SEMINAR ON WIDENING PARTICIPATION  IN  HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA AND THE UK SPONSORED BY UKIERI 26 th  –28 th  February   ...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA THE TWO FACES OF INDIA INDIA IS THE WORLD’...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA <ul><li>Despite government attempts at imp...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA- THE TOTAL PIC...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA- THE TOTAL PIC...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   <ul><li>TABLE  3. PERCENTAGE OF GIRLS EN...
http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=village+School+India IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATIO...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA A VILLAGE  SCHOOL http://www.flickr.com/ph...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 4.  GIRLS’ SURVIVAL RATE IN EDUCATIO...
A typical single teacher rural school in Kuppam, AP  IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON  WOMEN’S ACCESS TO  HIGHER EDUCAT...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 5.  TRANSITION RATES FROM PRIMARY (I...
  IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON    WOMEN’S ACCESS TO  HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   CAN RURAL INDIA PRODUCE ITS OWN SC...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON    WOMEN’S ACCESS TO  HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA EDUCATION IN RURAL INDIA_:_ A CASE STU...
http://www.kamat.com/picturehouse/campus_life/13116.htm IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCA...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   THE VILLAGE SCHOOLTEACHER VIEW FROM STAF...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 6.  EXAMINATION RESULTS IN TERMINAL ...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   EDUCATION IN RURAL INDIA ;WHERE ARE THE ...
www. SciDev.Net Home  >  Features Home  > Features Article   IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO  HIGHER...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 7: SHOWING AVAILABILITY OF SCHOOLS I...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   TABLE 8: SOCIO- CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF...
IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA   Higher Education in India:  Ensuring Acc...
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Impact of urban p.iyer

