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The eng new york times 10 pages


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The eng new york times 10 pages

  1. 1. FRÅN NEW YORK TIMESMans Brain Child, April 18, 1965.Among the famous secret documents of World War-II was a technical report known as the "Yellow Peril,"because it came in a bright yellow cover — and included equations so abstruse only professionalmathematicians, and not all of them, could understand them. The author of the report was the late NorbertWiener of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who received his doctors degree from Harvard at theage of 18 and went on to become one of the most creative and widely read scientists of our times. Wienerregarded his report with mixed emotions. As a leading mathematician, he wasproud of the fact that he had contributed to the design of computers. As a man witha conscience, he voiced a deep concern about the social implications of what heand his associates were doing. This double role accounts largely for the impact ofhis first and in many ways most influential book, Cybernetics, which was originallypublished in 1948 and has just been issued in a revised paperback editions.Cybernetics is, among other things, an introduction to new scientific development. The title comes fromthe Greek for "helmsman" (rorgängare, styrman) and refers not only to ship-steering devices andother automatic machines, but also to living control devices built into the humanbrain(kontrollkomponenter inbyggda i hjärnan) . In introducing this field he served asunofficial spokesman for a highly original group of thinkers whose leaders includedfellow mathematicians John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Study inPrinceton and Claude Shannon of the Bell Telephone Laboratories; Johan Bigelow,an engineer associated with von Neumann at the Institute; and WarrenMcCulloch, a leading brain investigator at the University of Illinois Medical School.Wiener coined the word nearly a generation ago to identify a new field that was justbeginning to take shape, the broad study of all control systems, artificial andnatural, manmade and begotten.Revival of R. U. R., May 7, 1950.Last Friday and yesterday the Dramashop of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology revived KarelCapeks famous play R.U.R., which stands for Rossums Universal Robots and which enriched everylanguage with the word "robot." There would be no reason for mentioning the revival here were it not for aprologue written and spoken by Professor Norbert Wiener,the mathematician who coined the word "cybernetics."… This is in essence exactly what Plato said, for itmeans that humanity as a whole can be ruled by nothing less than men who span the whole of humanity…Ifcybernetics is to be used for vain ostentation or to satisfy the lust of power, it can lead only to damnation. Itmust be redound to some purpose which we recognize as righteous and which transcends all petty privateambitions.Mayo Scientists Use Electrodes on Brain, April 3, 1953
  2. 2. Patients brains are "wired for sound" with hairlike electrodes sometimes left in place for several weeks in anew technique reported at the Mayo Clinic today…The scientists said that through the depth recording andelectrical stimulation methods, new fields of investigation had been opened into: basic function of the humanbrain, like memory thought, action, sight and smell.At last weeks meeting of the American Physiological Society in Chicago, Dr. José M.R. Delgado, a Yaleneurologist, rose to tell about his way of treating mental afflictions by implanting electrodes in the brain andthen turning on a feeble current. He has been developing this technique for the past five years. Dr. Delgadoimplants from seven to forty electrodes in various sections of a monkeys brain. After recovery the monkeysbrain is stimulated through one electrode or a combination of electrodes. The effects are dramatic. Aferocious monkey ofthe macacus rhesus species become so tame that his face could be stroked. As soon as the current was turnedoff he wanted to bite anyone near him.Electric Technique for Mental Cases, April 11, 1953At last weeks meeting of the American Physiological Society in Chicago, Dr. JoséM.R. Delgado, aYale neurologist, rose to tell about his way of treating mental afflictions byimplanting electrodes in the brain and then turning on a feeble current. He has beendeveloping this technique for the past five years.Dr. Delgado implants from seven to forty electrodes in various sections of a monkeys brain. After recoverythe monkeys brain is stimulated through one electrode or a combination of electrodes. The effects aredramatic. A ferocious monkey of the macacus rhesus species become so tame that his face could be stroked.As soon as the current was turned off he wanted to bite anyone near him. This electrode techniquehas been tried in a small way on human patients with encouraging results, butmany more months of clinical work must be done before neurologists will adopt it.One reason is that the complete after-effects of the treatment are unknown.Onepatient treated in a hospital had suffered for years fromsevere pains that could be relieved only through drugs, and then only temporalay.An