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Protection
in Electrical System
‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫أهﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬
Protection
‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻔﻬﻮم‬
‫ﺣﺪوﺛﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‬ ‫أﻡﺮ‬ ‫وﻗﻮع‬ ‫ﺏﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬.
،‫اﻟﺨﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻡﺮ‬ ‫هﺬا‬...
Protection
‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺔ‬
١-‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬
٢-‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫...
1
23
5
6
4
‫ﻲ‬‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻈ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ل‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻄ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻷ‬‫ا‬
Auxiliary
Trip Relay
Alarm System
IPCT
IPVT
VT
CT
+
+
--
110V DC Supply bus wire50V DC Supply bus wire
Main Protective Rel...
‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬
‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺕﺤﺴﺲ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺕﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫زﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﺏﻌﺪ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﺤﻈﻴ‬
‫اﻹﺵﺎرة‬ ‫إرﺱﺎل‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺎﺵﺮة‬‫زﻡﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬...
‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
ٍQuick response
‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬
Simplicity
‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬
...
Operating time
Of Relay
Operating time of
auxiliary Relay
closing time of
Circuit breaker
0 s
time
[s]
Total operating tim...
‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬
‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬Simplicity
‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬Reliability
‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ...
‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬
‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬Sensitivity
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫وﻗﻊ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫أآﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜ...
‫اﻻﻥﺘﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬Selectivity
‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬
‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬
‫وﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬:
-‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪرة‬‫إﻥﺘﻘﺎء‬‫...
‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬Economics
‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬
‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬
‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻇﺮف‬ ‫آﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﺕ...
‫ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬:
‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫وﻥﻈﺎم‬
‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫وﻡﺸﺮوع‬
‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬
‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮي‬ ،‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻥﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴ...
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬Protective relays
‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺕﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬:-‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬‫ﺣﺜﻴﺔ‬)‫آﻬﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬.(
-‫رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺮ...
‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Current Relays
‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ارﺕﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬
Over Current Relays (OCR)
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮ...
‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Current Relays
‫اﻻﺏﺘﺪاﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬
-،‫إﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫أیﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺕﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻻ‬VT’s،CT’s،DC P/S
-‫ﺏﺴﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺿ...
‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Current Relays
‫اﻟﺜﺎﻥﻮیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬
K
L
k
l
-+
a
b
a
b
c
d
e
f
I
φ1
φ2
+
φ2
φ1
a
b
c
d
f
φ1
φ2
I
a b
c
f
e
φ1
φ2
a
b
c
d
I
‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺏﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺕﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺵﻜﺎل‬
‫اﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬
Stopper
‫اﻟﻤﻴﺰان‬ ‫ذراع‬
‫زﻡﺒﺮك‬
‫اﻟﻤﻼﻡﺴﺎت‬
‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬
=
‫اﻟﺰﻡﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺕﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬
X In
Sec.
‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬
Sec.
X In
‫ﻻ‬‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬
Sec.
X In
‫ﻟﺤﻈﻴﺔ‬
X In
Sec...
‫ﺏﺎﺱﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺱﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫زﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫یﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺤﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬
‫زﻡﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﺆﻗﺖ‬
R
S
T
B
K
L
N
k
l
T
4
L
2
1
‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫زیﺎدة‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮاري‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬
‫ﻡﻴﺰﺕﻪ‬:ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺕﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدي‬
‫ﺱﻴﺌﺘﻪ‬:‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬...
K
l
N
3i0=iR+iS+iT
k
IR IS IT
T
I0>
L
‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬
‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺙﻞ‬ ‫وﻋﺪم‬ ،‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺮ...
R
U
+
Sig
‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬Voltage Relays
UVR
OVR
α
If
α
0 0.5 1
Uph
U
α = % of coil length
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Relays
Why?
K L
‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬
3
KL
kl lk
i2i1
id=i1- i2
i1 i2
+
Sig.
1 2
I1 I2
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Re...
K
L‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬
3
KL
kl lk
i2i1
id=i1- i2
i1 i2
+
Sig.
1 2
I1 I2
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Rel...
K
L
‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬
3
KL
kl lk
i2i1
id=i1- i2
i1 i2
+
Sig.
1 2
I1 I2
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Re...
∆i
CT2
CT1
IPVT1
IPVT2
MT
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬
CT1 CT2
CT3
IPVT2
IPVT3
IPVT1
U1
U2
U3
YY
d
Yy0
Yd5
Yd5
Yy0
Yd5
I1 I2
i1
i1’
i3’
i2’
i3
i2
n=5 1
0
I
i
CT’s Characteristics
5In
Point of
saturation
10In
n=10
2
n=20 3
20In
∆I
Unbalance Current
K LKL
kl lk
i2
i1
id = i1- i2=0
i1 i2
1
5
3
2
4
+
is=1/2 (i1+ i2)
‫اﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫یﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫ﺏﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟ...
A
α
idl
is
iop
iop min
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
i2
op = i2
op min + K2
s i2
s
Ks = tg α ‫اﻟﺜﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬Ks
MMF ∝ I2
iS = 0
F in spri...
