Municipal solid waste generation could be reduced through reusing the items that are no longer required by someone. o Most of our daily use products are reusable. For example, plastic bags obtained from the market are often used to pack the household waste and transport it from the house to the waste bin. Newspapers are rolled up to make fireplace logs, and coffee cans are used to hold bolts and screws. All of these are examples of reuse. o Reusing is thus about extending the life or giving a second life to something that we previously considered as "garbage". In this way, the garbage we are sending to the landfill sites will be reduced and the operational life span of the landfill site will extend. Recycling of S. Waste: o The third option in the ISWM hierarchy is recycling, which involves (1) the separation and collection of waste materials; (2) the preparation of these materials for reuse, reprocessing, and remanufacture; and (3) the reuse, reprocessing, and remanufacture of these materials. o Recycling is an important factor in helping to reduce the demand of resources and the amount of waste requiring disposal by landfilling. Resource Recovery from S. Waste: o The fourth option in the ISWM hierarchy, resource recovery (waste transformation), involves the physical, chemical, or biological alteration of waste. o The transformation of waste materials usually results in the reduced use of landfill capacity. o The reduction in waste volume through combustion is a well-known example. What is meant by '4R' in SWM or ISWM? 23
  • 24. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Sustainability of Solid Waste Management (SSWM) In the realm of waste management, sustainability can be defined as a means of using a mix of solid waste management approaches such that it does not have any significant diverse and delayed environmental impacts to threaten long-term ecological sustainability. It stresses the environmentally sound management of today’s waste to minimise depletion and permanent damage of earth’s natural resources so as not to sacrifice the capability of the next generation to achieve their future demands of waste management. To develop sustainable waste management systems, considerable attention has to be paid, in addition to the activities outlined for Integrated Solid Waste Management: o Integration of national and international actions/policies o Development of legislation, and enforcement o Control of transboundary waste movements o Improving management capabilities o Financing waste management (Pay-as-you-throw programmes) o Involvement of responsible stakeholders 24
  • 25. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN LCA of Solid Waste Management Life cycle assessment (LCA)– also referred to as life cycle analysis or life cycle Management It is an appropriate environmental management tool to measure both environmental and economic sustainability individually or together. In many situations, this tool is applied to predict and compare the environmental impact only, and then economic life cycle analysis is made separately. In solid waste management, the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) covers all steps of the flow cycle: o generation, o reuse, o separation, o recycling, o collection, o treatment o final disposal. Life cycle assessment consists of four stages: o goal (the scope) definition o life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis o life cycle impact assessment o life cycle interpretation. 25
  • 26. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN LCA of Solid Waste Management Four stages of Life cycle assessment: 1. goal (the scope) definition 2. life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis 3. life cycle impact assessment 4. life cycle interpretation. 26
  • 27. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN FCA of Solid Waste Management Full-Cost Accounting (FCA) It generally focuses on the three major types of measurable costs in solid waste management – o up-front, o operating o back-end costs and these three categories together cover the ‘life cycle’ of municipal solid waste activities from ‘cradle’ (up-front costs) to ‘grave’ (back-end costs). FCA can also accommodate other costs such as remediation costs at inactive sites, contingent costs, environmental and social costs, but require special consideration as some of these costs are not easily quantifiable. 27
  • 28. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Solid Waste Management: Bangladesh policies Apart from Environment Conservation Rules 1997, to improve the waste disposal system the Government has recently formulated some policies and plans: 1. National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP) (1995–2005) 2. Urban Management Policy Statement 1998 3. National Policy for Water Supply and Sanitation 1998 4. National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Strategy 2004 28
  • 29. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Definitions Front-end waste reduction: Reduce or eliminate the hazards of pollutants before discharging from source of generation. Back-end waste reduction: Reduce or eliminate the hazards of pollutants before discharging from a treatment/disposal option. 29
  • 30. Chapter 02: Source, Types, Generation and Properties of Solid Waste
  • 31. Biodegradable materials: o are materials that are degraded easily by microorganisms (either aerobic or anaerobic), into their basic elements. Most organic solid wastes are biodegradable. Putrescible materials: o generally comprise food waste (materials originating from the preparation and consumption of foods), papers, paperboard, garden waste and similar materials which decompose rapidly, particularly in warm weather, and often develop objectionable odours. o This category accounts for more than 55 per cent of total municipal solid waste (MSW) in industrialised countries and as high as 90 per cent of total MSW in developing countries. o The quantities of putrescible materials are high in developing countries compared to the quantities in industrialised countries. o Another prominent difference is that the putrescible fractions of solid waste contain a higher percentage of paper in industrialised countries than that in developing countries. o The mismanagement of this putrescible fraction of solid waste, particularly in developing countries, poses a serious health hazard as it attracts disease carriers which may endanger the human population. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Types of waste material 31
  • 32. Non-putrescible materials o decompose very slowly. Plastic, polythene bags, bottles, cans, containers and old machines are classed under this category. Refuse describes o all putrescible or non-putrescible waste material that is discarded or rejected including, but not limited to, garbage, rubbish, incinerator residue, street cleaning, dead animals. Leachate o comprises liquids seeping from solid waste as it degrades and decomposes. It generally contains decomposed waste, water and microorganisms. In landfills, it percolates through soils, causing surface and groundwater pollution. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Types of waste material 32
  • 33. 1. Household 2. Commercial 3. Institutional 4. Civic Amenity 5. Treatment Plants 6. Construction 7. Sanitation 8. Mining 9. Industrial 10.Agricultural 11.Healthcare 12.Hazardous Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Categories of solid waste Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) 33
  • 34. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Composition of solid waste Depends on: o Socio-economic conditions o Cultural and religious habits of the people o Availability of resources o Geographic location o Season of the year o Climatic condition Important to know to select: o types of storage o types of collection o frequency of collection o potential for resource recovery o choice of method of disposal. 34
  • 35. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Generation or Quantity of solid waste Generation of solid wastes is a diffused process and takes place in every nook and corner of the society. The prominent sectors include residential , commercial , industrial and agricultural areas. Generally the quantities generated are calculated on the basis of generation per capita per day basis. Solid waste generation i.e. quantity depends on: o Status of development of a country o Socio-economic conditions o Culture and religious habits of people o Availability of resources o Geographic location o Season of year o Attitude of waste generators and/or manufacturers o Availability and enforcement of laws to regulate waste, and promote o Recycling and resource recovery o Level of technological advancement. Important to know: o Knowledge of generation rates or quantity of solid waste is very important as it report regrading the total amount of waste to be managed. o And also for designing effective management methods for solid waste i.e. to identify appropriate types of collection, waste collection routes and vehicles, material recycling and recovery facilities, and waste treatment and/or disposal facilities. 35