electrical current passed through implanted electrodes destroyed a small areaof the frontal lobes of his brain. Immediaterelief followed. After his discharge from the hospital the man went back to work.Theideas of implanting electrodes in the brain was first introduced successfully inSwitzerland, more than twenty-five years ago. Other medical scientists have usedvariations of the method ever since. In Dr. Delgados development of the technique,the electrodes remain in the skull for long periods, even permanentlyPavlovs Dogs and Communist Brainwashers, May 9, 1954.Through a monstrous misuse of famous psychological techniques the totalitarians seek to enslave the humanmind… The world became more conscious of the danger of systematized mentalcoercion when the trials against the subversive old Bolsheviks took place inMoscow in 1936 and 1937. It seemed nearly impossible to believe that these
  3. 3. oldguard Communists had suddenly changed into traitors. When one after another, everyone of the accused confessed and beat his breast, we at first thought that it was a great show of deception,intended for the international stage, until gradually it dawned upon us that a much worse tragedy was beingenacted. Human beings were being systematically changed into puppets...It was this method thatMoscows Chinese Communist allies used in the Korean war to "brainwash" Col.Frank H. Schwable and other P.O.W.s….The fact that it is technically possible to bring the human mind into a condition ofenslavement and submission has tremendous political implications in what is going on atthis moment in the world of the totalitarians, their propaganda, and the "cold war." Weshould also recognize, of course, that intervention into free thinking and freemental development does not occur only on the other side of the Iron Curtain...Ifman is unaware of new mental pressures threatening him in this aftermath of war,he will become an easy and willing victim, howling with the wolves in the woods.Surgeons to Work via Push Button, FEBRUARY 14, 1954A procedure developed largely by Swedish investigators — the "stereotaxic technique" — for, exploring andtreating the deep recesses of the brain — will be the basis of the Mount Zion method…A mathematicaldevice, into which are fed the proper measurements, enables a surgeon to insert instrument with greatprecision. The procedure was so painless that it generally was used under only a local anesthetic... The new"aiming" technique, called stereotaxis, was perfected so that a surgeon might hit a "target area" in the brainwithout making a large incision and needlessly involving healthy tissue…Dr. Feinstein returned late last yearfrom the University of Lund, Sweden, where he spent almost two years with Dr. Lars Leksell, famousneurosurgeon to whom is credited the development of the new form of "mathematical surgery."… In allthese procedures, the physicians said, It is important to emphasize that the patient remains conscious andyet free from pain.Device Suggested To Err Like Brain, March 24, 1955Dr. McColloch is studying at M.I.T. the possibilities of direct electroniccommunication with the human brain… The suggestion was made here yesterday afternoon at asymposium of Design of Machines to Simulate the Behavior ofthe Human Brain. Thesymposium, at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, was apart of the annual conference of the Institute of RadioEngineers.The essential limitation of modern brain-simulating mechanisms is that they can give onlycorrect answers, Dr. Schmitt said.Observing that the human brain had no such limitation,Dr. Schmittsaid it was necessary for a person to make "forced decisions" to haveananswer always and to be able to act quickly and certainly just as ifthe answer werealways correct…Electrical Brain, April 7, 1955
  4. 4. "Push-button" living rats that run and stop under the control of an electric current are being used in brainresearch at the University of Washington. A weak electric current, passed through an electrode imbedded ina specific area of the brain causes a rat to start running in a methodical fashion. As soon as the current isshut off, the animal stops automatically.Device Appears to have Memory; Conditioned Like Pavlovs Dogs, September 5, 1955An electromechanical apparatus that apparently "learns" by experience and also forgets has been shown tovisitors at this years meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science here. It is one ofthe many models of parts of the living brain built by Dr. W. Grey Walter, a British neurologist, who directsexperimenentation at the Burden Institute near Bristol…The educable machine is called Cora, orConditioned Reflex Analogue, because like the famous conditioned dogs of theRussian physiologist, Pavlov, it responds to an association of ideas or stimuli by aprocess of apparent anticipation…By other circuits, including feed-back or self-regulating control,the reflex model exhibits many individual characteristics usually considered to be confined to the process ofthought.Radio Waves Use In Surgery Noted, February 4, 1956The use of radio waves to destroy selectively portions of the human brain in a manner that in some waysmay be superior to the use of the surgeons knife was described here yesterday.