It in business lect 2

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It in business lect 2

  1. 1. IT in Business Essentials of Computing Lecture – 02
  2. 2. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Definition <ul><li>Computer: An electronic system that can be instructed to accept, process, store, and present data and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer System: A computer and all the hardware interconnected with it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Definition (Continued)
  4. 4. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Hardware <ul><li>Hardware (computer hardware or devices): The computer and its associated equipment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary storage devices </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Hardware (Continued)
  6. 6. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Hardware (Continued)
  7. 7. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Input Devices <ul><li>Input: The data or information entered into a computer or the process of entering data or information into the computer for processing, </li></ul><ul><li>storage and retrieval, or transmission. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-of-sale terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar code scanners and wands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microphones </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication The Processor <ul><li>Processor/Central Processing Unit (CPU): A set of electronic circuits that perform the computer’s processing actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor: The smallest type of processor, with all of the processing capabilities of the control unit and ALU located on a single chip. </li></ul><ul><li>Chip: A collection of electronic components in a very small, self-contained package. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication The Processor (Continued) <ul><li>System Board (Mother Board): The system unit in a microcomputer, located on a board mounted on the bottom of a computer base. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Storage (Main Memory): Storage within the computer itself. Primary memory holds data only temporarily, as the computer executes instructions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Output Devices <ul><li>Output: The results of inputting and processing data and information returned by the computer, either directly to the person using the system or to secondary storage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct a display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control another device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate transmission of information </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Secondary Storage Devices <ul><li>Secondary Storage (Auxiliary Storage): A storage medium that is external to the computer, but that can be read by the computer; a way of storing data and information outside the computer itself. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diskettes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip Disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Tape </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Secondary Storage Devices (Continued) <ul><li>Magnetic Disks: A general term referring to two types of storage disk: the flexible/floppy disk and the hard disk. </li></ul><ul><li>Zip Disks: Similar to diskettes, but housed in a hard plastic case. These disks can store 70 to 175 times more and can store and retrieve data more quickly than diskettes. </li></ul><ul><li>Read Only: A type of disk that information can be read from but not written onto. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Secondary Storage Devices (Continued) <ul><li>CD-ROM disk: Short for “compact disk – read only memory,” an optical storage medium that permits storage of large amounts of information. CD-ROM disks can only be written to and cannot be erased. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive: The device containing a secondary storage medium’s read/write unit. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hardware: Computing, Storing and Communication Peripheral Equipments <ul><li>Peripheral Equipment: A general term used for any device that is attached to a computer system. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Definition <ul><li>Software: The general term for a set of instructions that controls a computer or a communications network. </li></ul><ul><li>Program: A set of instructions that directs a computer to perform certain tasks and produce certain results. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Program: A program that manages the interaction between a computer system and a communications network and the transmission of data, programs, and information over the network. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Definition (Continued) <ul><li>Operating System: A combination of programs that coordinates the actions of a computer, including its peripheral devices and memory. For example, DOS (Disk Operating System), and Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic User Interface (GUI): A link to an operating system that allows users to use icons rather than command words to start processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Interface: The means by which a person interacts with a computer. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Software Package <ul><li>Software Package: An application that focuses on a particular subject, such as word processing, and is sold to businesses and the general public. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation: An instruction manual that accompanies software. Also, a technical, detailed written description of the specific facts of a program. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Programs: In charge of the Hardware Software Package (Continued) <ul><li>Spreadsheet: A table of columns and rows used by people responsible for tracking revenues, expenses, profits, and losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Word-processing (WP) Program: A program that allows the user to enter, change (edit), move, store, and print text information. </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Publishing (DTP) Program: A program that combines text and image-handling features with document-design capabilities. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Information: Reason for using IT Definition <ul><li>Information: An organized, meaningful, and useful interpretation of data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data: Raw facts, figures, and details. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken Information: Information that is conveyed by sound. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Information: Reason for using IT Definition (Continued)
  21. 21. People: User & Creators of IT Application User <ul><li>User (End User): The people who uses IT in their jobs or personal lives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect end users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior managers </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. People: User & Creators of IT Application Information Technology Professionals <ul><li>Information Technology Professional: A person who is responsible for acquiring, developing, maintaining, or operating the hardware associated with computers and communications networks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Analysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Operators </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures <ul><li>Procedure: A step-by-step process or a set of instructions for accomplishing specific results. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures (Continued)
  25. 25. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures (Continued) <ul><li>Operations Procedure: A procedure that describes how a computer system or application is used, how often it can be used, who is authorized to use it, and where the results of processing should go. </li></ul><ul><li>Backup Procedure: A procedure that describes how and when to make extra copies of information or software to protect against losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Procedure: An action taken when information or software must be restored. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Procedure: Processes to Use & Maintain IT Procedures (Continued) <ul><li>Security Procedure: A procedure designed to safeguard data centers, communications networks, computers, and other IT components from accidental intrusion or intentional damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Security Software: Software that is designed to protect systems and data. </li></ul><ul><li>Development Procedure: A procedure that explains how IT professionals should describe user needs and develop applications to meet those needs. </li></ul>
  27. 27. An Introduction to Systems Definition <ul><li>System: A set of components that interact to accomplish a purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Single-User System (Personal Computer): An IT system used by only one person. A system that stands alone and is not interconnected with other companies or shared by other people. </li></ul>
  28. 28. An Introduction to Systems Definition (Continued) <ul><li>Multi-user System: A communication system in which more than one user share hardware, programs, information, people, and procedures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To share a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To share hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To share software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To share information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To share communications </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Information Processing Information Processing Activities Associated with Information-handling Functions <ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upload/Download </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uploading: The process by which information is sent from a PC to a mainframe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading: The transfer of information from a central system to a desktop computer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Information Processing Information Processing Activities Associated with Information-handling Functions (Continued) <ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batch Processing: The grouping and processing of all transactions at one time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time Processing: The processing of each transaction as it occurs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Information Processing Information Processing Activities Associated with Information-handling Functions <ul><li>Generate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage and Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmit </li></ul>
  32. 32. The End Thank You 

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