K LKL
kl lk
i2
i1
2i = i1- i2
i1 i2
1
5
3
2
4
+
0= (i1+ i2)
I1
I2
‫ﻣﺴﺎرات‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟ...
‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬
‫اﻟﻘﻮى‬ ‫ﺥﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ،‫ﻣﺒﺎﺵﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻥﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
is=...
Moment ∝ I iop = iop min + Ks is
Ks = tg α KS & α = f(N2 of TS or R)
Not applicable
characteristics
Unbalance current
Oper...
I1 I2
I>
i1 i2
i1 – i2
id = i1 – i2
N2
N2
Ns
Ns
NdNi i2
i2
φd
φs
φi
φs
Protec. Element
Magnetic Balance Relay
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬Directional Protection Relays
0.2 s0.4 s0.6 s
0.8 s
0.2 s0.4 s0.6 s
If
If
If If
If
Supply
0.2 s0.4 s0.8...
‫ﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ه‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬
‫ﻡﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫إﻋﻄﺎﺋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺕﻜﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﺕﺤﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓ...
1
4
3
φi
ir I
iu
2
φu
ur
‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ه‬‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ﻻﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﻤﺮ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫یﺘﺄﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻡﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻥﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﺮآﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ی...
1
4
‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﻡﻜﻮﻥﺎت‬)‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬(
3
φi
ir I
iu
2
φu
ur
1
4
3
φi
ir I
iu
2
φu
ur
‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ه‬‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ﻻﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﻤﺮ‬‫اﻟ‬
M = k φiφusinψ
φi ∝ I φu ∝ U
α
ϕ
ψ
φi
δu
δi
φu
ϕ
I
ψu
Iu
U
δ...
P = IU cos (ϕ + α) + (U/2)2 + (I/2)2 - (U/2)2 + (I/2)2
P = (U/2)2 + (UI cos(ϕ + α))/2 + (I/2)2 – (U/2)2 - (U/2)2 cos(ϕ + α...
U
|U + I| |U - I|
U
|U + I| |U - I|
‫اﻟﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎت‬ ‫وﻃﺮح‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻥﺔ‬ ‫إن‬‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻞ‬:
R
iu + ii iu - ii
...
R
iu + ii iu - ii
ii
iu
U
ir
‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬
R
iu + ii
iu - ii
ii
iu
U
ir
IDC ∝ (iu + ii)
IDC ∝ (iu - ii)
ir = | iu + ii | - |...
iu - ii
| iu + ii | - | iu - ii |
ii
iu
iu + ii
| iu + ii | - | iu - ii |
iu
iiϕ
Lagging iu by ϕ
<
Power Direction in the
...
1
4
3
φi
ir I
iu
2
φu
ur
‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ه‬‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ﻻﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﻤﺮ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫یﺘﺄﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻡﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻥﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﺮآﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ی...
‫ﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ه‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬
Total Operating Power : Ur ir = Sr [VA]
Sop = Mm / K Cos(ϕr + α)
The relay ...
‫ﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ه‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻂ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ر‬ In this case : ϕr = ϕ + β
β - New angle obtained by reconnections...
‫ﺑﺎﺥﺘﻴﺎر‬‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﺪاﺥﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬α‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬...
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺱﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺹﺮ‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬‫هﻲ‬:
-‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاویﺔ‬)...
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ (P - j Q ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻰ‬)
jQ
P
jQ
P
O
perate
Not
Oper...
A Theoretical setting valueG Nominal value relay.
Error Boundary when U=100% UnError Boundary when U=K1% Un K1<100%
Error ...
ϕ = const.
Operate
Not Operate
Voltage U
Iop
Operating
Current
Operating Characteristics of Directional relay as Iop = f(U)
0
30°
60°90°120°
150°
180°
150°
60°90°120°
30°
Theoretical
Characteristic
Reference
Phase
Direction of
non reference
value...
Operating Characteristics of Directional relay as Uop = f(I)
ϕ1 ϕ2 ϕ3
Operate
Not Operate
I
Uop
Time Characteristics of Directional relay
P
t (s)
Nom.
power
Set
point
Top.
P
t
s or min.
Operating
Time
Time Characteristics of Directional relay
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬Distance Relays
LTL >> No of TL Supplies >> Complex form Of TL >>
Geographical & Natural Conditions bec...
G G
A B C D
F
1 2 3 4 5 6
UfUf
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬Distance Relays
UopUop
Old Criteria : top ∝ U
Disadvantages:
- U = f(ZL,...
LiLu
U
i
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
u = cu1 USC i = ci1 ISC Fu = cu2 u2 Fi = ci2 i2
Fu Lu= Fi Li cu u2 = ci i2
(u/i)...
ϕSC
K
Z0 = K
Z = k1/c = K R2 + X2 = K
Rarc
U
i
ki
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
u – ki 2 = i2
z = u/i z – k 2 = 1
It’s a vector has ohm character
If the angle bet...
z2 – 2zk cosϕ + k2 = 1
k
ϕ ϕsc
Z = Kz
Z2 – 2ZkK cosϕ + (kK)2 = K2
kK
ϕsc
K
K ϕsc
K
For k = 1 Z2 – 2ZK cosϕ + K2 = K2
‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬
...