  • 36. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Generation or Quantity of solid waste Expression for Unit Generation Rate or solid waste quantity: Solid waste quantities should be expressed in terms of weight. Weight is the only accurate basis for records because tonnages can be measured directly, regardless of the degree of compaction. The use of weight records is also important in the transport of solid wastes because the quantity that can be hauled is restricted by highway weight limits rather than by volume. The general expression is: o Residential areas waste: kg per capita per day o Industrial waste: kg/repeatable unit of production, e.g., kg per automobile. o Agricultural waste: kg/ton of raw product 36
  • 37. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Generation or Quantity of solid waste Methods Used to Determine Generation Rate: Most solid waste generation rates, reported in the literature are actually collection rates and not generation rates. This is because many factors affect collecting all generated waste data. Commonly used methods are: (i) Load count analysis (In this method, the number of individual loads is counted) (ii) Material balances analysis (In this method, a detailed material balance analysis for each generation source, such as an individual home or a commercial and industrial activity is made). (iii) Sampling from representative generation units (In this method representative houses, shops etc are selected and sampling made for a definite period, which may be one week, one month or one year). 37
  • 38. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Solution: Assume 6 persons in a household. Therefore total persons=1660*6= 9600 Total Solid waste generation in a week = (10*20*170) + (10*70*1.5) + (20*0.3*50) = 35350 kg Unit rate of generation = 35350/9600 = 3.682 kg/cap/wk = 0.53 kg per capita per day Generation or Quantity of solid waste Load count analysis 38
  • 39. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Material balance analysis: o As compared to load count analysis, this method gives relatively accurate value of generation rates. o However, high expenses and large amount of work is involved as compared to load count analysis. o This method should be used only in special circumstances. Under majority of situations, load count analysis will serve the purpose. o In this method, a detailed material balance analysis for each generation source, such as an individual home or a commercial and industrial activity is made. o Following steps can be followed for material balance analysis. These steps are also pictorially presented in Fig: i. Draw a system boundary around the unit to be studied. ii. Identify all activities that cross or occur within the boundary and affect generation rate. iii. Give generation rate in each activity. iv. Determine the quantities of waste generated, collected and stored by using a material balance. Fig: Material balance analysis sketch Generation or Quantity of solid waste 39
  • 40. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Material balance analysis: Problem Figure 2.5: Materials balance flow diagram sketch Generation or Quantity of solid waste 40
  • 41. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Sampling from representative generation units: A number of houses were selected in different areas of Dhaka showing the poor middle and rich population of the city. Calculate the waste generation rate. Generation or Quantity of solid waste 1 Gulshan High 21 4 10 69.3 2 Lalmatia Middle 40 5 10 56 3 Mirpur Middle 50 5 12 126 4 Moham madpur Middle 45 5 8 97 5 Jatrabari Poor 46 6 10 79 6 Jurain Poor 65 6 10 71.5 41
  • 42. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Sampling from representative generation units: Generation or Quantity of solid waste 1 Gulshan High 21 4 10 69.3 0.33 2 Lalmatia Middle 40 5 10 56 0.14 3 Mirpur Middle 50 5 12 126 0.21 4 Moham madpur Middle 45 5 8 97 0.27 5 Jatrabari Poor 46 6 10 79 0.17 6 Jurain Poor 65 6 10 71.5 0.11 Solution: The generation thus obtained was 0.21 kg/capita/day =69.3/21/10 =0.21 kg/capita/day Average =(0.33+0.14+0.21+0.27+0.17+0.11)/6 42
  • 43. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Properties of solid waste Properties of S. Waste: o Physical i. Specific Weight (Density) ii. Moisture Content iii. Particle Size and Distribution iv. Permeability of Compacted Waste o Mechanical i. Field capacity ii. Strength Parameters o Chemical I. Proximate Analysis II. Fusing Point of ash III. Ultimate Analysis (major components) IV. Energy Contents o Biological 43
  • 44. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Physical Properties of solid waste i. Specific Weight or Density: It is the mass occupied by a unit volume of material i.e. it is defined as the weight of a material per unit volume (e.g. kg/m3, lb/ft3) Example - Food wastes has density in a range of 130-480, paper and plastics in range 40 – 130 kg m3 Usually it refers to uncompacted waste. It varies with geographic location, season of the year, and length of time in storage. The densities of waste in countries with low per capita income are high compared to that in industrialised countries mostly because they contain a higher proportion of organic material, soil, ashes, and relatively small particles. A high-density waste capture system can reduce the volume in a solid-waste management system, which substantially reduces the costs of: o collection o transportation o final disposal Therefore, density plays an important role: in choosing the size and nature of collection vehicles. (For example, compacting equipment is not required on collection vehicles handling waste from low-income communities where the density of the waste is often high. This type of compacting equipment is essential to reduce the volume of waste in industrialised communities where relatively low- density waste is found). in determining the capacity of treatment and disposal facilities (the area required for a certain tonnage of waste). 44
  • 45. Typical Specific Weight Values Components Density (kg/m3) Range Typical Food wastes 130-480 290 Paper 40-130 89 Plastics 40-130 64 Yard Wastes 65-225 100 Glass 160-480 194 Tin cans 50-160 89 Aluminum 65-240 160 Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Condition Density (kg/m3) Loose MSW, no processing or compaction 90-150 In compaction truck 355-530 Baled MSW 710-825 MSW in a compacted landfill (without cover) 440-740 Physical properties of solid waste 45
  • 46. The moisture in a sample is expressed as percentage of the wet weight of the MSW material For Example: Food waste consists of 50-80% of moisture content while paper and plastics consist of only 4-10 % of moisture content. The wet-weight method is most commonly used in the field of solid waste management. Wet- weight Moisture content is expressed as : Where, M= wet-weight moisture content, % w= initial mass of sample as delivered, kg (or lb) d= mass of sample after drying at 77°C (85 °C, 105 °C) kg (or lb) 100 x w d w M       − = ii. Moisture Content (MC%) Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Size distribution is important in designing collection vehicles and mechanical recovery systems to recover materials, and in designing biological treatment methods. Size distribution can be measured using manually-manipulated screens and reported as size distribution curves (which represent cumulative percentages of matter passing through increasing screen sizes). iii. Size Distribution Physical properties of solid waste 46
  • 47. Typical Moisture Contents of Wastes Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Physical properties of solid waste 47
  • 48. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 01 Estimate the overall moisture content of a solid waste sample of as collected MSW with the typical composition given as following table: 48
  • 49. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 01 Solution: Step 1: Assume delivered sample weight of 100 lb. Step 2: Calculate the column 3 i.e dry weight for each component by using the multiplication of % by weight and MC (%). 2.7= [9-(9*70/100)] Step 2: Now the moisture content of the solid waste sample using Eq. 100 x w d w M       − = 49
  • 50. The permeability (hydraulic conductivity) of compacted solid waste is an important physical property because it governs the movement of liquids & gases in a landfill. Permeability depends on: o Pore size distribution o Surface area o Porosity iv. Permeability of Compacted Waste Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Physical properties of solid waste 50
