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Bit Selection.ppt

  1. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Bit Selection
  2. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Procedure Define Objective Offset Analysis Geological Analysis Dull Bit Analysis Selection Process
  3. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Define Objective  Usually trying to achieve lowest cost per foot  But some cases - try to maximize  ROP  Meters Drilled  Good dull Footage Trip Drill t Rig Bit ft Cost ) ( cos /   
  4. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Define Objective Factors to consider  Interval length and diameter  Well paths  Directional considerations, Hit the Target  BHA  Stabilization  Drive Types: Rotary Steerable System, PDM, Turbine  Mud systems  Water Based, Gel Chem, Silicate, Oil Based  Rig Capabilities  Single, Double, Triple, Pumps, Motors
  5. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Objective Example - Motors  Roller cone  Premium bearing package for high speed application  Premium gage package for side loading  PDC  Features to limit torque and maintain toolface control  Features to aid in steerability  Gage protection
  6. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Procedure Define Objective Offset Analysis Geological Analysis Dull Bit Analysis Selection Process
  7. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Offset Analysis  Historical search on bits ran in the area  Radial search or select similar formation (fields)  Don’t go back more than 2 years  Define intervals and similar drilling conditions  Select a short list of 5 – 8 top bits  For detailed study  12 – 20 bits for graphing purpose  For field study
  8. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Offset Analysis – Considerations  Are offsets relevant  Similar drilling conditions  Similar mud system  Similar well profile  Similar rigs  Sometimes there are no adequate offset  Need to go by formation data
  9. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Offset Analysis – Benchmarking  Definition  The study of a competitor's product or business practices in order to improve the performance of one's own company  Measuring performance  Comparative analysis
  10. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Offset Analysis – Benchmarking  Review the past performance  Determine “yardsticks”  Benchmark bit – best bit in the application  It must be consistently better to be considered
  11. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Offset Analysis – Benchmarking  From benchmarking  Questions – why is there difference in performance  Have a standard to compare subsequent runs to
  12. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Sample Benchmarking  Northern Canada  Gunnell Field  Drillout at 250m  Must drill to at least to 800m  Trip for BHA change  Trace progression of bit usage
  13. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. 2004 – Drilled vs ROP Meters Drilled vs. ROP 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 10 15 20 25 30 ROP (m/hr) Meters Drilled (m) D51 EBXS20S EP5524 EP5621 FGI08BV FI16VPS
  14. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. 2004 – Depth vs ROP Drilled Interval vs ROP D51 EBXS20S EBXS20S EBXS20S EP5524 EP5621 EP5621 FGI08BV FI16VPS FI16VPS FI16VPS 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 10 15 20 25 30 ROP (m/hr) Depth (m)
  15. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Late 2005 – Drilled vs ROP Meters Drilled vs. ROP 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 10 15 20 25 30 ROP (m/hr) Meters Drilled (m) CH24MS D44 DSX210 EBXS22S EP5621 ER7214VPS GX20 HP44 MER20272BVPX MGR70PX
  16. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Late 2005 – Depth vs ROP Drilled Interval vs ROP CH24MS D44 DSX210 EBXS22S ER7214VPS ER7214VPS GX20 GX20 GX20 HP44 MER20272BVPX MGR70PX 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 10 15 20 25 30 ROP (m/hr) Depth (m)
  17. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Early 2006 – Drilled vs ROP Meters Drilled vs. ROP 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ROP (m/hr) Meters Drilled (m) DSX210 DSX305 HC506ZX M516VHBPX M92BHVPX UD513
  18. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Early 2006 – Depth vs ROP Drilled Interval vs ROP DSX210 DSX210 DSX210 DSX305 DSX305 DSX305 HC506ZX HC506ZX HC506ZX M516VHBPX M516VHBPX M92BHVPX UD513 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ROP (m/hr) Depth (m)
  19. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Procedure Define Objective Offset Analysis Geological Analysis Dull Bit Analysis Selection Process
  20. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Geological Analysis  Logs  DBOS  Understand its limitation  Identify  Homogeneous vs. Interbedded zones  Stringers  Abrasiveness  Compressive strength  Impact damage  Bit balling
  21. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Selection Process  How a bit will drill determined primarily by  Rock-bit interaction  Different type of formation require different modes of interaction
  22. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Roller Cone Bits  Most aggressive cutting action  Soft formation  High ROP applications  Greater cone offset  more twisting and turning of tooth or insert as it moves into and away from the formation  Like a garden shovel Gouging - Scraping
  23. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Roller Cone Bits Gouging - Scraping
