Indian Art MusicA n I l l u s t r a t e d T a l kbyDr. Chintamani Rath Ph.D. (Indian Music)www.ragaculture.com
M U S I C …Where there is humanity,there is music…(but : what is music?)
M u s i cOrg a n i s e d&emotionally expressives o u n d
.MUSICAL GENRES IN PRESENT DAY INDIAART(“CLASSICAL”)SOUTHINDIAN(“CARNATIC”)NON - ART(“LIGHT/POPULAR”)TRIBALFOLKN O R T HI ...
The Two Systems of Art Music in IndiaHindustani (North Indian) Music Continuity back to Vedic times (6,000 BC) Codified ...
The Gamut of Notes8. Sa – Shadja – Do – Tonic7. Ni – Nishada – Si/Ti – Leading Note♭7. Ni – Komala Nishada6. Dha – Dhaivat...
Sound in Indian Art Music• Static Note –Unembellished tones:Used for teaching oranalysing musicalphenomena but not(except ...
Ornaments (“Alankar”) used in Hindustani Music⋆ Andolan – “oscillation” on a note⋆ Gamak – fast Andolan. Gamak may range f...
Elements of Music•Melody – notes soundedsuccessively•Harmony – notes soundedsimultaneously•Rhythm – pulses in time•Dynamic...
Organising Notes• Melodic Organisation:According to theprinciples codified bythe system of- RAGAs- TALAs and- performance ...
R A G AR A G A a melodic concept capable of intense emotionalcommunication and comprising:- a given set of notes, ascendi...
Organising Time – Tempo (Laya, Gati)Tempo (Laya)Slow(Vilambita)Very Slow(AtiVilambita)Slow(Vilambita)MediumSlow(MaddhyaVil...
T A L ATala → the cyclic organisation of periodic beats (Matra) = anendlessly repeated series of ordered rhythmic syllable...
T a l a Matra T h e k aKaharva 4 Dhage Nati Naka Dhin | |Dadra 6 Dha Tin Na | Ta Dhin Na | |Roopak 7 Tin Tin Na | Dhin Na ...
Rhythmic Improvisation (“Layakari”)↠ Dügün – double speed↠ Tigün – triple speed↠ Choügün – quadruple speed↠ Panch, Chhey, ...
Performance PracticeHindustaniRecitalVocal Instrumental“Classical”“Light-Classical”PercussionMelodicInstrumentDhrupad &Dha...
Khayal Recital※ Auchār-Ālāp※ Vilambit (Bada) Khayāl- Vistār (Badhat) Sthāyi, Antarā⇨- Behlāvā- Tān※ Drut (Chhotā) Khayāl⇨ ...
Instrumental Recital♠ Ālāp, Jod, Jhālā♠ Masidkhāni Gat* Gat, with Uthān on Tablā* Soloist Accompanist Dialogue♠ Razākhāni ...
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Indian art music

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Indian art music

  1. 1. Indian Art MusicA n I l l u s t r a t e d T a l kbyDr. Chintamani Rath Ph.D. (Indian Music)www.ragaculture.com
  2. 2. M U S I C …Where there is humanity,there is music…(but : what is music?)