  • 51. o The field capacity of a waste sample is the fraction (or %) of water retained by a waste sample (generally collected from a landfill site) based on the dry weight of the sample. o The field capacity plays an important role in designing leachate management systems. o The field capacity of a waste sample collected from a disposal site depends largely on the degree of compaction, the stage of stabilisation, and the state of decomposition (of organic waste). o The field capacity of refuse samples range between 60 -141 % depending on the applied stress. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Mechanical properties of solid waste Mechanical Properties are important to design land fills and leachate management) i. Field capacity o The strengths of waste materials (particular once in place in landfill sites) are very important parameters for assessing whether building structures would be stable on a waste and stabilised soil environment if there is a possibility of such structures being built. o It is very difficult to establish relationships among different related parameters (e.g. stress–strain, etc.) because of the diverse nature of waste constituents and their degree of decomposition. ii. Strength Parameters 51
  • 52. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Chemical properties of solid waste Chemical Properties: (are important in assessing the alternative treatment or processing and/or recovery options. ) The chemical composition of solid waste may be characterised in several ways, including: i. Proximate Analysis ii. Fusing Point of ash iii. Ultimate Analysis (major components) iv.Energy Contents i. Proximate Analysis Proximate analysis is used to evaluate the combustion properties of solid waste and to determine the possibility of its use in combustion systems. It frequently involves the determination of: o Moisture Content – loss of moisture when heated to 105oC for 1 h. o Volatile Combustible Matter (VCM)– loss of weight due to combustion of gases on ignition at 950oC in the absence of oxygen i.e. in a covered crucible. o Fixed Carbon – residue left when VCM is removed o Ash content – weight of residue after combustion at 950oC in an open crucible. 52
  • 53. Typical Proximate Analysis Values (% by weight) Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Chemical properties of solid waste 53
  • 54. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Chemical properties of solid waste ii. Fusing Point of ash o Fusing point of ash is the temperature at which the ash resulting from the burning of waste will form a solid (clinker) by fusion and agglomeration. o Typical fusing temperatures: 1100 - 1200˚ C o It is a mass balance analysis of chemical and thermal processes. o It is used to ascertain the percentage of each element present in a waste sample and to define the proper mix of waste materials to achieve suitable C/N ratios for biological conversion processes. o It frequently involves calculating the percentage of the five primary elements C, H, O, N, S and the ash fraction contains both residues from the combustion of the organic matter in the waste, and in many situations, a percentage of inorganic material. o Further analysis of ash is important to determine the percentage of heavy metals in it that they may pose significant environmental problems for the ultimate disposal of the ash. o The determination of halogens are often included in an ultimate analysis. iii. Ultimate analysis 54
  • 55. Typical data on ultimate analysis of combustible materials found in SW Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Chemical properties of solid waste 55
  • 56. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Typical data in elemental analysis (% by weight) Typical Chemical Composition of typical MSW Chemical properties of solid waste 56
  • 57. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Chemical properties of solid waste iv. Energy Contents o Energy content or calorific value and often said as heating value is essential for evaluating its potential for use as a fuel in a combustion system. o Depends on the constituents of the waste sample. o The energy content of an organic fraction of solid waste can be determined experimentally by using a bomb calorimeter. o If energy content values for different components and/or primary elements of solid waste are not available, the approximate energy content of individual waste materials can be estimated by using modified the Dulong formula: 57
  • 58. Inert residue and energy content of residential MSW Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Chemical properties of solid waste 58
  • 59. Average composition and heating values for MSW ➢The average energy content of typical MSW is ~10,000 kJ/kg Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Chemical properties of solid waste 59
  • 60. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 02 Determine the energy value of a typical sample of municipal solid waste of 100kg with the average composition shown in Tables: 60
  • 61. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 02 Solution: 1. Determine the energy value for each of the constituent of municipal solid waste using Equation: And make the table: =338.2*49.1+1430*(6.6-(37.6/8))+95.4*0.2 61
  • 62. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 02 Solution (continue): 2. Determine energy values using a computation table (Solid waste *Energy) =32.5*19342 3. Energy content = 1790385/100 = 17,904 kJ/kg (ANSWER) 62
  • 63. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 03 Determine the energy content of 100kg of typical municipal solid waste having following composition: 63
  • 64. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 03 Solution: 1. Make the summation of mass and compositions of all components (last raw of table): 64
  • 65. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 03 Solution: 2. Prepare a summary table from the provided data Total wet mass, 100-(28.7+3.32+16.4+1.72+0.16+4.1)=45.6 2. Convert the moisture content (H2O) reported in step 1 to hydrogen and oxygen a. Hydrogen = 2/18 × 45.6kg = 5.06 kg b. Oxygen = 16/18 × 45.6 = 40.53 kg 3. Prepare a revised summary table computing percentage of the chemical constituents of municipal solid wastes: 65
  • 66. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Problem 03 H= 3.32 + 5.06 = 8.38 kg O= 16.4 + 40.53 = 56.93 kg 4. Estimate the energy content of the waste using following Equation and above data table We get, kJ/kg (ANSWER) 66
  • 67. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Biological properties of solid waste Biological Characteristics The organic fraction of MSW (excluding plastics ,rubber and leather) can be classified as: o Water-soluble constituents -sugars, starches, amino acids and various organic acids o Hemicellulose-a product of 5 and 6-carbon sugars o Cellulose -a product of 6-carbon sugar glucose o Fats, oils and waxes -esters of alcohols and long-chain fatty acids o Lignin -present in some paper products o Lignocellulose-combination of lignin and cellulose o Proteins -amino acid chains 67
  • 68. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Biological properties of solid waste Biodegradability of Sold waste Volatile solids (VS), determined by ignition at 550˚C, is often used as a measure of the biodegradability of the organic fraction of MSW. However, not all organic materials are easily degradable. Some of the organic constituents of MSW are highly volatile but low in biodegradability (e.g. Newsprint) due to lignin content. The most important biological characteristic of the organic fraction of MSW is that almost all the organic components can be converted biologically to gases and relatively inert organic and inorganic solids. The production of odors and the generation of flies are also related to the putrescible nature of the organic materials. Biodegradable fraction produces- o odours o Hydrogen sulfide, H2S (rotten eggs) o Methyl mercaptans o Aminobutyric acid o Methane is odourless. o Attracts flies, vermin, rodents (vectors) 68
  • 69. Calculation of biodegradable fraction of MSW Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN 69
  • 70. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transformation Processes in MSW Management 70
  • 71. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Forecasting Future waste Forecasting Future waste quantities and the Factors to be considered : o waste generation rate o waste characteristics o rate of population growth o degree of commercial and industrial development o per capita consumption o future policy directives and their effect on waste management practices 71
  • 72. Chapter 03: Source reduction, On-site Handling, Processing and Storage of S. Waste
  • 73. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN On-site Handling, Processing and Storage of S. Waste The second important element in the solid waste management is the onsite handling, storage and processing. Onsite handling means the activities associated with the handling of solid waste until it is placed in the containers used for its storage before collection. It also includes the moving of loaded containers to the collection point and to return the empty containers after collection to the storage locations. 73
