Mobile-assisted Language LearningPromising Opportunities for Foreign Language Learning Mahmoud Al Saidi Sultan Qaboos University Oman
MOBILE-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNINGOutline of Presentation: What is Mobile Learning Why mobile language learning? Classroom applications of MALL The role of educators Challenges and limitations More reading and Resources
WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING? Researchers’ perspectives of mLearning Defining characteristics of mLearning Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL)
WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING? Researchers’ perspectives: Lot’s of DEBAT WHAT IS MOBILE IN MOBILE LEARNING? E Learner? Device? (orientation/(technology)? needs/wants)? Content? ( cloud computing)?
WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING?Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler, 2005: “the possibilities opened up by portable, lightweight devices that are … small enough to fit in a pocket or the palm of one’s hand. Typical examples are mobile phones … smartphones, palmtops and PDAs; Tablet PCs, laptop computers and personal media players” Cameras, data storage devices
WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING?Sharples et al. (2005)“[it] is the learner that is mobile, rather than thetechnology” (p3).
WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING?Defining characteristics: Personalized Situated Authentic Informal Mobile Continuous Collaborative Portable Spontaneous Ubiquitous
WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING?Simple definition A mode of learning which takes place using content or interaction affordances facilitated by mobile devices such as cellphones, mp3 players, notebooks, hand-held mini computers, PDAs, cameras, data storage devices and a number of other portable devices
MOBILE ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (MALL)An approach to language learning thatis assisted or enhanced through theuse of handheld mobile devicesSubset of mobile learning and CALL
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING?1. Mobile device and network ubiquity: 90% of the people on earth are covered by mobile phone network. Colley et. all. (2010) 41% of users have more than one mobile device. The Oracle report (Yu Vespi and Hazen, 201
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING?1. Mobile device and network ubiquity: 85% of mobile phones shipped worldwide by 2011 will have an Internet browser on them. Colley et al. (2010)Near Future:between 2010 – 2015 Web access via mobile will exceeddesktop Web access. (Colley et al. 2010).
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING?1. Mobile device and network ubiquity: (Generation Y) downloaded the most of the commercial or free applications downloaded by all mobile users. (Colley et al. 2010) What about the developing world? “In most African countries Internet usage via cellphones is growing: not by 10 or 20 %, but by several hundred percent year-on-year.” (Colley et al. 2010)
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGELEARNING?2. Our learners – real life: All own cellphones and most of them own smartphones Motivated towards the technology (POSITIVE) Geared to learn informally Suggesting mobile-based materials Already into mobile learning ARE CREATING mobile learning Content
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGELEARNING?3. Research:We need to re-conceptualize learning for the mobileage. Sharples et al. (2005)Mobile learning in general is inevitable in the comingyears. (Kukulska-Hulme 2006)
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGELEARNING?3. Research:Equip educators at individual and institutionallevels with appropriate designs for learning that cancope with and work well for new generations oflearners who take the use of sophisticated technologyfor granted. ( Beethan & Sharpe, 2007)
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGELEARNING?2. What if we as educators justignored this new mode of learning? Failing to do so, will only result in widening the gap between educators’ ideas about learning and those of their students (Kukulska-Hulme & Jones, 2011).
WHY MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING? Advantages: Learner driven and Potential for learner centered autonomy Relatively cheap Encourages and facilitates technology peer interaction Very cheap or totally free Integrates real life into content learning Portable Easy content creation Ubiquitous eBooks etc. Still new and fashionablehttp://www.teachthought.com/technology/reasons-to-use-tablets-in-the-21st-century-classroom/
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALLSome Examples Educational Apps eBooks and eLibraries Social media Informal learning activities Course Management Systems: Moodle for mobile Course administration Audio, video , picture The power of QR Codes
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALLEducational Apps on the rise Leading app producers Augmented reality affordances Mostly for free Easy to use Choice User reviews
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALLEducational Apps Apps from Unreliable sourcesWhat is the Trial Appsdownside? Data Usage Low quality Finding them
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALLAppsExemplary language learningapps
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OF MALL QR Codes What are QR Codes? • Quick Response Code • Optical labels readable by smartphone softwarePowerful teaching/learning tools onsmartphones
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OF MALL QR CodesQR Code Generators QR Code Scanners
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALL QR Codes Both a QR Code Generator and Scanner
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALL QR CodesHow can they be used for language learning?/teaching Apps Text Web Course administration links Classroom activities and quizzes Video Advantage: Do not always require Internet access.
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OF MALL QR Codes - ExampleMobile Students Convertapp scan app to link to QR their App gets Code smartphon downloaded e
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALLQR Code – Try it now!