  3. 3. M u s i cOrg a n i s e d&emotionally expressives o u n d
  4. 4. .MUSICAL GENRES IN PRESENT DAY INDIAART(“CLASSICAL”)SOUTHINDIAN(“CARNATIC”)NON - ART(“LIGHT/POPULAR”)TRIBALFOLKN O R T HI N D I A N(“HINDUSTANI”)PROVINCIALCINEMAMUSICTHEATREMUSICNON-INDIANIMPORTSRELIGIOUSORPHILOSOPHIC♣ Has religious/philosophic roots♣ Has a highly formalised grammar,dictated by textual as well as oral tradition♣ Has different genres(Vocal – Alap, Dhrupad/Dhamar,Khayal, Sadra, Thumri, Bhajan, Geet etcInstrumental – Alap, Masidkhani,Rajakhani, Firozkhani, Amirkhani Gat etc)♣ Has different styles (called Geeti, Bani orBaaj)♣ Has regional schools of presentation(currently called Gharanas)♣ Has regional variations in choice ofRagas, Talas, etc.“INDUSTRIAL”
  5. 5. The Two Systems of Art Music in IndiaHindustani (North Indian) Music Continuity back to Vedic times (6,000 BC) Codified in a large number of ancient andmedieval music treatises Developed independently of folk music,albeit occasionally importing folk orregional elements, metamorphosing themsuitably Raga based, mostly improvised Capable of intense expression in very slowspeeds Vast range of ornaments, particularlyduring slow passages Subtle use of microtones in slow passages Steady, long-held notes, mostlyapproached and/or quitted by littleornamental phrases Gradual building up of tempo from veryslow to very fast Convention of time and season Clear enunciation of rhythmic cycle bypercussion accompanist (in dominantpresent day forms like Khayal, Sadra,Thumri, Bhajan etc.) True to Hindu traditions: so-called “Persianinfluences” fully integrated within itsessential and ancient grammatical formatCarnatic (South Indian) Music Of more recent origin Codified in medieval texts written bymusicologists, the influential ones amongwhom studied in North India and thereafterreturned to South India to fashion Carnaticmusic out of the prevalent regional musicalforms to be found in South India Composition based, mostly fixed A fairly quick tempo from the start, so lacksthe intensity, introspection, microtones andseveral ornaments found in Hindustanimusic Notes are not held for long and are mostlyquitted by a characteristic oscillation usingindeterminate pitch Constant and fairly fast tempo throughout No convention of time or season Percussion accompanist does notenunciate rhythmic cycle clearly, so asecond percussionist and/or a timekeepershowing and/or clapping out beats (inwhich the audience joins) is necessary Contrary to advocated argument, hasMuslim influences
  6. 6. The Gamut of Notes8. Sa – Shadja – Do – Tonic7. Ni – Nishada – Si/Ti – Leading Note♭7. Ni – Komala Nishada6. Dha – Dhaivata – Lah – Submediant♭ 6. Dha – Komala Dhaivata5. Pa – Panchama – Soh – Dominant# 4. Ma’ – Tivra/Kari Madhyama4. Ma – Madhyama – Fah – Subdominant3. Ga – Gandhara – Mi – Mediant♭ 3. Ga – Komala Gandhara2. Re – R’shabha – Re – Supertonic♭ 2. Re – Komala R’shabha1. Sa – Shadja – Do – Tonic
  7. 7. Sound in Indian Art Music• Static Note –Unembellished tones:Used for teaching oranalysing musicalphenomena but not(except but rarely) inperformance• Ornamented Note –Tones embellished bydifferent types ofornaments, such asMeend, Soot, Andolan,Gamak, Krintan, etc. :Used in performance
  8. 8. Ornaments (“Alankar”) used in Hindustani Music⋆ Andolan – “oscillation” on a note⋆ Gamak – fast Andolan. Gamak may range from the heavyand guttural to the light and almost superficial. Again,Gamak may be of varying speeds⋆ Sparsha Svara, Kan or Krintan – grace note(acciaccatura)⋆ Meend – glissando⋆ Soot or Aansh – fast Meend from one note to anotherdistant note⋆ Mürki – akin to mordent⋆ Khatka – akin to turn⋆ Kampan – vibrato