  • 74. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN On site storage of S. Waste On site storage means the temporary storage of waste while awaiting collection. Solid waste may be generated at source on a continuous basis throughout the day and night. It is generally collected by external actors on specified time and therefore, on-site storage is essential to contain waste materials prior to their collection. The efficiency and effectiveness of a particular collection system largely depends on the method of storage of solid wastes at the point of collection. In an organized solid waste management system, particularly in many industrialised countries, storage containers have been developed to be compatible with waste collection vehicles. This reduces collection times, increases efficiency, and maximises the productivity of collection crews and the collection system. A golden rule of solid waste management is "containerization" that states "once picked up solid waste should never be thrown again on the ground; always put it in the container and from small container into bigger container or a collection vehicle". In one word it can be expressed as "containerization". On-site storage of solid waste is influenced by a number of factors which need to be considered including: i. type of storage containers used ii. container locations, iii. public health and aesthetics. iv. availability of resources for waste management v. available methods for waste collection and further transportation Storage at source or near source of generation may be broadly classified as: i. individual storage on premises ii. communal storage. 74
  • 75. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Typical storage containers for waste used in industrialised countries: (Table 3.3, Pg. 89; Figures) Portable galvanised iron bins – Traditional galvanised iron bins (25 gallon to 32 gallon capacity is common in UK) – other sizes available. Portable plastic bins – In many industrialised countries, traditional galvanised iron bins have been superseded by standard plastic versions. These are used for both manual and mechanised collection. Plastic/paper bags (sacks) – Bin liner method of collection is popular in many localities. Plastic bags are more common. Although paper bags have been used in some communities they have proved to be expensive. Portable roll-out containers – used for mechanised collection, and becoming a very popular method of sorting and collecting waste. Demountable – Demountable containers are becoming popular with many municipalities throughout the world. The bin structure itself is moveable. When the bin is full it is replaced with an empty bin and the bin structure and a special vehicle takes its contents to the disposal site and the bin is emptied. The empty bin is then used as the replacement for a full bin elsewhere. On site storage of S. Waste 75
  • 76. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Typical designs used in developing countries: (Table 3.4, Pg. 92; Figures) Enclosures (Fixed Containers) – Enclosures are probably the most common communal storage method. They are essentially masonry walls or wooden screens which contain the waste. They are typically situated on roadsides or adjacent to open spaces. Depots – Depots are typically single storey buildings about the size of a large garage. They are large so should only be used in areas with very high population densities in order that the distance that must be travelled to dispose of waste is not too great. Fixed storage bins – Fixed storage bins are typically small bins (<2m3) built from masonry or concrete blocks. They do not have an entrance but the walls are low enough for the deposition of waste over the top (typically 1.2-1.5m). A service hatch is provided in one wall for the collection of waste that is raked out by collectors. On site storage of S. Waste 76
  • 77. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Design of Storage Containers: The major factors that play an important role in designing storage containers to store materials at or near the source of generation are outlined below: Nature of waste: This influences the choice of container material and whether extra treatment is required for maintenance. For example, the use of steel to store corrosive waste requires thicker walls and/or additional coating. Size: The container should be large enough to accommodate the generated waste. Otherwise the people creating the waste would require additional containers, and wastes could be dropped outside the container (in a communal collection system). Capacity margin: There should a capacity margin but consideration should be given to maximising the density of the waste. Compatibility: The container should be compatible with the collection equipment. Standardisation: This can help to maximise labour and transport productivity, particularly in primary collection. It is also important for mechanised collection systems in the case of secondary collection. A proper assessment is needed on the applicability and affordability of a mechanized system, particularly in the poorer parts of the developing world. Efficiency: The size and shape of collection containers should be such that the collection efficiency is maximised. For example, in the case of mechanized collection systems, storage containers should be compatible with the type of collection vehicle. Where material recovery from storage containers by external actors is intended, the size of the container should give easy access for the recovery of selected materials. The shape of the container should allow it to be emptied easily and not require digging out of waste materials, as this could demand additional manpower to maintain the system. Size and shape should ensure that the container does not quickly become blocked. On site storage of S. Waste 77
  • 78. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Design of Storage Containers: Convenience: The container should make it easy for the waste generators to deposit material, and for external actors to collect the waste. For example, communal containers should be easily accessible and easy to use. For example, the container height should be based on the maximum weight a child can lift, particularly in developing countries. For mechanised curb side collection systems, large containers must have wheels to facilitate bringing them to collection points. Any doors or lids that require special effort to open them are not convenient for the user. Public health and aesthetic: Size and shape of the container should minimise the exposure and contact of different actors involved in solid waste management with the waste. Closed storage containers, particularly to store biodegradable materials, should be used at or near the source of generation to improve public health and aesthetics. However, if they contain biodegradable materials, particularly in warm humid climate, lids or doors should require less effort to use, or they may be left open and become a breeding ground for rats, flies, and other disease vectors. Design of containers should be such that the accumulated waste is protected from rain. Social: The possibility of theft, damage, fire-raising, scavenging, etc. should be considered. Cost: The container should be cost-effective (cheap to build and easy to maintain). The cost assessment should include life-cycle assessment including operation, maintenance, and manpower requirements for transferring waste to the collection vehicle. Ownership: Ownership is very important, particularly in developing countries. For example, ownership by collection agencies always guarantees compatibility and indicates to the waste generator that a service is being provided . On site storage of S. Waste 78
  • 79. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Size of storage containers The size of a storage container can be calculated using the following simple equation Size of storage container = (N × G× F) / D + capacity margin Where, N = number of population served (nos, cap); G = average rate of waste generation (kg/cap/day); F = weekly frequency of collection (= 7 days/ numbers of collection trip) D = density (kg/m3) On site storage of S. Waste Color coding for onsite solid waste segregation 79