…This gently and selectively destroys brain tissue around the electrode whileleaving surrounding tissues unchanged…Some types of brain tumours can best beremoved by destroying them in place and then pumping them out. And recentsurgical relief for a degenerative condition that causes profound muscle tremor inthe aged (Parkinsonism) involves selective destruction of brain tissues.Mr. Aronow said that the new radio frequency power technique was held by some surgeons to beadvantageous because it might offer precise control of the volume of brain tissue to be destroyed, andprecise control of the site in the brain where tissue was to be destroyed...And he emphasized that operationsto destroy brain tissues, while often simple todo, were very radical operations. The new radio frequency techniques is experimental, he said.Brain Research by Soviet Cited, 13.4.1958Soviet advances in brain research and the possible advent of pharmachological warfare were cited last nightby an eminent psychologist in a plea for a greater American effort to penetrate the secrets of the mind. Dr.Leonard Carmichael, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, said those who lovefreedom cannot view without concern the possibility that brain changes may be induced by new means….Hetook issue with those who asserted that Soviet Union lagged behind the West in thebehavioral sciences…In many respects of brain research, the Soviet Union led theworld. Dr. Carmichael anticipated the possibility of a "dramatic breakthrough in brain study" and thedevelopment of novel methods for altering human behavior. He expressed the fear that such techniquesmight be used to make people submit to authoriatarian control...He declared that the possibility ofpharmachological warfare necessitating pharmachological counter-measures was
  5. 5. to be taken seriously...Dr. Carmichael warned that the free world could not afford to disregard thelong-range integrated program of brain research now being carried forward in the Soviet Union by a large,competent and hard-working staff…He emphasized the use of modern conditioned-reflex techniques, newelectronic recording devices and the effect of pharmaceutical products on higher nervous activity.Automatic Analysis of Brains Signals Aids Mental Study, 20.9.1958The automatic analysis of the electrical signals produced by the human brain is enhancing medicalunderstanding of psychiatric disorders, it was said here yesterday. And such analysis reportedly may aidaneasthesis for surgery…He explained. Physicians at Mayo Clinic originally made use of the relationbetween brain waves and depth of anesthesia to automatically regulate anesthesia, Mr. Slocombe said. Hedemonstrated a modified version of the Mayo machine in which the depth of anesthesia of the patient - asindicated by the brain waves - is continuously indicated. Mr. Slocombe expressed the view that a machinecould be devised to keep a patient anesthetized to the level where the brains electrical signals were of thedesired form.Currents to Brain Produce Changes in Social Behavior, Aug 12, 1959.The social behavior of humans and animals can be drastically influenced by electrical stimulation of thebrain a researcher said yesterday...He said his tests would, at first seem to support the distasteful conclusionthat motion, emotion and behavior can be directed by electrical forces and that animals and humans can becontrolled like robots. This assumption must be qualified, he said.Talking Machine Wont Be Tricked, December 29, 1959Devices are also being developed that can teach themselves without human intervention. They will soon bemaking decision at speeds and through steps of reasoning beyond the reach of human minds. Thesedevelopments, with their prospects for good and evil, were discussed at the annual meeting of theAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science being heldhere. The situation was foreseen where the nation, under threat of war, could surrenderits destiny to a device whose decision would "win" the war but destory the country.Currents To Brain Produce Changes In Social Behavior, August 12, 1959The social behavior of humans and animals can be drastically influenced by electrical stimulation of thebrain a researcher said yesterday...Dr. Jose M.R. Delgado, Associate Professor of Physiology at the YaleUniversity School of Medicine, said painless chargesto the human brain had evoked such feelings as fear, friendliness and recall of long-forgottenevents. The patients were mentally ill or epileptic. In the tests on monkeys and cats, therewere definite changes in eating and sleeping, fighting and playing and sexualresponses, he said.Dr. Delgado spoke at a meeting of the International Congress ofPhysiological Sciences in Buenos Aires. He said his tests would, at first seem tosupport the distasteful conclusion that motion, emotion and behavior can be directed by