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
K=0 1
i
U-ki
|u-ki| |i|+
Sig.
New Criteria : top ∝ (U, 1/If)
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬Distance Relays
top = K U/If = K Zline
Zline = Z1 * L & U = I * Z1 * L
T...
‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﻡﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻡﻜﻮﻥﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻲ‬
+
+
+ -
-
-
S D M F
T
t (s)
L (Km)
t4
t3
t2
t1
L’1
L’2 L’3
‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays
Utr >> & Ltr >>
Protective Distance >>
⇓
Ptr >> ⇒ Znor. Cond. or ZO/L ≤ Zop
Operating ...
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays
‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫أﺹﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺬا‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ‬
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺏﻤﺠﺮد‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫یﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫أن‬
‫ﺏ...
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays
‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺥﺘﻼف‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻥﻈﺮ‬‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬‫ﻻﺥﺘﻼف‬ ‫إﻣﻜﺎﻥﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎك‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬
‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ...
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays
‫اﻷﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫أﻥﻮاع‬ ‫أﺑﺴﻂ‬‫هﻮ‬
)Impedance Relays(
‫وﺗﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ...
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays
D
D
R
jX
Zo
α
Line
Zop
ϕs
Zo = Zop min
Zo = Zop Cos(ϕs - α)
β = f(α)
According to inte...
Zo = Zop Cosϕs = Rop = const
For α = 0
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays
Changing internal angle (α)
We'll obtained defe...
Zo = Zop Sin ϕs = Xop = constα = 90 ⇒
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays
jX
R
D
D
Xop Zop
Line
ϕs
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت‬ ‫وﺝﺪت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫إن‬
‫واﺳﻌﺔ‬‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰم‬ ‫ﺝﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ...
MHO Relays
jX
R
Line
ϕS
⇓
α=0°
Conductance Characteristics
jX
R
Line
ϕS
⇓
α=90°
Reactance Characteristics
MHO Relays
،‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫وﺑﻬﺪف‬
‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺵﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻼت...
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮس‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺏـ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮس‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴ...
‫إﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺕﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ، ‫أوﻡﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺏﻊ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫وهﺬﻩ‬
ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎﻃﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺕﻘﺪیﺮ...
For MHO Relays (X)
Ra
Zm
ZS
jX
R
Impedance Relays
Ra
Zm
ZS
jX
R
Resistance Relays
RaZS
Zm
jX
R
Inductance Relays
jX
Ra
ZS
Zm
R
الوقايه فى النظام الكهربائى 3
الوقايه فى النظام الكهربائى 3
الوقايه فى النظام الكهربائى 3
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الوقايه فى النظام الكهربائى 3

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الوقايه فى النظام الكهربائى 3

  1. 1. Protection in Electrical System ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬
  2. 2. Protection ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻔﻬﻮم‬ ‫ﺣﺪوﺛﻪ‬ ‫ﻡﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‬ ‫أﻡﺮ‬ ‫وﻗﻮع‬ ‫ﺏﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬. ،‫اﻟﺨﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻡﺮ‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫أﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻡﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻄﺎع‬ ‫ﻗﺪر‬ ‫ﺿﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺣﺼﺮﻩ‬ ،‫اﻥﺘﺸﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﺪ‬. ‫وأﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫دواﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺕﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬)‫أﻥﻈﻤﺔ‬(‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬. ‫اﻷ‬ ‫وﻗﻮع‬ ‫اﻓﺘﺮاض‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫یﻜﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻥﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬‫ﻋﻄﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬: ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬ ‫وﻥﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫اﺻﻄﻼﺣ‬:
  3. 3. Protection ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺔ‬ ١-‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻄﺎل‬ ‫ﻥﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ‬
  4. 4. 1 23 5 6 4 ‫ﻲ‬‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻈ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ل‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻄ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻷ‬‫ا‬
  5. 5. Auxiliary Trip Relay Alarm System IPCT IPVT VT CT + + -- 110V DC Supply bus wire50V DC Supply bus wire Main Protective Relay AC Contact Timer ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻡﻜﻮﻥﺎت‬ Trip Coil R Y B ‫اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ‬
  6. 6. ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺕﺤﺴﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺕﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫زﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﺏﻌﺪ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﺤﻈﻴ‬ ‫اﻹﺵﺎرة‬ ‫إرﺱﺎل‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺎﺵﺮة‬‫زﻡﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫أآﺜﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻥﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺰل‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻋ‬
  7. 7. ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ٍQuick response ‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬ Simplicity ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬ Reliability ‫اﻻﻥﺘﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ Selectivity ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬ ٍSensitivity ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدیﺔ‬ Economy ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬
  8. 8. Operating time Of Relay Operating time of auxiliary Relay closing time of Circuit breaker 0 s time [s] Total operating time of protection circuit ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬Speed ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮارﻳﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫أﺝﺰاء‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫اﻥﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫اﻷﺿﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬: ‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬
  9. 9. ‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ‬Simplicity ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬Reliability ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻥﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬‫اﻟﻌﻄ‬ ‫وﻗﻊ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺸﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺔ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺝﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺎز‬ ‫أن‬‫إرﺳﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ﺝﺎهﺰﻳﺔ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻄﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻥﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻮ‬ ‫وأن‬ ُ‫ی‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻄﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺕﻜﻤﻦ‬‫ﺏﻬﺎ‬ ‫َد‬‫و‬‫ﺰ‬
  10. 10. ‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬Sensitivity ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫وﻗﻊ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫أآﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬‫إرﺳﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫أﺳﻮأ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إرﺳﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻋﻄﺎل‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫أن‬ Ks = If min / Io Ks > 1.4 -‫اﻟﺠﻴﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﺮة‬ -‫ﻷﺝﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﺴﺲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﺠﻌﻞ‬ -‫وﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﺺ‬ ‫أﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ -‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺼﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺰوﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬. ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺏﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺴﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺕﺘﻮﺹﻞ‬ ‫آﻴﻒ‬
  11. 11. ‫اﻻﻥﺘﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬Selectivity ‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬: -‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪرة‬‫إﻥﺘﻘﺎء‬‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬. -‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺰل‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮاﻃﻊ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫اﺥﺘﻴﺎر‬. -‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫وﻇﺮوف‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪرة‬. -‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫آﺎن‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪرة‬‫ﻣﺴﺆوﻟﻴﺘﻪ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫أم‬. F2 CB1 F1 CB3 CB4 CB2 A B X X X X X X X X G1 G2 C
  12. 12. ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬Economics ‫ﺔ‬‫ی‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬‫ﻞ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺺ‬ ‫ﺋ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻇﺮف‬ ‫آﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﺕﻮﻓﻴﺮ‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﻡﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫أﻡﺮ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫إﻗﺘﺼﺎدی‬. ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻡﻮر‬ ‫ﺕﺤﻜﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺱﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫إن‬: -‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻵﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ -‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻵﻟﺔ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻥﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫أﺛﺮ‬ ‫وﻡﺪى‬.
  13. 13. ‫ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬: ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫وﻥﻈﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫وﻡﺸﺮوع‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮي‬ ،‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻥﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺒﻂ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪات‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻼﻣﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أآﺜﺮ‬ ‫أو‬. ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬‫ﻥﻮﻋﻪ‬‫أو‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪأ‬‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫أو‬‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺒﻪ‬ )‫رﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺣﺜﻲ‬( ‫أﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫وﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺝﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫وﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫واﺝﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄدﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺎون‬. ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ‬:‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮف‬ ‫وﺣﺴﺐ‬: ‫اﻷرﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻋﻄﺎل‬ ‫أو‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬. .... ‫ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫وﻳﺴﻤﻰ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﻥﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ،‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪة‬: ‫وﻏﻴﺮهﺎ‬ ،‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮل‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺸﺮوع‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوع‬
  14. 14. ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬Protective relays ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺕﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬:-‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬‫ﺣﺜﻴﺔ‬)‫آﻬﺮوﻡﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬.( -‫رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬)‫إﻟﻴﻜﺘﺮوﻥﻴﺔ‬.( ‫ﺕﺘﺤﺴﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬:-‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬. -‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬. -‫اﻟﺘﺮدد‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬. -‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ -.....‫وﻏﻴﺮهﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺵ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﺜ‬‫آ‬‫ﻷ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻒ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻮ‬‫ه‬‫و‬ . ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﻮﻗﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ -‫اﺏﺘﺪاﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬)Fuses, MCB’s( -‫ﺛﺎﻥﻮیﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬)Protec. Relays( ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ -‫إﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬ -‫ﻻ‬‫إﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬ -‫ﻡﺮآﺒﺔ‬
  15. 15. ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Current Relays ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ارﺕﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ Over Current Relays (OCR) ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ Deferential Relays ‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ Unbalance Relays
  16. 16. ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Current Relays ‫اﻻﺏﺘﺪاﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ -،‫إﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫أیﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺕﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻻ‬VT’s،CT’s،DC P/S -‫ﺏﺴﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻄﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﺪارة‬ ‫ﺕﻴﺎر‬ ‫آﺎﻡﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺕﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫آﻮﻥﻬﺎ‬.