  • 80. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN What is Source reduction and on site processing of S. waste? Source reduction is a way of on site processing of solid waste that means reducing the amount and/or toxicity of waste before it enters the municipal waste management system or is discharged into the environment. On-site processing includes separation of components and treatment of solid wastes at or near the source of generation that involves grinding, sorting, compaction; shredding, composting and incineration etc. Sometimes both the terms use together as “source reduction and onsite processing of solid waste” The key concepts around on-site processing and source reduction are: i. reduce the volume i.e. minimization of waste ii. alter the physical form iii. resource recovery i.e waste utilization to generate less waste that eliminating the need of disposal iv. hazard reduction i.e. finding the ways to reduce toxicity of the waste. v. separation of different fractions of waste On-site processing and source reduction of S. waste 80
  • 81. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN On-site processing and source reduction of S. waste Advantages of on-site processing and source reduction are: 1) generation of clean recyclable materials 2) It reduces the quantity of general waste and minimises the toxicity of the general waste stream (if hazardous materials are diverted). 3) removal of hazardous materials from general waste streams in order to minimise health risks to the general population, particularly the waste handlers 4) improved working condition within recycling plants 5) improved efficiency of energy recovery processes 6) It diverts the different fractions of material present in the waste stream to locations for appropriate treatment in the solid waste management system thus helping to operate the waste treatment system cost-effectively 7) Appropriate sorting of components of solid waste at source ensures the quality of the end product from (biological) treatment units and significantly influences the market any end product. 8) minimisation of overall waste management costs. 9) Within an industrial setting, on-site processing reduces waste treatment costs, minimises the regulatory burden and maximises production economics. 10) It reduces the consumption of energy through reuse of goods by consumers and use of minimum quantities of materials in industry. This leads to the production of fewer products, which ultimately saves the energy required to collect raw materials, to produce the products, and to transport them to the consumers. 11) Emissions at treatment and disposal sites are reduced. 81
  • 82. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Source reduction of S. waste 82
  • 83. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Source reduction of S. waste Implementation of Source Reduction and On-site Processing Source reduction and on-site processing can be effectively implemented by i. raising public awareness (through education programmes, legislation, etc.) ii. to change the behaviour of consumers and industries iii. to place the responsibility for certain products on manufacturers (product- stewardship) throughout the product’s entire life cycle including its disposal. o These approaches encourage selective buying patterns, and the reuse of materials and products. They help manufacturers and industries to practice waste minimisation and hazard reduction through efficient design, green manufacturing strategies, increased product life, and packaging with minimum toxic content and efficient use of packaging materials. o In many countries, different types of labelling are used to categorise products that meet certain environmental criteria (for example, ‘Blue Angle’ in Germany; ‘White Swan’ in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, ‘Eco Mark’ in Japan, and ‘Environmental Choice’ in Canada). German experience has shown that such labelling helps to shift the markets towards environmentally superior products. The success of source reduction and on-site processing depends primarily on: i. competence of waste generators ii. motivation of waste generators iii. economic incentives convenience iv. environmental education v. legislation. 83
  • 84. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN On-site processing of S. waste 84
  • 85. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN On-site processing of S. waste Problem 01: Estimate the energy of the remaining solid wastes if 80 per cent of the cardboard, 90 per cent of wood and 70 per cent of the paper is recovered by the homeowner havng the following percentage distribution data: 85
  • 86. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Solution: 1. Determine the energy value for each of the constituent of municipal solid waste using Equation: And make the table: =338.2*49.1+1430*(6.6-(37.6/8))+95.4*0.2 On-site processing of S. waste 86
  • 87. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Solution (continue): 2. Determine energy values using a computation table (Solid waste *Energy) =32.5*19342 3. Energy content = 1790385 kJ for 100 kg of solid waste. On-site processing of S. waste 87
  • 88. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Solution (continue): 4. Determine the energy content and weight of 80 per cent of the cardboard in the original sample. Energy content of 80% cardboard = 0.80 * 61460 kJ [Table in step 2] = 49168 kJ Weight of 80% cardboard = 0.80 * 4 kg [Table in step 2 = 3.2 kg 5. Determine the energy content and weight of 90 per cent of the wood in the original sample. Energy content of 90% wood = 0.90 * 54270 kJ [Table in step 2] = 48843 kJ Weight of 90% wood = 0.90 * 3 kg [Table in step 2 = 2.7 kg On-site processing of S. waste 88
  • 89. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Solution (continue): 6. Determine the energy content and weight of 70 per cent of the paper in the original sample. Energy content of 70% paper = 0.70 * 527520 kJ [Table in step 2] = 369264 kJ Weight of 70% paper = 0.70 * 35 kg [Table in step 2 = 24.5 kg 7. Determine the total energy and weight and energy content per kg of the original sample after cardboard, wood and paper have been recovered: Total Energy after recovery = (1,790,385 – 49,168 – 48,843– 369,264) kJ = 1,323,110 kJ Total weight after salvage = (100 – 3.2– 2.7 – 24.5) kg = 69.6 kg Energy content per kg after recovery = 1323110 kJ/69.6 kg = 19,010 kJ/kg On-site processing of S. waste 89
  • 90. Chapter 04: Collection and Transfer & Transport of S. Waste
  • 91. o The term “collection of solid waste” (by external stakeholders) refers not only the gathering or picking up of solid waste from its various sources or from communal storage facilities, but also transportation/hauling of this waste to the final disposal site. o It also considers all activities related to loading of waste into collection vehicles, and unloading of waste from collection vehicles at communal collection points, processing places, transfer stations and final disposal sites. o Waste collection, taken to encompass all these aspects of transfer to final disposal site, is the largest cost element in most municipal solid waste management systems, accounting for 60–70 per cent of costs in industrialised countries, and 70–90 per cent of costs in developing and transition countries. o Thus it is a very important functional element in solid waste management systems and its efficient management can result in significant cost savings. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste 91
  • 92. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Solid waste collection is a multiphase process having at least five distinct phases as shown in the Fig 4.1. 92
  • 93. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Phase I: Transferring the solid waste to waste collection bins placed inside or outside the home by individual house owner. Phase II: Transfer the refuse from bins to collection truck, which is generally done by the collection crew of the solid waste management department. Phase III: Collection of the solid waste from several homes, commercial and business centers, educational institutions etc. Phase IV: Transfer of the collected waste on the planed routes in order to maximize the collection efficiency, reducing the fuel consumption and reducing the haul distance. The route is planned in such a way that the last collection point is at minimum distance from the waste disposal or processing facility. Phase V: Last phase of the collection system is the transfer of the collected waste to the disposal or processing facility as planned before. 93
  • 94. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Frequency of solid waste collection: The frequency of waste collection by external stakeholders greatly influences the waste collection costs and depends on a no. of factors such as: i. Quantity of waste ii. Rate of generation iii. Characteristics of waste iv. Climate v. Density & type of housing vi. Availability of space within the premises vii. Size & type of storage facilities (small, large, individual or communal) viii. Attitude of generators ix. Available resources 94