  6. 6. electrical forces and that animals and humans can be controlled like robots. Thisassumption must be qualified, he said.Proton New Tool in Brain Surgery, 17.10 1961TUMOUR MADE TO SHRINK - Parkinsons Disease Is Also Treated With a Beam of Nuclear ParticlesAn international gathering of neurosurgeons heard today how radiation was beingused to perform bloodless operations on the brain and to map the functions of thehuman brain...Medical researchers from Cambridge, Mass., and Stockholm, Sweden, described thesuccessful use of proton beams on brains to treat persons suffering with tumors, Parkinsons disease andschizophrenia. Dr. Raymond Kjellberg a neurosurgeon at the Massachusetts General Hospital reportedtoday the first application of this proton-beam technique for treating a deep-seated brain tumour...Dr. LarsLeksell of Serafimerlasarettet, a hospital in Stockholm described how the proton-beam technique had beenused for successful treatment of a small group of patients suffering with psychic disorders and Parkinsonsdisease. As an example, he told of a 44 year old women who had been progressively incapacitated by a right-side tremor from Parkinsons disease. The woman was subjected in the proton beamtreatment, with the protons aimed at the thalamus, a deep-scated collection ofnerve cells inside the brain, which controls body movements. After thirteen days,Dr. Leksell reported, the tremor disappeared with complete recovery of function andwithout side effects.Technological Decisions Ignore Human Factors, Admiral Rickover Says, November 20, 1964Vice Adm. Hyman G. Rickover said tonight that both governmental and private organizationswere disregarding human considerations in making technological decisions.Too often, he declared,technological decisions are being made on the basis of shortrange, private interestswith no regard for theinterests of others or the possibilities of harmful, long-range side effects. The methods ofscience, he said, require the rigorous exclusion of the human factor. But technologycannot claim the authority of science,and what is done with technology must be subject in the traditional concepts ofethics and morals, he said.Admiral Rickover spoke before a symposium on Cybernetics and Society being held inconnection with the 175th anniversary celebration of Georgetown University. Thetwo-day symposium is considering thesocial and psychological implications of the new science of cybernetics, whichdeals with computer control of human or machine activities. He said there must bea recognition that technology is a product of human effort, a product serving no otherpurpose than to benefit man — man in general, not merely some man. Neither publicopinion nor the low, he said, has caught up with the new destructive potential of technologywhich is why perpetrators of technological damage often as not escape with impunity.Technology, Admiral Rickover said, is not an irrepressible force of nature to which wemust meckly submit. It is, he said, nothing but the artifacts fashioned by modern man toincrease his powers
  7. 7. of mind and body....Marvelous as they are, we must not let ourselves be ever awed by theseartifacts, he said, They certainly do not dictate how we should use them nor by their mereexistence do they authorize actions that were not anteriorly lawful.Sociologist Warns onBig-Brotherism, April 14, 1966In a benevolent, scientific disguise, the age of big-brotherism is fast approachingwith possibly disastrous consequences only dimly regcognized by researchers andthe public, a mental health meeting here was told today. Apparently in the interestsof social welfare and scientific knowledge, an ugly alliance may be developing betweenlegal electronic surveillance, scientific research and Government dossiers, according to Dr.Orville G. Brim Jr., a prominent sociologist who is president of the Russell SageFoundation of New York. Dr. Brim participated in one of several sessions on surveillance, testing andthe right of privacy …At the various sessions, behavioral scientists from different fields agreedindependently to the growth of psychological tests, electronic surveillance and social research presenteddangers.Matador With A Radio Stops Wired Bull, May 17, 1965 - Modified Behavior in AnimalsSubject of Brain Study - By John. A. OsmundsenAfternoon sunlight poured over the high wooden barriers into the ring as the brave bull bore down on theunarmed "matador" - a scientist who had never faced a fighting bull...But the charging animals horns neverreached the man behind the heavy red cape. Moments before that could happen, Dr. Jose M.R.Delgado thescientist, pressed a button on a small radio transmitter in his hand andthe bull braked to a halt…The experiment conducted last year in Cordova, Spain, by Dr.Delgado of Yale Universitys School of Medicine, was probably the most spectaculardemonstration ever performed ofthe deliberate modification of animal behavior through external control of the brain.Dr. Delgado was trying to find out what makes brave bulls brave - just as other ofhis experiments have aimed at finding the biological basis for emotions, personalityand behavior in man and other animals through electrical stimulation of their brains.He has been working in this field for more than 15 years…I do believe, he said in arecent lecture, that an understanding of the biological bases of social and antisocialbehavior and of mental activities, which for the first time in history can now be explored ina conscious brain, may be of decisive importance in the search for intelligent solutions tosome of our present anxieties, frustrations and conflicts. Dr. Delgado said in an interviewrecently that he was particularly concerned with what he called the gap between ourunderstanding of the atom and our understanding of the mind. .. We are in a precariousrace, he said, between the acquisition of many megatons of destructive power and thedevelopment of intelligent human beings who will make intelligent use of the formidableforces at our disposal… Dr. Delgados contention that brain research has reached astage of refinement where it can contribute to the solution of some of these