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Impact of urban p.iyer

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON WIDENING PARTICIPATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA AND THE UK SPONSORED BY UKIERI 26 th –28 th February KOLKATA, INDIA THEME : THE EDUCATION SYSTEM:OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ACCESS; PROVIDING FOR WIDER PARTICIPATION TITLE OF THE PAPER : IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA MS PONNI IYER
  2. 2. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA THE TWO FACES OF INDIA INDIA IS THE WORLD’S SECOND MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY AND THE SEVENTH LARGEST COUNTRY BY AREA. SINCE THE 1980S THE COUNTRY’S LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT HAS IMPROVED SIGNIFICANTLY, BUT THERE ARE STILL WIDE DISPARITIES IN ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE, EDUCATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE.
  3. 3. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA <ul><li>Despite government attempts at improving education for all its citizens, India still has one of the lowest female literacy rates in Asia. There are 330 million women above the age of 7 in India. Today about 60 percent, or over 200 million, are illiterate </li></ul>Reference source : www.islamonline.net ;Unus S; Islam Online, Washington DC ;The Education of Women in India
  4. 4. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA- THE TOTAL PICTURE <ul><li>TABLE 1. HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>(2003-04 )* </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE OF INSTITUTIONS NUMBERS </li></ul><ul><li>I. UNIVERSITIES 217 </li></ul><ul><li>2. INSTITUTION DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY 74 </li></ul><ul><li>3. INSTITUTIONS OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE 13 </li></ul><ul><li>4. RESEARCH INSTITUTES 85 </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL 389 </li></ul><ul><li>II- COLLEGES  </li></ul><ul><li>1. GENERAL EDUCATION 9427 </li></ul><ul><li>2. ENGG., TECH & ARCH. 1068 </li></ul><ul><li>3. MEDICAL (ALLO/AYUR/HOMEO/ UNANI) 783 </li></ul><ul><li>4. TEACHERS TRAINING 900 </li></ul><ul><li>5. OTHERS (LAW,/MGT./ MCA/ IT/AGRI ETC.) 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>  TOTAL 14169 </li></ul><ul><li>Referencesource http://www.education.nic.in/pdfs/Table5NumberofInstitutions.pdf: *Provisional </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA- THE TOTAL PICTURE <ul><li>TABLE 2. INSTITUTIONS RUNNING DIPLOMA/ CERTIFICATE </li></ul><ul><li>COURSES (2003-04) * </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE OF INSTITUTIONS NUMBERS </li></ul><ul><li>  1. POLYTECHNICS 1105 </li></ul><ul><li>2. TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS 1303 </li></ul><ul><li>3. TECH., INDUS., ARTS AND CRAFTS SCHOOLS 4877 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: http://www.education.nic.in/pdfs/Table5NumberofInstitutions.pdf: </li></ul><ul><li>*Provisional </li></ul>
  6. 6. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA <ul><li>TABLE 3. PERCENTAGE OF GIRLS ENROLMENT TO </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL ENROLMENT BY STAGES </li></ul>Reference Source: http://www.education.nic.in/pdfs/Table20PercentageofGirlsEnrolment.pdf   39.7 41.1 44.0 46.7 2003-04 * 40.1 41.3 43.9 46.8 2003-04 *   39.9 39.5 41.8 44.1 2001-02* 39.4 38.6 40.9 43.7 2000-01* 33.3 32.9 36.7 41.5 1990-91 HIGHER EDUCATION ( DEGREE& ABOVE LEVEL ) SEC./HR. SEC/ Intermediate(IX-XII) MIDDLE VI-VIII PRIMARY I-V YEAR * provisional
  7. 7. http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=village+School+India IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA A VILLAGE SCHOOL
  8. 8. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA A VILLAGE SCHOOL http://www.flickr.com/photos/praries880/19832069/
  9. 9. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 4. GIRLS’ SURVIVAL RATE IN EDUCATION: PRIMARY GRADES: RURAL/URBAN (2004) Reference Source: Table D15; Elementary Education In India Analytical Report 2004 (NIEPA ) 82 89 87 91 100 URBAN 60 66 74 83 100 RURAL V IV III II I AREA
  10. 10. A typical single teacher rural school in Kuppam, AP IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA EDUCATION IN INDIA ; RURAL SCENARIO ; LACK OF BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE http://www.agastya.org/summary.htm School Children Sitting on Floor Channakeshava High school, Karki http://www.kamat.com/picturehouse/campus_life/13126.htm
  11. 11. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 5. TRANSITION RATES FROM PRIMARY (IV/V) TO UPPER PRIMARY (V/VI): (2003) 74.15% 71.98% 76.01% ALL AREAS 93.06% 92.18% 93.88% URBAN 70.68% 68.02% 72.92% RURAL TOTAL GIRLS BOYS AREA
  12. 12. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA CAN RURAL INDIA PRODUCE ITS OWN SCIENTISTS AND INNOVATORS <ul><li>The first India Science Report, released in 2005 by the National Council of Applied Economic Research, says that although people in all sections of society want to study science, the poor and those living in the countryside miss out because it is too expensive and they lack the infrastructure, among other factors </li></ul>Reference: SciDev.Net Home > Features Home > Features Article 2006 Village India: untouched by the science boom
  13. 13. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA EDUCATION IN RURAL INDIA_:_ A CASE STUDY <ul><li>Take the case of the Shukul Bazaar region in the next district to Bahadurpur Jais. It needs 50 schools, but only has 21 — including some in makeshift warehouses and tin sheds. One school has 305 students taught by five teachers, including two parents who volunteered to help. Without a science teacher, the head teacher fills the role </li></ul><ul><li>There are no science colleges in Shukul Bazaar, so some students have to travel 40 kilometres to study science in the town of Rae Bareily. But most opt out instead </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: SciDev.Net Home > Features Home > Features Article 2006 Village India: untouched by the science boom </li></ul>
  14. 14. http://www.kamat.com/picturehouse/campus_life/13116.htm IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA A CLASSROOM IN RURAL INDIA Pupils at Janata Vidyalaya Village of Kasarkod, near Honavar, Karnataka, 2005
  15. 15. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA THE VILLAGE SCHOOLTEACHER VIEW FROM STAFF ROOM http://www.flickr.com/photos/middlecampscott/116773668/in/photostream /
  16. 16. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 6. EXAMINATION RESULTS IN TERMINAL GRADE: 2003 89.71 88.95 89.14 GIRLS 88.88 88.44 88.53 BOYS GRADE VII/VIII 94.69 94.53 94.56 GIRLS 94.18 94.54 94.47 BOYS GRADE IV/V PASS % URBAN AREAS PASS % RURAL AREAS PASS % ALL AREAS GENDER TERMINAL GRADE
  17. 17. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA EDUCATION IN RURAL INDIA ;WHERE ARE THE GIRLS? <ul><li>IT IS SONAL’S JOB </li></ul><ul><li>TO TAKE CARE OF </li></ul><ul><li>HER FAMILY’S BUFFALO. </li></ul>
  18. 18. www. SciDev.Net Home > Features Home > Features Article IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA VILLAGE INDIA: UNTOUCHED BY THE SCIENCE BOOM
  19. 19. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 7: SHOWING AVAILABILITY OF SCHOOLS IN RURAL INDIA 19.10 961899 807656 NO. OF HABITATIONS WITH UPPER PRIMARY STAGE WITHIN 3 KM 5 54.37 227146 147140 NO. OF HABITATIONS WITH UPPER PRIMARY STAGE WITHIN THEM 4 21.13 1070863 884089 NO. OF HABITATIONS WITH PRIMARY STAGE WITHIN 1 KM . 3 23.68 653076 528051 NO. OF HABITATIONS WITH PRIMARY STAGE WITHIN THEM 2 16.10 1231391 1060612 TOTAL NO. OF HABITATIONS 1 Growth % 2002 1993 RURAL HABITATIONS Sr no.
  20. 20. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA TABLE 8: SOCIO- CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF GENDER IN INDIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON STATUS OF WOMEN positive nil Expected Old age support Asset Liability Overall value positive nil Returns of expenses on food clothing medicines positive nil Returns on investment in education positive negative DOWRY VALUE OF BOYS VALUE OF GIRLS INDIAN SCENARIO—Attitudes beliefs and customs
  21. 21. IMPACT OF URBAN –RURAL DISPARITY ON WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA Higher Education in India: Ensuring Accessibility, Equity and Relevance <ul><li>1.REGIONAL DISPARITY TO BE SERIOUSLY TACKLED ON A PRIORITY BASIS. </li></ul><ul><li>2. SPECIAL INCENTIVES TO NGO’S AND PRIVATE SECTOR TO SET UP EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN RURAL AREAS WITH MODERN INFRASTRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>3. EMPHASIS ON E- LEARNING TO OVERCOME THE OBSTACLES WITH REGARD TO ACCESS TO EDUCATION DUE TO REMOTENESS OF RURAL AREAS FROM THE MAIN TOWNS AND HIGHWAYS </li></ul><ul><li>4. ERADICATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC BARRIERS TO WOMEN’S ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN RURAL INDIA –ROLE OF NGOS /EDUCATION FOR GENDER SENSITIVITY </li></ul>

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