  • 95. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste The following divisions of collection systems may help the solid waste manager to optimize the design and operation of collection services more efficiently, particularly if a wide range of collection vehicles is required. They are: 1. Primary collection; 2. Secondary collection 1. Primary Collection System: The first stage of collection system which involves the transportation of collected waste from or near the source of generation by external stakeholders to the final disposal sites but more often it involves transportation to communal collection bins or points, processing or transfer station. Although this service is not common in poorer parts of the developing world, but increasing no. of micro enterprises and (or) community based organizations forming in wealthier communities (both in industrialized and developing countries) perform this task. 2. Secondary collection System: It involves the collection of waste from communal bins, storage points or transfer station and transportation to the final disposal site. 95
  • 96. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection Types: The basic collection scheme on the basis of availability of services is categorized into four groups. They are: i. Communal collection ii. Block collecton iii. Kerbside/ Alley collection iv. Door- to –door (house to house) collection 96
  • 97. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection Types: i. Communal collection o In this case, waste generators are responsible for bringing their waste to one or a number of specified communal collection points or bins. o Communal collection of solid waste are common (for all categories of waste) in low- income countries where cost saving is more important than service provision, as this system reduces considerably the number of collection points. o The principal disadvantage of this system is that containers/collection points are located in a public place (lacking ownership by the public) which, in many situations, leads to indiscriminate disposal of waste outside the container. o Thus, the actual economy of this system mostly depends on public co-operation (for example, in cases of poor public co-operation, waste generators may transfer their waste to the street cleansing services or outside the bin which will increase the cost of public cleansing services). It is therefore essential to pay more attention to improving the design, and operation and maintenance practices to increase public acceptance, and to optimise the productivity of collection system. o Communal (sometimes called ‘bring’) collection in many industrialised countries are more common for a selected fraction of waste materials (such as used furniture or household electrical appliances and garden waste). o The use of portable storage containers maximises the productivity of labour and vehicles of such collection system. 97
  • 98. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection Types: ii. Block collection o Waste generators are responsible for bringing their waste to collection vehicles (vehicles follow are predetermined route at prescribed intervals) at the time of collection. o The collection vehicles generally stop at all street intersections or selected collection points & a bell is rung on their arrival so people can bring their waste to the collection vehicles. o This system has low to medium labour and vehicle productivity, but it minimizes the spread of waste on streets. o A regular and well organized collection services is essential so that generators know exactly when to bring out their waste. 98
  • 99. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection Types: iii. Kerb-side/ Alley collection o Waste generators place the waste containers or bags (sacks) on the kerb or in the alley on a specific day (or specific days) for collection by external actors. They retrieve their containers from the kerb or alley after the waste has been collected. o This is most common in industrialized countries and in the wealthier communities of some developing countries. o A regular and well organized collection service is essential so that generators know exactly when to leave out their waste. In case of irregular collection, generators may place their storage container permanently at the kerb. o The sparse collection (once weekly) may be a cost effective option. 99
  • 100. Kerbside / Alley Collection : Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste 100
  • 101. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection Types: iv. Door- to –door (house to house) collection o Generators place waste containers at their back gate or intermediate vicinity of their property on a specific day (or days) for collection. o The collection crews enters each property, takes out the containers or bags & if appropriate sets the containers back after emptying waste into collection vehicles. o This is more common in industrialized countries, but an increasing no. of micro enterprises and/ or community based organizations are forming in wealthier communities in many developing countries. o This is aesthetically and environmentally more satisfactory but comparatively more expensive (increased labour costs) as it involves entering all premises. 101
  • 102. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection Methods: Collection methods on the basis of mode of operation may be broadly catagorised into two systems: (1) Hauled Container System (HCS) (2) Stationary Container System (SCS). 102
  • 103. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste (1) Hauled Container System (HCS) In this system, the loaded containers are taken to the disposal site or transfer facility for unloading, and empty containers are returned to their original location or any other location. Three different vehicles are used in HCS i.e., hoist truck, tilt-frame truck and trash-trailer. Advantages and disadvantages of HCS are given in table: HCS is further of two types: i. Conventional mode type ii. Exchange container mode type 103
  • 104. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste hoist truck Tilt frame truck Trash trailer truck Hauled Container System (HCS) 104
  • 105. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste (1) Hauled Container System (HCS) A. Hauled container system: Conventional mode In this system the emptied containers are brought back at the same locations, from where they were picked up. The working is shown by the schematic in Fig. (a). 105
  • 106. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste (1) Hauled Container System (HCS) B. Hauled container system: Exchange container mode In this system the collection vehicle carries one extra empty container, puts the empty container at first pick-up location, picks the loaded container, hauls the loaded container to the disposal site, and returns the empty container to the next pick up location and so on. At the end of the day's work, the last container, emptied by the vehicle is taken to the garage. The working is shown by the schematic in Fig. (b). 106
  • 107. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Comparison of Conventional Mode and Exchange Container Modes of HCS 107
  • 108. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Hauled Container Collection System hauled container system with conventional Mode: For one day's work, an empty truck comes from the garage to the work area, picks up the loaded container from the first location, goes to the disposal site or transfer station or MRF, unloads the wastes and hauls back the empty container to the original location, deposits the empty container and moves on to the second location. It repeats this process by performing a number of trips until at the end of the day's work it goes back to the garage. For the purpose of the system's analysis, the time spent in various activities will be counted as shown in Fig. 4.12. 108
  • 109. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Hauled Container Collection System 109
  • 110. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste (2) Stationary Container System (SCS). In this system, containers used for the storage of waste remain at the point of collection. the loaded containers are emptied into the body of the collection vehicle, while the containers are put back at their places. A number of containers can thus be emptied per trip of collection vehicle. The loaded vehicle then moves to the disposal site or transfer station, is unloaded there and starts its next trip. The schematic of the operation is shown in Fig. 4.9. The collection vehicles used are usually compactor trucks. These systems may be used for all types of wastes. These are of two types (i) SCS with mechanically loaded vehicles (ii) SCS with manually loaded vehicles. 110
  • 111. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste (2) Stationary Container System (SCS) Following figure shows the schematic of operational sequence for stationary container system: 111
  • 112. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste (2) Stationary Container System (SCS) SCS with mechanically loaded vehicles 112
  • 113. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Comparison of hauled containers system (HCS) and stationary containers system (SCS) 113
