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Unit 07 motivation in educational psychology

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Unit 07 motivation in educational psychology Course code 0840 Educational psychology from ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD.
prepared by Ms. SAMAN BIBI & Mariam Rafique

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Unit 07 motivation in educational psychology

  1. 1. COURSE CODE:840 Educational Psychology UNIT-7 Motivation
  2. 2. MOTIVATION • Derived from the Latin “Movere” meaning “to move” • Motivation is a state-of-mind, filled with energy and enthusiasm, which drives a person to work in a certain way to achieve desired goals. • Motivation is a force which pushes a person to work with high level of commitment and focus even if things are against him. • Motivation translates into a certain kind of human behaviour.
  3. 3. • Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. • It is what causes you to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. • Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. • In everyday usage, the term "motivation" is frequently used to describe why a person does something. • It is the driving force behind human actions.
  4. 4. TYPES of Motivation Two categories of motives 1. Primary Motives: Motives which are linked with basic primary needs and associated with biological well being of an individual. Needs that come under this category: • Need for food, water and oxygen. • Needs that are fundamental for survival. • Need to take rest when tired. • Need for being active when rested. • Need for regular elimination of waste products from our body.
  5. 5. 2. SECONDARY MOTIVES • Motives linked with one’s socio- psychological needs are known as secondary or psychological motives. Needs that come under this category: • Need for freedom • Need for security • Need to achieve • Need for recognition • Need for companionship • Need for self-assertion • Need for self-actualization
  6. 6. TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION 1. Let your students know your expectations, objectives & rules so they can better understand what you’re looking for and what you’re not. • It’s easy to achieve a goal when you can define it. • Students should have clear understanding of what they should do to succeed in studying. 2. Track the way studying improves. • Before reaching a final goal, it would be great to set short-term goals. This is why it’s vitally important to track the way studying improves. • If you do this, students can see their progress & achievements, & if you put emphasis on improvement, it can inspire your students to work harder & earn even better results.
  7. 7. 3. Give your students some democracy. • For example, allow one day for activities your students like most of all. Take a vote & let students choose the class activities they would like to do that day. 4. Vary your teaching! • If your lessons combine various learning styles, teaching methods & classroom activities, there’s a greater chance that almost all students will be engaged. • Different students prefer different methods, and if you stick to one technique, that’s more likely that more students will be bored and unmotivated.
  8. 8. 6. Make sure your material is clear and understandable for all students. • Examples are the best way to illustrate your words and clear things up. Just give lots of examples. Let students know that they are welcome to share their own ideas and ask questions. • What’s more, provide students with a chance to give their feedback on your teaching. 7. Set a spirit of friendly competition. • Students should realize there will always be those who study better and worse. And it’s up to them what group to join. • To live in society means to compete, and students should get used to this fact. In colleges, competition is much stronger than in lower-grade schools. Make students prepared for this.
  9. 9. 8. Be generous to your students and give rewards and praise when they deserve it. • The art of praise is complicated. Still, there are so many ways and so many reasons to praise your students for their efforts and accomplishments to give the right motivation. 9. Give shy students an opportunity to share their views with the class. • Some students tend to give no responses and generally keep silent during classes. Encourage them to talk, if they don’t mind.
  10. 10. 10. Classroom jobs are good ways to develop student responsibility. • These jobs vary. For example, you can appoint somebody to moderate discussions in the class. It can be both interesting and useful for everyone. 11. Organize group work. • This method lets students socialize more with each other and find solutions together. Every person appreciates it if he or she can freely share his or her views. 12. Give chances to improve. Everybody has bad days, and sometimes a person needs one more chance. If you are generous enough, students definitely appreciate it and stay motivated, because they aren’t afraid of failure.
  11. 11. MOTIVATION THEORIES • Motivation is a huge field of study. • There are many theories of motivation.