  17. 17. ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Current Relays ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻥﻮیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ K L k l -+
  18. 18. a b a b c d e f I φ1 φ2 + φ2 φ1 a b c d f φ1 φ2 I a b c f e φ1 φ2 a b c d I ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺏﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺕﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺵﻜﺎل‬
  19. 19. ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻒ‬ Stopper ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺰان‬ ‫ذراع‬ ‫زﻡﺒﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﻡﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬ =
  20. 20. ‫اﻟﺰﻡﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺕﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ X In Sec. ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬ Sec. X In ‫ﻻ‬‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺔ‬ Sec. X In ‫ﻟﺤﻈﻴﺔ‬ X In Sec. ‫ﻡﺮآﺒﺔ‬
  21. 21. ‫ﺏﺎﺱﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺱﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫زﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫یﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺤﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫زﻡﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﺆﻗﺖ‬ R S T B K L N k l
  22. 22. T 4 L 2 1 ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫زیﺎدة‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮاري‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻡﻴﺰﺕﻪ‬:ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺕﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدي‬ ‫ﺱﻴﺌﺘﻪ‬:‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻥﺨﻔﺎض‬ ‫ﺏﻌﺪ‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدﺕﻪ‬ ‫یﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬
  23. 23. K l N 3i0=iR+iS+iT k IR IS IT T I0> L ‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺙﻞ‬ ‫وﻋﺪم‬ ،‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
  24. 24. R U + Sig ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬Voltage Relays UVR OVR
  25. 25. α If α 0 0.5 1 Uph U α = % of coil length ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Relays Why?
  26. 26. K L ‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬ 3 KL kl lk i2i1 id=i1- i2 i1 i2 + Sig. 1 2 I1 I2 ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Relays ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺿﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫یﻌﻤﻞ‬)‫اﻟﻔﺮق‬(‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎرات‬ ‫ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺨﺎرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‬
  27. 27. K L‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬ 3 KL kl lk i2i1 id=i1- i2 i1 i2 + Sig. 1 2 I1 I2 ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Relays ‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬: I1 = I2 , i1 = i2 & id = i1 – i2 If i1 = i2 then id = 0 ‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬: I1 ≠ I2 , i1 ≠ i2 & id = i1 – i2 ≠0
  28. 28. K L ‫اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎیﺘﻪ‬ 3 KL kl lk i2i1 id=i1- i2 i1 i2 + Sig. 1 2 I1 I2 ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬Deferential Relays ‫ﻡﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻄﻪ‬ ‫یﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻡﺮور‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫یﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﺏﺤﻴﺚ‬‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺕﺘﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﺕﻴﺎر‬ )10%-40%(‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬‫اﻹﺱﻤﻲ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎز‬. Actually i1 ≠ i2 : - Vector group of protected Tr. - n1 ≠ n2 - Outside S/C. - Prim. Curr. of Protected Tr. ≠ Sec. Curr. - Protected Tr. Have ON Load Tap Changer. Relay (3) isn't instantaneous relay
  29. 29. ∆i CT2 CT1 IPVT1 IPVT2 MT
  30. 30. ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ CT1 CT2 CT3 IPVT2 IPVT3 IPVT1 U1 U2 U3 YY d Yy0 Yd5 Yd5 Yy0 Yd5 I1 I2 i1 i1’ i3’ i2’ i3 i2
  31. 31. n=5 1 0 I i CT’s Characteristics 5In Point of saturation 10In n=10 2 n=20 3 20In ∆I Unbalance Current
  32. 32. K LKL kl lk i2 i1 id = i1- i2=0 i1 i2 1 5 3 2 4 + is=1/2 (i1+ i2) ‫اﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫یﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫ﺏﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﺎﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻥﺴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ Differential Coil Stabilizing Coil
  33. 33. A α idl is iop iop min ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ i2 op = i2 op min + K2 s i2 s Ks = tg α ‫اﻟﺜﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬Ks MMF ∝ I2 iS = 0 F in spring ∝ Unbalance current Operating Characteristics
  34. 34. K LKL kl lk i2 i1 2i = i1- i2 i1 i2 1 5 3 2 4 + 0= (i1+ i2) I1 I2 ‫ﻣﺴﺎرات‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬ ‫وﺝﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎرات‬
  35. 35. ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮى‬ ‫ﺥﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ،‫ﻣﺒﺎﺵﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻥﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ is=1/2(i1+i2) id= i1 - i2 ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ TS Td i1 i2 I1 I21 2 3 4 Principal of electrical Balance Relay 5 + Closing Opening
  36. 36. Moment ∝ I iop = iop min + Ks is Ks = tg α KS & α = f(N2 of TS or R) Not applicable characteristics Unbalance current Operating Characteristics Non linear resistance or EMF In stabilizing circuit A B a b idl In xIn is iop α iop min
  37. 37. I1 I2 I> i1 i2 i1 – i2 id = i1 – i2 N2 N2 Ns Ns NdNi i2 i2 φd φs φi φs Protec. Element Magnetic Balance Relay
  38. 38. ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬Directional Protection Relays 0.2 s0.4 s0.6 s 0.8 s 0.2 s0.4 s0.6 s If If If If If Supply 0.2 s0.4 s0.8 s Why?