  • 114. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection route Analysis of collection system provides vehicle and labor requirements information. The next step is to laydown/decide the collection routes. This exercise, i.e. chalking out of the best collection routes, is necessary to use both work force and equipment in the best possible way. This exercise is actually a trial and error process. There are no fixed rules that can be applied to all situations. Following guidelines/factors should be kept in mind while laying out routes: i. Existing policies, regulations regarding S.W.M. must be identified. ii. Existing system conditions such as crew sizes, vehicle types must be coordinated. iii. All the vehicles should almost travel equal distances, and carry equal amount of loads. iv. When possible, routes should begin and end near arterial streets of the city. v. The first container should be served from the farthest end and the last container from nearest to the disposal site. vi. In hilly areas the route should start from the top of the grade and proceed downward as the vehicle becomes loaded. vii. Wastes generated at the traffic congested locations should be collected in early hours of the day. 114
  • 115. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Collection Routes: Procedure for developing layout The procedure of layout of collection routes involves four steps: Step 1: Preparation of location map showing the pickup locations and the peculiar data for HCS or SCS. Step 2: Data analysis, and preparation of information summary table. Step 3: Preliminary layout of routes. Step 4: Evaluation of preliminary routes and development of balanced routes by hit and trial. Step 1 is general for both hauled container system and stationary container system, while steps 2, 3 and 4 are different for the two systems. 115
  • 116. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer and transport refers to the means, facilities and appurtenances used to affect the transfer of waste from one location to another (usually to more distant location). Typically, the waste from relatively small collection vehicle is transferred to larger vehicle and is transported to distant location for safe disposal or further processing. According to Texas administration code (TAC), transfer station is defined as “a facility used for transferring solid waste from collection vehicles to long-haul vehicles. It is not a storage facility such as one where individual residents can dispose their wastes”. Transfer station provides a link between the community's solid waste collection program and waste disposal or processing facility as shown in the Fig.5.1. 116
  • 117. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer station: Factors for planning & design In the planning and design of transfer stations a number of factors should be considered, including: i. location – governed by the proximity of the collection routes, access to the major haulage routes, isolation from the community ii. quantity of waste to be transferred/handled iii. types and number of primary and secondary vehicles served iv. types of transfer operations v. equipment requirements vi. waste characteristics vii. climate viii. sanitation provision ix. costs. 117
  • 118. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer station: Benefits 1) Costs--The main reason for waste transfer is to optimize the productivity of vehicles and collection crews as they remain closer to routes, while larger vehicles make the longer trip to processing and disposal sites and ultimately reduces overall costs. It can also be integrated with other functional elements of integrated waste management options (recycling , resources recovery & waste –to- energy facility) to improve overall waste mgt. performance. 2) Minimize collection vehicle routing complexities-- Makes the planning process more flexible and a combination of human & animal powered small motorized and more sophisticated vehicles with hydraulic or pneumatic system can be used in different areas depending on the accessibility to those areas and collection method. 3) Provide an opportunity to increase waste density-- In areas where compaction vehicles are not available, transfer station may be use d to compact the waste so that greater quantities can be carried( most economical) at once to the final disposal sites. 4) Minimize illegal waste dumping--Particularly in developing countries where the human-and –animal powered and small motorized vehicles are used for the collection of waste are often unsuitable for traveling long distances. 5) Minimize traffic congestion—It reduces the no. of vehicles for long distance haulage and may reduce fuel consumption thus reduce environmental pollution. 118
  • 119. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer station: Benefits 6) Can serve as a controlled place for sorting and processing the waste- Particularly in many low income countries where a thriving informal economy exists in recycling of waste, these stations can minimize health hazard and may limit the amount of waste picking that is done in the streets, which will reduce the amount of waste that is scattered around communal bins and waste accumulation points. 7) Reduce maintenance costs of collection vehicles—These vehicles stay on well paved roads and are not traveling on rough roads, particularly in landfill sites. 8) Improve waste dumping efficiency at final disposal site– A reduced no. of vehicles at the disposal sites. 119
  • 120. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer station: Problems 1) Increased traffic volume, noise and air pollution in the surrounding areas. 2) Unless they are properly maintained there is a potential for environmental damage (lechate, odour, disease carriers, aesthetic and similar problem) in surrounding areas. Transfer station: Locations Whenever possible, transfer stations should be located: i) As near as possible to the weighted center of the individual solid waste production areas to be served, ii) Within easy access of major arterial highway routes as well as near secondary or supplemental means of transportation, iii) Where there will be a minimum of public and environmental objection to the transfer operations, and iv) Where construction and operation will be most economical. 120
  • 121. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer station: Types Based on the mode used to load the transport vehicles, transfer stations are classified into three general types: i.Direct discharge ii.Storage discharge iii.Combination of direct and storage discharge types. 121
  • 122. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer station: Cost Comparison 122
  • 123. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Transfer station: Example, Japan 123
  • 124. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Collection vehicles The careful selection of a vehicle to use in a given situation is crucial for a well functioning solid waste management system. The collection vehicles selected should be appropriate to: 1) territory – hilly, plain land, density of housing 2) access road – width of road, type of surface, corner radius, maneuvering space 3) transport regulations – permitted maximum load 4) travel distance – distance to communal/transfer station or final disposal site 5) integration – possibility of integration with existing practices 6) performance – convenience (loading height, etc.), material loading/unloading efficiency, operating dimensions and turning radius, safety mechanism 7) type of properties – detached dwellings, high-rise dwellings, commercial building, etc. 8) storage facilities – enclosure, bins, roll-out bins, bags, etc. 9) type and density of collection points – door-to-door, kerbside, communal collection, etc. 10) quantity of waste – rate of generation and frequency of collection 11) waste characteristics – constituents, abrasive, dense, low-density 12) traffic levels – vehicles should be harmonious with existing traffic 13) standardisation – minimise overall maintenance costs 14) payload capacity – the amount of waste that can be carried depends on the body weight of vehicles (that is, vehicles with lower body weight can carry more waste) 15) size of cab – often it is overlooked although it does not cost much 16) technical know-how – availability of skilled labour for operation and maintenance 17) cost – capital, operation and maintenance cost. 124
  • 125. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Collection vehicles: Types 1. Human- and animal-powered vehicles i. handcarts and three-wheeled pedal carts. ii. animal panniers (bags or buckets carried over the back of the animal) and animal carts. 2. Motorised vehicles i. compaction vehicles ii. semi-compaction vehicles iii. non-compaction vehicles iv. container handling systems. 125
  • 126. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Collection vehicles: Types 126