  24. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Roller Cone Bits  Most durable cutting action  Hard formation  Low ROP applications  Usually little or no cone offset  Straight indentation of the formation  Like a hammer and chisel Chipping - Crushing
  25. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Roller Cone Bits Chipping - Crushing
  26. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Roller Cone Bits  These two action are the extreme ends of cutting structure spectrum  Most design use a combination of these actions High ROP Low ROP Gouging Scraping Chipping Crushing
  27. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Fixed Cutter Bits  Shearing action  Most efficient cutting action  Rocks typically fracture more easily with shear loading  Require less energy and WOB PDC
  28. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Fixed Cutter Bits  Ploughing and grinding action  Point contact in cutting structure  Require higher RPM for better performance Impreg
  29. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Cutting Action – Shearing  Not a direct vertical penetration of the formation, energy directed into a lateral cutting action  Require sufficient energy to shear formation  WOB – to penetrate formation (Fv)  Torque – to supply lateral (Fcut) force WOB Torque
  30. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Geological Analysis  Understanding the geology is the key to bit selection
  31. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Procedure Define Objective Offset Analysis Geological Analysis Dull Bit Analysis Selection Process
  32. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Dull Bit Analysis  Best if have actual dull  Next best – Dull photos  Last case – dull grades from bit records
  33. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Dull Bit Analysis  Compare the dull conditions of bits from offset  Is the dull consistent with geology?  Does something stand out?  Look for things out of the ordinary and ask why  Reevaluate bit selections based on dull conditions and objectives
  34. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Dull Bit Analysis  Tooth Wear  Off-Center – cutting structure too hard  Tracking  Cutting structure design  Operating parameters  Flat Crested  Operating parameters  High wear – carbide, bit type  Broken compacts – carbide type, shape
  35. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Dull Bit Analysis  Gauge wear  Undergauge  High RPM application  High abrasion application  Directional drilling (sliding)  Solutions  Diamond gauge or heel protection  Bit with greater carbide volume on gauge  Low offset bit
  36. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Dull Grade  Bearing Failure  High RPM application  Mud type  Other Dull Characteristics  Balled  Operating parameters  Hydraulics features – Mini, X-flow, V-flow
  37. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Procedure Define Objective Offset Analysis Geological Analysis Dull Bit Analysis Selection Process
  38. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Selection Process  How a bit will drill determined primarily by  Rock-bit interaction  Other considerations
  39. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Selection Process – FAROPS  Design Factors  Cutting Structure  Inserts/Cutters  Bearing Structure  Formation Properties  Bit Weight  Bit RPM  Hydraulics  Drilling Fluids
  40. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Selection Process Decisions Choices 1 Type of Bit Milltooth, TCI, PDC 2 CS1 – Drillability Aggressive vs. durability 3 CS2 – Cutting Element Type of inserts, cutters 4 CS3 – Specifics Gage durability, etc 5 Features Additional features 6 Hydraulics Nozzle size and configuration
  41. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Selection Process – 1 Formation Soft formation Balling issue Hard formation Interbedded formation Homogeneous formation Mill tooth TCI PDC
  42. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Selection Process  2. CS1  Drillability  3. CS2  Cutting element  4. CS3  5. Features  6. Hydraulics 00-90 Chisel vs conical Insert extension Gage carbide Bit offset Leg protection Diamond protection TFA Nozzle configuration Blade number Cutter size Cutter type Cutter layout Bit Profile Impact, Gage TFA TCI PDC
  43. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Matching Technology to Application Formation Type Operating Environment Operating Parameter Operating Constraints Interbedded Stringers Cmp Strength Abrasiveness Impact Balling Shearing Fracture Hole size Directional BHA Mud type WOB RPM Flow rate Rig constraints Torque limit RPM limit Reaming Junk in Hole
  44. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Summary  Understanding the formation is the key  Use offset to benchmark application  Verify bit performance with dulls
  45. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Example of Offset Study for Bit Selection
  46. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Case Study  Northern BC, Canada  Field: Cutbank  Drill out bit  Casing point: 350-400m  Vertical application  Through Paddy  To Falher
  47. CONFIDENTIAL: For Internal Use Only. May not be disclosed, used or reproduced without written permission from Smith International, Inc. Case Study  Geology – DBOS  Dulls  Offset  Application Matrix
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