CLASSROOM APPLICATIONS OFMALLQR Codes – Learn more
THE ROLE OF EDUCATORS Planners: initiate and administer learning schemes, offer opportunities, set policies, rules and regulation Guides/facilitators: appropriate materials – apps, sites etc. Facilitate work of leaners as needed Resource: offer resources and encourage students to explore Tech support LISTENERS: to students’ needs and wants
CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS Teacher resistance Alignment of mobile learning with theoretical frameworks Technology-driven materials and practices Institutional rules Cultural appropriateness Cost Privacy Access to network Cross platform compatibility
MOBILE LEARNING RESOURCESMALL on wikipedia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_Assisted_Language_LearningMobile learning portal:http://www.mobilelearningportal.org/contentview/journalsJournal of technology for ELT:https://sites.google.com/site/journaloftechnologyforelt/archive/april2011/mobileassistedlanguagelearning EDUCAUSE REVIEW ONLINE: https://sites.google.com/site/journaloftechnologyforelt/archive/april2011/m obileassistedlanguagelearning
MLEARNING AND MALL RESOURCESApple Education:http://www.apple.com/education/apps/Mobile Learning: An online reflective journal on Mobile learningpractices:http://mlearning.edublogs.org/2006/08/14/immersive-situated-learning/Top 50 mearning Resources:http://www.slideshare.net/UpsideLearning/top-50mlearningmobilelearningresources
MORE READINGSBeethan, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2007). Rethinking pedagogy for a digitalage: Designing and delivering e-learning. London, UK: RoutledgeFalmer.Chinnery,G. (2006). Emerging technologies. Going to mall: mobile assistedlanguage learning. Language Learning and Technology, 10(1), 19-16Colley, J., DeGani, A., & Stead, G. (2010). What in the World are you doingwith your mobile phone? World differences in the use of mobiles. RetrievedAugust 27, 2011, from http://www.mole-project.net/Colley, J., DeGani, A., & Stead, G. (2010). Future trends in mobile use.Retrieved Aujust 27th, 2011, from http://www.mole-project.net/images/documents/deliverables/global_mobile_trends.pdf
MORE READINGSDias, A. Carvalho, L., Keegan, D. Kismihok, G., Mileva, N., Nix, J., &Rekkedal. T (2008). An Introduction to Mobile Learning. Retrieved 25th July,2011, fromhttp://www.ericsson.com/ericsson/corpinfo/programs/the_role_of_mobile_learning_in_european_education/products/wp/socrates_wp1_english.pdfGeddes, S. (2004). Mobile learning in the 21st century: Benefit for learners.Knowledge Tree e-journal. Retrieved August 9th, 2011, fromhttps://olt.qut.edu.au/udf/OLTCONFERENCEPAPERS/gen/static/papers/Cobcroft_OLT2006_paper.pdf.
MORE READINGSHartman, G. DeGani, A., & Stead, G. (2011). Cross-platform mobiledevelopment. Retrieved August 27th, 2011, from http://www.mole-project.net/images/documents/deliverables/WP4_crossplatform_mobile_development_March2011.pdf Ismail, I., Baharum, H., & Idrus, R.M. (2010). Simplistic is the ingredient formobile learning. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies,4(3), 4 – 8) retrieved July 25th, 2011, from http://online-journals.org/i-jim/issue/view/85Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes and Jones, Chris (2011). The next generation:design and the infrastructure for learning in a mobile and networked world.In: Olofsson, A. D. and Lindberg, J. Ola eds. Informed Design of EducationalTechnologies in Higher Education: Enhanced Learning and Teaching.Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference (an Imprint of IGI Global), pp.57–78.
MORE READINGSKukulska-Hulme. A., and Shield, Lesley (2008). An overview of mobileassisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaborationand interaction. ReCALL, 20(3), pp. 271–289.Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2006). Mobile language learning now and in the future.In: Svensson, Patrik ed. Fr°an vision till praktik: Spr°akutbildning ochInformationsteknik (From vision to practice: language learning and IT).Sweden: Swedish Net University (N¨atuniversitetet), pp. 295–310.Mirland, M. (2006). How should learning activities using mobile technologiesbe designed to support innovative educational practices?. In M. Sharples (ed.)(2006) Big issues in mobile learning. Report of a workshop by theKaleidoscope Network of Excellence Mobile Learning Initiative. University ofNottingham, UK. (p.27 - 29) Retrieved July 9th, 2011, fromhttp://mlearning.noe-kaleidoscope.org/repository/BigIssues.pdf
MORE READINGSNaismith, L., Lonsdale, P., Vavoula, G. and Sharples, M. (2004) LiteratureReview in Mobile Technologies and Learning, Report 11 for Futurelab,Retrieved September 10, 2011, fromhttp://www.futurelab.org.uk/sites/default/files/Mobile_Technologies_and_Learning_review.pdf
MORE READINGSNorbrook, H. and Scott, P. (2003) Motivation in mobile modern foreignlanguage learning. In: Attewell, J., Da Bormida, G., Sharples, M. and Savill-Smith, C. (eds.) MLEARN2003:Learning with mobile devices. London: Learning and Skills DevelopmentAgency, 50-51. Retrieved 15 Auggust, 2011, fromhttp://www.lsda.org.uk/files/pdf/1421.pdf#.Ruan, G., Wang, J.Y., & Li, A. (2009). Theoretical foundations of Mobilelearning mediated by technology. Retrieved August 31st , 2010, fromhttp://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1727706Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2005). Towards a theory of mobilelearning. Retrieved August, 27th, 2010, fromhttp://www.mlearn.org.za/CD/papers/Sharples-%20Theory%20of%20Mobile.pdf
MORE READINGSSharples, M. (ed.) (2006). Big issues in mobile learning. Report of aworkshop by the Kaleidoscope Network of Excellence Mobile LearningInitiative. University of Nottingham, UK. Retrieved July 9th, 2011, fromhttp://mlearning.noe-kaleidoscope.org/repository/BigIssues.pdfThornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in Englisheducation in Japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (21), 217-228Yu Vespi, C., & Hazen, J (2010). Opportunity Calling: The future of Mobilecommunications. Retrieved August 27th, 2011, fromhttp://www.oracle.com/us/industries/communications/oracle-communications-mobile-report-170802.pdf
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