  • 127. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Transfer and Transport of S. waste Collection vehicles: Maintenance Purchase of waste collection vehicles does not solve the waste management problem unless they are properly maintained. The overall productivity of a vehicle depends on the total amount of time the vehicle remains operational during its productive life. Generally vehicle maintenance is being carried out in the following two ways: 1. Preventive maintenance 2. Breakdown maintenance 1. Preventive maintenance o the service of vehicles that occurs when they seem to be working efficiently in order to identify problems before they occur. o Preventive maintenance should be carried out at regular intervals that are generally based on the distance travelled or hours of operation of a vehicle. Minor preventive maintenance activities should be carried out daily and weekly. The activities that need to be carried out at each maintenance event will vary according to the vehicle, both its general type and manufacture. 2. Breakdown maintenance o Breakdown/crisis maintenance is the repair of the vehicle once problems have already occurred. o In many developing countries, this is the only sort of maintenance that occurs. It is easy to plan and works simply as a response to problems as they occur. However, it may lead to long down times (the length of time that the vehicle is out of operation). 127
  • 128. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Economic cost of collection systems in SWM The economic costs of solid waste collection include: 1) planning and design 2) procurement, operation and maintenance of waste collection equipment 3) (vehicles, storage container, as well as cost of workshop/garage facilities 4) and auxiliary civil works) 5) skilled and unskilled labour, and drivers involved directly in collection services 6) a percentage of administrative costs 7) resource recovery (if there is a resource recovery system not at source but in the collection stream). These costs vary greatly between and even within countries, and depend largely on available local resources (fuel costs, availability of spare parts, land prices, etc.) and local economy (salary, labour cost). 128
  • 129. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN EIA of collection systems in SWM The major environmental impacts associated with collection systems involve: i. consumption of energy and generation of atmospheric emissions ii. production storage facilities (e.g. bags, bins) iii. maintenance of storage containers iv. treatment (e.g. separation, home composting) of waste materials at sources environmental benefits. 129
  • 130. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Hauled Container Collection System : Problem 01 Solution: 130
  • 131. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Hauled Container Collection System : Problem 01 131
  • 132. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Hauled Container Collection System : Problem 01 132
  • 133. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Stationary Container Collection System : Problem 02 133
  • 134. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Stationary Container Collection System : Problem 02 134
  • 135. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Stationary Container Collection System : Problem 02 (d) 135
  • 136. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Hauled Container Collection System : Problem 02 136
  • 137. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Analysis of Hauled Container Collection System : Problem 02 137
  • 138. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Suppose the annualized cost of purchasing, fueling and maintaining a compactor truck is given by the following expression: Annualized cost ($/yr) = 25000 + 4000V Where, V is the truck volume in cubic yards. Suppose these trucks require two person crews, with labor charged at $24 per hr each (including benefits). Perform an economic analysis of the collection system, in which a 14.4 yd3 truck collects solid waste from 340 households each day. Each household generates 60 lbs of solid waste per week. The trucks and crew work 5 days per week and curb-side pickup is provided once a week for each house. What is the cost per ton of solid waste collected and what is the cost per household? Solution: Assuming 8-hr working days, for 5 days/week and 52 weeks/yr, the annualized cost of labor per truck would be Labor cost = 2 persons × $24/hr × 8 hr/d × 5 d/wk × 52 wk/yr = $99840/yr Given, Crew size = 2 persons / truck Labor charge = $24 per hr each 138
  • 139. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Annualized truck cost ($/yr) = 25000 + 4000 × 14.4 = $82600/yr Total annual cost of truck and crew = $82600 + $99840 = $182440/yr Over a 5-day week, 1700 households (5 × 340 = 1700) are served by each truck. The total amount of solid waste collected by 1 truck in 1 yr is Annual solid waste = (1700 households × 60 lb/week × 52 wk/yr) / 2000 lb/ton = 2652 ton/yr Therefore, Annual cost per ton = ($182440/yr) / (2652 ton/yr) = $68.80/ton Annual cost per household = ($182440/yr) / 1700 households = $107.32/yr However, the total amount billed to each customer will be considerably higher after incorporating transfer station fees, administrative costs, overhead, profits and so on. Given, Annualized cost = 25000 + 4000V Truck volume, V =14.4 yd3 Given, Refuse collected from 340 HHs/day Solid waste generation rate = 60 lbs/week 139
  • 140. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste 140
  • 141. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Problem: Costs of a Transfer Station and Its Vehicles A transfer station handling 300 tons/day, 5 days per week, costs $5 million to build and $150000 per year to operate. An individual tractor-trailer costs $140000 and carries 15 tons/trip. Operation and maintenance costs (including fuel) of the truck are $50000/yr; the driver makes $40000 per year (including benefits). The capital costs of the building and transfer trucks are to be amortized over a 10-yr period using a 12% discount factor. Suppose, it takes 30 minutes to make a one-way trip from the transfer station to the disposal site and 7 round trips per day are made. Find the transfer station and hauling cost in dollars per ton. 141
  • 142. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Solution: 142
  • 143. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste A variable trucking cost over variable trip time, along with the fixed cost of the transfer station itself, results in the following graph: 143
  • 144. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Problem: Costs of a Transfer Station and Its Vehicles Determine the break-even time for a stationary-container system and a separate transfer and transport system for transporting wastes collected from a metropolitan area to a landfill disposal site. Assume the following cost and system data are applicable: 1. Transportation costs: (a) Stationary-container system using an 18 m3 compactor = $20/h (b) Tractor-trailer transport unit with a capacity of 120 m3 = $25/h 2. Other costs: (a) Transfer station operating cost, including amortization = $0.40/m3 (b) Extra cost for unloading facilities for Tractor-trailer transport unit = $0.05/m3 3. Other data: (a) Density of wastes in compactor = 325 kg/m3 (b) Density of wastes in transport units = 150 kg/m3 144
  • 145. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste 145
  • 146. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Comparison of two systems: (i) Before the break-even time, SCS seems to be more economic (ii) At break-even time, two systems are indifferent. (iii) After the break-even time, transfer transport system seems to be more economic 146
  • 147. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Solution: Find unit cost Tk./m3/min A. Hauled container system: 8 m3 @ Tk. 8/hr 1 m3 cost = 8/8 = Tk. 1/m3/hr = Tk. 1/60 /m3/min = Tk. 0.0167/m3/min B. Stationary container system: 20 m3 @ Tk. 12/hr 1 m3 cost = 8/8 = Tk. 12/(20*60)/m3/min = Tk. 0.01 /m3/min Tractor-trailer: 120 m3 @ Tk.16/hr 1 m3 cost = 16/(120*60) = Tk. 0.0022 /m3/min Determine the break-even time for a hauled container system and a stationary container system as compared to a system using transfer and transport operations, when the following data are applicable: 1. Transportation costs: a) HCS using a hoist truck with 8-m3 container = Tk. 8/hr. b) SCS using 20-m3 compactor = Tk. 12/hr. c) Tractor-trailer transpor t unit 120-m3 capacity = Tk. 16/hr. 2. Transfer station costs: Amortization and operation Costs = Tk. 0.35/m3 147
  • 148. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Find unit costs for different haul times as shown in table below and plot them: 148
  • 149. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Collection of S. waste Haul time (min) 149
  • 150. Dr. Engr. Md. Mahmudul HASAN Thanks 150