  39. 39. ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ه‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻡﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫إﻋﻄﺎﺋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫أهﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺕﻜﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫ﺕﺤﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎیﺔ‬ ‫وأﻥﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬: ‫اﻥﺘﻘﺎﺋﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫وﺕﺮﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺱﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ،‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎدیﺘﻬﺎ‬. ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻡﺘﺠﻪ‬ ‫اﻥﺤﺮاف‬ ‫زاویﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬. P = KU I Cos ϕ 90° ≥ ϕ ≥ 0° P > 0 if or 0° ≥ ϕ ≥ 270° Else P < 0
  40. 40. 1 4 3 φi ir I iu 2 φu ur ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ه‬‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ﻻﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﻤﺮ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫یﺘﺄﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻡﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻥﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﺮآﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫یﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺏﻌﺰم‬ ‫یﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻡﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬. Mr = K Ur ir Cos(ϕr + α) - Mm ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬:Mr–‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺙﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰم‬ ϕr–‫واﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬. α–‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺥﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬. K–‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺙﺎﺑﺖ‬. Mm–‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻥﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰم‬)،‫اﻟﺰﻣﺒﺮك‬ ،‫اﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎك‬....‫وﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬. Mr = 0 or >0 or <0 Depends on (ϕr + α) To be Operate K Ur ir Cos(ϕr + α) ≥ Mm
  41. 41. 1 4 ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﻡﻜﻮﻥﺎت‬)‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬( 3 φi ir I iu 2 φu ur
  42. 42. 1 4 3 φi ir I iu 2 φu ur ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ه‬‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ﻻﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﻤﺮ‬‫اﻟ‬ M = k φiφusinψ φi ∝ I φu ∝ U α ϕ ψ φi δu δi φu ϕ I ψu Iu U δi = δu M = k1 IU sin(ψu - ϕ) ψu = 90 - α M = k1 IU cos(ϕ + α) If P = IU cos (ϕ + α) M = k1 P
  43. 43. P = IU cos (ϕ + α) + (U/2)2 + (I/2)2 - (U/2)2 + (I/2)2 P = (U/2)2 + (UI cos(ϕ + α))/2 + (I/2)2 – (U/2)2 - (U/2)2 cos(ϕ + α))/2 + (I/2)2 P = U/2 + I/2 2 - U/2 - I/2 2 U I |U + I|2 |U - I|2
  44. 44. U |U + I| |U - I| U |U + I| |U - I|
  45. 45. ‫اﻟﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺎت‬ ‫وﻃﺮح‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻥﺔ‬ ‫إن‬‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻞ‬: R iu + ii iu - ii ii iu U ir Electrical Balance Relays ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬ Tr1 Tr2
  46. 46. R iu + ii iu - ii ii iu U ir
  47. 47. ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺕﺰان‬ ‫ﻡﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬ R iu + ii iu - ii ii iu U ir IDC ∝ (iu + ii) IDC ∝ (iu - ii) ir = | iu + ii | - | iu - ii | ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫ﺏﺪ‬ ‫إﻟﻴﻜﺘﺮوﻥﻴﺔ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﺕﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬R
  48. 48. iu - ii | iu + ii | - | iu - ii | ii iu iu + ii | iu + ii | - | iu - ii | iu iiϕ Lagging iu by ϕ < Power Direction in the opposite Bus Direction < If the P. Direc. Be changed The polarity of ir changed ⇒ M will change its direction ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎرات‬ ‫ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻥﺤﺮاف‬ iu - ii 180° Power Direction as same as Bus Direction iu + ii
  49. 49. 1 4 3 φi ir I iu 2 φu ur ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ه‬‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ﻻﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﻤﺮ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫یﺘﺄﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻡﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻥﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﺮآﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫یﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺏﻌﺰم‬ ‫یﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻡﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪرة‬. Mr = K Ur ir Cos(ϕr + α) - Mm ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬:Mr–‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺙﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰم‬ ϕr–‫واﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬. α–‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺥﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬. K–‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺙﺎﺑﺖ‬. Mm–‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻥﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰم‬)،‫اﻟﺰﻣﺒﺮك‬ ،‫اﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎك‬....‫وﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬. Mr = 0 or >0 or <0 Depends on (ϕr + α) To be Operate K Ur ir Cos(ϕr + α) ≥ Mm
  50. 50. ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ه‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ Total Operating Power : Ur ir = Sr [VA] Sop = Mm / K Cos(ϕr + α) The relay will be very Sensitive If ϕr + α = 0 because of Sop = Sop min ϕ - Angle between Ir & Ur During Fault time To be operate with max. sensitivity Should ϕr + α = ϕ & Mm = min Above conditions obtained by Changing α using reconnections
  51. 51. ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ه‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻂ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ر‬ In this case : ϕr = ϕ + β β - New angle obtained by reconnections on the Relay terminals Reconnections can be made by connecting the current circuit on One phase wile the voltage circuit on the other phase, also by mixing phase & line voltages & currents together. β=0 Ir Ur 0 ϕ Ir Ur 0 ϕ 30 β= - 30 Ir Ur 0 ϕ 90 β= - 90 β>0 , Lagging β<0 , Leading
  52. 52. ‫ﺑﺎﺥﺘﻴﺎر‬‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﺪاﺥﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬α‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫أآﺒﺮ‬ϕ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫وﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ،‫ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻥﻮاع‬: α + β = 90° (VAR) Q - relays Depending on it’s construction these relays can be divided into : - Induction relays, - Electro dynamic Relays, - Electrical Balance Relays. ‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ α + β = 30° - 180° (VA) S - relays α + β = 0° (W) P - relays α + β = 180° Reverse Power relays
  53. 53. ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺱﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺹﺮ‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬‫هﻲ‬: -‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاویﺔ‬)α(‫اﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫وﺕﺄﺧﺬ‬)0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 90°, 180°( ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪهﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫وﻳﻜﻮن‬ -‫اﻟﺘﻮﺹﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮیﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺕﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاویﺔ‬)β(‫اﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬)0° or 90°( ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬،‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫واﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﻌﻠﻴ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ‬ -‫اﻟﺰاوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﺄ‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﺄ‬ ‫وهﻮ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺱﺔ‬ -‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺱﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻹﺣﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻪ‬‫وﺕﺆدي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺕﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ -‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺕﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬(110 Or 110√3 V (‫أو‬) 1 or 5 A ‫اﻟﻌﺎدة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬)
  54. 54. ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻻﺕﺠﺎهﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ (P - j Q ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻰ‬) jQ P jQ P O perate Not Operate NeverOperate AlwaysOperate α α=45o α=0o Error Boundary when U=100% Un Error Boundary when U=K1% Un K1<100% Error Boundary when U=K2% Un K2< K1 Theoretical Characteristic Min. op. Power Actual char. Little bet deff. From ideal one.