  12. 12. 1. Maslow’s theory Abraham Maslow postulated that a person will be motivated when his needs are fulfilled. The need starts from the lowest level basic needs & keeps moving up as a lower level need is fulfilled. Below is the hierarchy of needs: • Physiological: Physical survival necessities such as food, water, and shelter. • Safety: Protection from threats, deprivation & other dangers. • Social (belongingness and love): The need for association, affiliation, friendship, and so on. • Self-esteem: The need for respect and recognition. • Self-actualization: The opportunity for personal development, learning, fun/creative/challenging work. • Self-actualization is the highest level need to which a human being can aspire.
  13. 13. Maslow’s theory
  14. 14. 2. MCCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS • McClelland affirms that we all have three motivating drivers, and it does not depend on our gender or age. One of these drives will be dominant in our behavior. The dominant drive depends on our life experiences. • The three motivators are: Achievement: A need to accomplish and demonstrate own competence. People with a high need for achievement prefer tasks that provide for personal responsibility and results based on their own efforts. They also prefer quick acknowledgement of their progress.
  15. 15. Affiliation: A need for love, belonging and social acceptance People with a high need for affiliation are motivated by being liked and accepted by others. They tend to participate in social gatherings and may be uncomfortable with conflict. Power: A need for control own work or the work of others. People with a high need for power desire situations in which they exercise power and influence over others.
  16. 16. 3. Drive-Reduction Theory • A theory of motivation developed by Clark L. Hull, the Drive-Reduction Theory focuses on how motivation originates from biological needs or drives. • In this theory, Hull proposed that a person’s behavior is an external display of his desire to satisfy his physical deficiencies.
  17. 17. • A“drive” is a state of arousal or tension triggered by a person’s physiological or biological needs. • These needs include hunger, thirst, need for warmth, etc. • In this theory, Hull stated that drives give rise to an individual’s motivation. • Furthermore, Hull explained that an individual is in a state of need when his survival is threatened. • When a person’s drive emerges, he will be in an unpleasant state of tension and the person will behave in such a way that this tension is reduced. • To reduce the tension, he will begin seeking out ways to satisfy his biological needs. • For instance, you will look for water to drink if you are thirsty. • You will seek for food if you are hungry.
  18. 18. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION • Achievement motivation energizes and directs behavior toward achievement and therefore is known to be an important determinant of academic success.  Moderate Challenge • Individuals with high achievement motivation prefer tasks and problems that involve moderate levels of difficulty. Usually, these individuals gravitate (move towards) toward challenging but achievable goals where their abilities and efforts can affect the outcome.
  19. 19.  Personal Rewards • Instead of deriving motivation from the potential for rewards, individuals with high achievement motivation use rewards, such as professional recognition and financial gain, as a way to measure their accomplishments. These individuals place a higher value on a personal sense of achievement.  Problem-Solving • Individuals with high achievement motivation also have a strong orientation toward problem-solving. They spend extensive time thinking about potential solutions to current problems, as well as actively considering & analyzing additional possibilities for improvement.
  20. 20.  Interpersonal Skills • Due to their focus on achievement and accomplishment, individuals with high achievement motivation are often characterized by poor interpersonal skills as well. These individuals have a tendency to overemphasize results and have difficulty managing people effectively.
  21. 21. Applications of Motivation In Education: • Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behavior towards subject matter. • It can: Direct behavior toward particular goals. Lead to increased effort and energy. Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities. Enhance cognitive processing. Determine what consequences are reinforcing. Lead to improved performance.
  22. 22. Simple Ideas To Improve Student Motivation 1. Give students a sense of control 2. Be clear about learning objectives 3. Create a threat-free environment 4. Change your scenery (other than classroom) 5. Offer varied experiences 6. Use positive competition 7. Offer rewards 8. Give students responsibility 9. Allow students to work together 10. Give praise when earned (encouragement)

Unit 07 motivation in educational psychology Course code 0840 Educational psychology from ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD. prepared by Ms. SAMAN BIBI & Mariam Rafique

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