  8. 8. problems is basic he said, on many of his own experiments. These have shown, heexplained, that functions traditionally related to the psyche, such as friendliness, pleasureor verbal expression, can be induced, modified and inhibited by direct electrical stimulationof the brain.Monkeys Rejects Its Young On Radios Order Test Explores Ways to Aid Mentally IllBy ROBERT REINHOLD - MARCH 22, 1967Female monkeys, normally among the most protective of mothers, can be ordered by radio to reject theiryoung. Dr. José M.R. Delgado of Yales School of Medicine told a convention of electronic engineers hereyesterday. The Spanish-born neuro-physiologist said he had conducted experiments inwhich a rhesusmonkey coddling her infant son had responded to a 10-second radio signal bythrusting off her son, adopting an offensive attitude and biting herself as shewheeled angrily around her cage...The mother lost all interest in the infant monkeyfor more than 15 minutes before the effect of the radiosignal wore off and she tookthe little monkey back in her arms...The scientist described how fine wires were implanted in themothers brain tocarry the electrical signal...The wires were inserted in the mesencephalon of mid-brain, which controls thematernal instinct. Dr. Delgados objective is not to manipulate, but to explore the physical and chemicalbasis of emotion and thought and also to develop new ways to treat the mentally ill. Such techniques havealready been applied to humans - in calming violent mental patients and in treating epilepties.OBSERVER: PASS YOUR MIND,PLEASEBy RUSSELL BAKER - Sept. 2, 1967 Dr. David Krech, a University of California psychologist, suggests in possibility thatknowledge and memory may some day be transferred from brain to brain byinjection. The doctor is depressed by the prospect. Heapparently forces it as the final insult to individual integrity. And yet, if appliedsanely, with restraint, what a boon it could be. The same thing is said, of course,about nuclear fission, which may explain why the news of each scientific advance,including the possibility of memory transfer, terrifies us. Why has science becomeDr. Frankenstein? Because application of its boons is rarely planned until possibility becomes actuality, andthen it is too late to save it from commercial or military exploitation. If there is a possibility of memory-knowledge transfer, now is the time to set regulations specifying how it may and may not be used.PUSH-BUTTON PEOPLE? – Politisk ledare den 10 april 1967:There are disquieting implications in the experiments on control of human beingsand animals that Professor José M.R. Delgado of Yale Medical School hassuccessfully conducted. His latest feat has been to demonstrate that by implantingelectrodes in a female monkeys brain he can make it reject its own child on radiocommand. Two years, ago he revealed that he had been able to stop a chargingbull in mid-course and make it amble obediently away in response to the same typeof electronic stimulation. It is the possibility of similar control over human beings that causesconcern. Several years ago Dr. Delgado told a scientific meeting that
  9. 9. experiments with patients suffering from epilepsy or emotional illness seems to support the distastefulconclusion that motion, emotion, and behavior can be directed by electrical forces and thathumanscan be controlled like robots by push buttons. It is indeed a "distasteful conclusion" despite Dr.Delgados assurance that electrical stimulation cannot change the basic characteristics of theexperimental subject...Dr. Delgado and his colleagues are pursuing these researchesto learn more about the brain, how it functions, and how its disorders can bealleviated or cured. But it is quite conceivable that in some countriesinvestigations may be under way into the possibility of using these techniques to control human beings.Presumably there is still a long way to go before Dr. Delgados accomplishments with monkeys canbe successfully transferred to humans. But the mere existence of such a possibility is disturbing, andcertainly merits wider public discussion and greater attention than it has received up to now.SCIENTIST SAYS CONTROL OF INTELLIGENCE IS POSSIBLE - Psychologist Says Level of theBrain Can Be Raised By HAROLD M. SCHMECK Jr., April 3, 1968Within 5 to 10 years, science will be able to exercise a "significant degree of control" over humanintellectual capacity, a psychologist predicted today...He said society should start thinking about thispossibility before it is too late. I foresee the time when we shall have the means and therefore,inevitably, the temptation to manipulate the behavior and the intellectual functioning of allpeople through environmental and biochemical manipulation of the brain, said