  55. 55. A Theoretical setting valueG Nominal value relay. Error Boundary when U=100% UnError Boundary when U=K1% Un K1<100% Error Boundary when U=K2% Un K2< K1 Theoretical characteristic ∝ = 0° P jQ AG Always Operate Never Operate Actual oper.Char. of Direc. P Relay
  56. 56. ϕ = const. Operate Not Operate Voltage U Iop Operating Current Operating Characteristics of Directional relay as Iop = f(U)
  57. 57. 0 30° 60°90°120° 150° 180° 150° 60°90°120° 30° Theoretical Characteristic Reference Phase Direction of non reference value Always Operate Never Operate Error Boundary when 100% Reference value Error Boundary when K1% reference value Oper. Char. of Direc. relay in polar system α = 30°
  58. 58. Operating Characteristics of Directional relay as Uop = f(I) ϕ1 ϕ2 ϕ3 Operate Not Operate I Uop
  59. 59. Time Characteristics of Directional relay P t (s) Nom. power Set point
  60. 60. Top. P t s or min. Operating Time Time Characteristics of Directional relay
  61. 61. ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬Distance Relays LTL >> No of TL Supplies >> Complex form Of TL >> Geographical & Natural Conditions become more Difficult Probability of Faults becomes more & more request the protective relays to have a high speed to eliminate the faults as quick as possible. 0.20.40.60.811.2 1.210.80.60.40.2 Solution: top<< as Lfault <<
  62. 62. G G A B C D F 1 2 3 4 5 6 UfUf ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬Distance Relays UopUop Old Criteria : top ∝ U Disadvantages: - U = f(ZL, If) ⇒ top>> as If >> - Zfault >> so U >> ⇒ top >>
  63. 63. LiLu U i ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ u = cu1 USC i = ci1 ISC Fu = cu2 u2 Fi = ci2 i2 Fu Lu= Fi Li cu u2 = ci i2 (u/i)2 = ci/cu = k1 2 u/I = cu1 USC/ci1 ISC= c Z Z = k1/c = K
  64. 64. ϕSC K Z0 = K Z = k1/c = K R2 + X2 = K Rarc
  65. 65. U i ki ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ u – ki 2 = i2 z = u/i z – k 2 = 1 It’s a vector has ohm character If the angle between k & z is ϕ then : z2 – 2zk cosϕ + k2 = 1
  66. 66. z2 – 2zk cosϕ + k2 = 1 k ϕ ϕsc Z = Kz Z2 – 2ZkK cosϕ + (kK)2 = K2 kK ϕsc K
  67. 67. K ϕsc K For k = 1 Z2 – 2ZK cosϕ + K2 = K2 ‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ MOH Relay
  68. 68. ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ K=0 1 i U-ki |u-ki| |i|+ Sig.
  69. 69. New Criteria : top ∝ (U, 1/If) ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬Distance Relays top = K U/If = K Zline Zline = Z1 * L & U = I * Z1 * L These Relays called : Impedance or Distance Relays Impedance of length unit Distance R - FVoltage where the Relay build in
  70. 70. ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﻡﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻡﻜﻮﻥﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻲ‬ + + + - - - S D M F T
  71. 71. t (s) L (Km) t4 t3 t2 t1 L’1 L’2 L’3 ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
  72. 72. ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays Utr >> & Ltr >> Protective Distance >> ⇓ Ptr >> ⇒ Znor. Cond. or ZO/L ≤ Zop Operating Conditions Zline < Zset ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﻡﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺕﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﻡﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻥﻬﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪارة‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺮیﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدرة‬ ‫ﺕﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺰاﺋﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫اﻹرﺱﺎء‬.