  9. 9. Elements of Music•Melody – notes soundedsuccessively•Harmony – notes soundedsimultaneously•Rhythm – pulses in time•Dynamics – intensity (volume)
  10. 10. Organising Notes• Melodic Organisation:According to theprinciples codified bythe system of- RAGAs- TALAs and- performance practice• Harmonic organisation:Against a fixed systemof static notes soundedcontinuously but softlyin the backgroundandin unintendedcounterpoint, from animitating accompanist
  11. 11. R A G AR A G A a melodic concept capable of intense emotionalcommunication and comprising:- a given set of notes, ascending and descending- characteristic microtones- characteristic phrases- relative importance of the notes- characteristic ornaments or lack thereof- the general speed to be adopted- the register to be used (low or high pitch)- an accepted time of performance
  12. 12. Organising Time – Tempo (Laya, Gati)Tempo (Laya)Slow(Vilambita)Very Slow(AtiVilambita)Slow(Vilambita)MediumSlow(MaddhyaVilambita)Very Fast(AtiDruta)Fast(Druta)MediumFast(MaddhyaDruta)Medium(Maddhya)Fast(Druta)“Cyclic”(Tala-Yukta)“Linear”(Tala-Heena)
  13. 13. T A L ATala → the cyclic organisation of periodic beats (Matra) = anendlessly repeated series of ordered rhythmic syllables in timeRhythmic syllables → Names of sounds on percussion instruments(Dha, Na, Dhin, Tin, Thum, Kat, Tita, Tirakita, Ghe, Dhita, etc.)A Tala has:• Cycles – each cycle is called an “Avartana”• Divisions into bars, which may be equal or unequal• Accent points, which may be “beaten” (“Tali”) or “unbeaten” (“Khali”)• A primary accent point (“Sama”) – the point of rhythmic resolution• A vocal enunciation of the ordered rhythmic syllables in an Avartana,called “Theka”
  14. 14. T a l a Matra T h e k aKaharva 4 Dhage Nati Naka Dhin | |Dadra 6 Dha Tin Na | Ta Dhin Na | |Roopak 7 Tin Tin Na | Dhin Na | Dhin Na | |Jhaptal 10 Dhin Na | Dhin Dhin Na | Tin Na | Dhin Dhin Na | |Ektal 12 Dhin Dhin | Dhage Tite | Thum Na | Kat Ta | Dhage Tite | Dhin Dha | |Jhoomra 14 Dha –Dha Tirakita | Dhin Dhin Dhage Tirakita | Ta –Ta Tirakita | Dhin DhinDhage Tirakita | |Deepchandi 14 Dha Dhin - | Dha Dha Dhin - | Na Tin - | Dha Dha Dhin - | |Adachoutal 14 Dhin Tite | Dhin Na | Thum Na | Kat Ta | Tite Dhin | Na Dhin | Dhin Na | |Trital 16 Dha Dhin Dhin Dha | Dha Dhin Dhin Dha | Dha Tin Tin Ta | Tita Dhin Dhin Dha ||… and many more, including fractional Matras (e.g. Jhampak Tala of 8½ Matras)
  15. 15. Rhythmic Improvisation (“Layakari”)↠ Dügün – double speed↠ Tigün – triple speed↠ Choügün – quadruple speed↠ Panch, Chhey, Sat, Ath, Naü, etc gün – respectively 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 etc timesthe original speed↠ Aad – 3/2 times the original speed↠ Aad ka Ülta – 2/3 times the original speed↠ Küad – two viewpoints: 5/4 or 9/4 times the original speed↠ Küad ka Ülta – 4/5 or 4/9 times the original speed↠ Biyad – there are several varieties of this: 7/4 or 27/8 (“Küad of Aad” = 9/4of 3/2) times the original speed, etc.↠ Biyad ka Ülta – 4/7 or 8/27 times the original speed↠ Paun – 3/4 times the original speed↠ Paun ka Ülta – 4/3 times the original speed
  16. 16. Performance PracticeHindustaniRecitalVocal Instrumental“Classical”“Light-Classical”PercussionMelodicInstrumentDhrupad &DhamarKhayalThumriBhajanTarana Ghazal“Classical”“Light-Classical”Gayaki AngTantrakari AngDhrupad AngKhayal AngDhun
  17. 17. Khayal Recital※ Auchār-Ālāp※ Vilambit (Bada) Khayāl- Vistār (Badhat) Sthāyi, Antarā⇨- Behlāvā- Tān※ Drut (Chhotā) Khayāl⇨ developed similarly as above
  18. 18. Instrumental Recital♠ Ālāp, Jod, Jhālā♠ Masidkhāni Gat* Gat, with Uthān on Tablā* Soloist Accompanist Dialogue♠ Razākhāni Gat⇨ developed similarly as above⇨ Jhālā

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