  73. 73. ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays ‫ﻡﻦ‬ ‫أﺹﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺬا‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺏﻤﺠﺮد‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫یﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺏﻨﻘﺼﺎن‬ ‫إﺣﺴﺎﺱﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ویﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﺏﻞ‬ ،‫ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫زاویﺔ‬ ‫یﺘﺤﺴﺲ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎﻥﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻡﻴﻞ‬ ‫یﻘﻴﺲ‬. B A B’ A’ jX R ZL between A & B Rarc + Rf.point At ideal cases relay Should operate, if the measured impedance Less than A-B & ϕ ≈ ϕs ϕs : S/C angle of faulty line. To be relay operated correctly for any fault happened a long A - B it should has the characteristics above. But when S/C accurse there is an additional ohm resistance Added to the line impedance. Because of S/C arc. ϕS ZS ϕ Zn At normal cases ϕ ≈ 0
  74. 74. ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺥﺘﻼف‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻥﻈﺮ‬‫اﻟﻔﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬‫ﻻﺥﺘﻼف‬ ‫إﻣﻜﺎﻥﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎك‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬: ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫یﻘﻴﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ Us/Is = Zs ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫اﺱﻢ‬ Impedance Us/Is Cosϕs = Zs Cosϕs = Rs Resistive Us/Is Sinϕs = Zs Sinϕs = Xs Reactance Is/Us= 1/Zs = Ys Admitance Is/Us Cosϕs =Ys Cosϕs = G Conductance Is/Us Sinϕs =Ys Sinϕs = B Suseptance
  75. 75. ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays ‫اﻷﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫أﻥﻮاع‬ ‫أﺑﺴﻂ‬‫هﻮ‬ )Impedance Relays( ‫وﺗﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻟﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻥﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫وﻻ‬. Zop = const. Line D D jX R Zop If Z < Zop Relay will Operate Because of Z not f(ϕ) so This type of relay need Directional unit, D - D Making new reconnections on the relay terminals, the circle can Be moved left, up, right or down.
  76. 76. ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays D D R jX Zo α Line Zop ϕs Zo = Zop min Zo = Zop Cos(ϕs - α) β = f(α) According to internal angle in the relay (α) Which determine Zop.min we can draw the following char. β This type of relay need Directional unit, D - D
  77. 77. Zo = Zop Cosϕs = Rop = const For α = 0 ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays Changing internal angle (α) We'll obtained deferent Kinds Of Characteristics ⇓ jX R D D R0 Rop Line ϕs
  78. 78. Zo = Zop Sin ϕs = Xop = constα = 90 ⇒ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻼت‬Distance Relays jX R D D Xop Zop Line ϕs
  79. 79. ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت‬ ‫وﺝﺪت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫إن‬ ‫واﺳﻌﺔ‬‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰم‬ ‫ﺝﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫إذ‬‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬: MHO Relays Line ϕS Zop jX Rα α=45° 1/Zop * ( Cos (ϕs - α)) ‫ﻣﺤﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮهﺎ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪارهﺎ‬ ‫زاوﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﺣﺪاﺙﻴﺎت‬)α.( ‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫هﻨﺎ‬ ‫رﺳﻤﺖ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬α= 45° Relay will operate when Z < Zop No need directional unit for this type of relays This Relay Called MHO Relay as an Opposite of OHM Relays.
  80. 80. MHO Relays jX R Line ϕS ⇓ α=0° Conductance Characteristics
  81. 81. jX R Line ϕS ⇓ α=90° Reactance Characteristics MHO Relays
  82. 82. ،‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﺝﻬﺰة‬ ‫ﺥﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫وﺑﻬﺪف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺵﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻼت‬ ‫إﻥﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬: MHO Relays ϕS jX R Zop ZS Zop jX R
  83. 83. ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎیﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮس‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺏـ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺏﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮس‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺕﻘﺪر‬ ،‫اﻹﻥﺠﻠﻴﺰیﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺹﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬: Ra = 28700/(I1.4) Ω/m ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺕﻴﺎر‬ ‫وﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻥﻮاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺏﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﺏﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺏﺎﻷﺧﺬ‬،‫ﻘﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪود‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺕﻘﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮس‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬(0.5 - 5) Ω ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫أﺱﻮأ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻷرض‬ ‫ﻡﻊ‬ ‫ﻃﻮر‬ ‫وﺹﻞ‬ ‫وﻋﻨﺪ‬(5 – 50) Ω
  84. 84. ‫إﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺕﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ، ‫أوﻡﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺏﻊ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫وهﺬﻩ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎﻃﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺕﻘﺪیﺮ‬ ‫یﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﺏﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻡﻘﺎوﻡﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬. ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪهﺎ‬ ‫یﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺏﺎﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫أﺛﺮهﺎ‬ ‫ویﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ For Impedance Relays Ra ZS Zm jX R For MHO Relays (R) Ra ZS Zm jX R
  85. 85. For MHO Relays (X) Ra Zm ZS jX R
  86. 86. Impedance Relays Ra Zm ZS jX R
  87. 87. Resistance Relays RaZS Zm jX R
  88. 88. Inductance Relays jX Ra ZS Zm R

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