Dr. DavidKrech, professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley...Testifyingat a Senate sub-committee hearing, the scientist said this kind of control hadalready been demonstrated in animal experiments...He said a class of chemicalshad been identified that can improve the memory and the problem-solving ability oflaboratory animals. Some of these drugs, he said, can raise a hereditarily stupidanimal up to the performance level of brighter animals ofthe same species...Another class of drugs can prevent the permanent storing ofmemories. The best known of these is puronycin, an anti-biotic that is not usedmedically. In other words, these drugs, when injected in the animal permit it to put in anefficent days work, although the animal is prevented from building up a permanent body ofexperiences, memories, expectations and abilities, Dr. Krech said...For if laterresearch should show that our animal data were applicable to man, and if in the meantimewe had failed to prepare ourselves for that eventuality, then we might find it too late toinstitute effective, carefully thought through and humane controls. He testified before theGovernment Research Subcommitee of the Senate Government OperationsCommittee. The subcommittee, under the chairmanship of Senator Fred R. Harris,Democrat of Oklahoma, is considering legislation to set up national commission onhealth science and society...To me, in any event, it is clear that some of the possibleoutcomes of our present brain research can raise problems surpassingly strange in theirnovelty, bafflingly complex and of serious social importance, Dr. Krech said.BRAIN WAVE – Politisk ledare den 19.9. 1970If the late George Orwell were writing a sequel to "1984" today, he would probably
  10. 10. reject as archaic the propaganda techniques for controlling peoples minds describedin his famous anti-utopian classic. Today, for example, he might envisage a society inwhich a newborn babys first experience would be neurosurgery, an operation in whichthe childs brain was fitted with miniaturized radio devices connected to every majorcenter controlling reason and emotion.Children in such a society might be raised as flesh and blood electrical toys, whoseideas and behavior were directed by computer signals. An aberrant or heretical ideaswould be transmitted to the computer, which would be programed to take appropriateaction to restore control...If this is still fantasy, it is not so fantastic as it was before Dr.JoseM.R. Delgado of Yale reported his latest work. By fitting radio requirement into achimpanzeesbrain, he has developed a technique which permits a computer to make a specificchange in thetest animals brain waves...That represents at least a first step down the roadtoward thenightmare vision of a brain-controlled population. Over the past decade Dr. Delgadohasreported using electrical stimulation to stop a charging bull, to make a femalemonkey rejecther children and to perform other similar feats. Dr. Delgado himself some years agosaid thatexperimental evidence seems to support the distasteful conclusion that motion, emotionand behavior can be directed by electrical forces and that humans can be controlledlike robots by push-buttons. Dr. Delgados work is aimed at finding new techniques tohelp those stricken with mental illness, epilepsy and such afflictions, not to createsome future super-totalitarian state. Fortunately,human ignorance about the brain remains so vast that there is no imminentprospect that thetechniques being worked on at Yale could have Orwellian significance. Nevertheless, thehorrifying prospect rises that in the 21st century the lexicographers may have to dropthe verb "to brainwash" and replace it with "to brainwave".VILKEN SORTS MÄNNISKOR VILL VI SKAPA? av Maggie Scarf -15.11.1970 Vi skall tala om kärlek, krig och hat, inleder professor José M.R. Delgado vid Yale universitetsmedicinska fakultet. Men vi skall granska dessa yttringar från ett nytt perspektiv: från insidan av dentänkande hjärnan. Vad pågår där, vad sker i nervcellerna under tiden vi talar, när vi agerar och då viupplever? Vi har ett nytt sätt att studera beteendet, en helt ny metod som vi utvecklat, fortsätter han med enlåg röst som är full av löften som från en förkunnare… Det handlar om elektrisk stimulering avhjärnan. Delgado är en av de ledande pionjärerna av den utvecklingen. Han ärockså den passionerade profeten av ett nytt ”psykociviliserat” samhälle varsmedborgare influerar och förändrar sina egna mentala funktioner för att skapa en
  11. 11. lyckligare, mindre destruktiv och bättre balanserad människa… Den mänskliga rasen, säger han,står vid en evolutionär vändpunkt. Vi är mycket nära den makt som ger oss möjlighet attkonstruera våra egna mentala funktioner, genom kunskapen om generna och de cerebralamekanismer som skapar våra beteenden. Frågan är vilken sorts människa som skulle varaden ideala skapelsen?...Människan utnyttjade en gång i tiden sin intelligens för att uppnåekologisk frihet, för att inte behöva bli våt när det regnade, kall när solen försvann, ellerdödas när rovdjuren var hungriga. Men människan kan uppnå mental frihet likaså. Genomatt förstå hjärnan kan den själv forma sina egna strukturer och funktioner på ett intelligentsätt. Det utgör den mest betydelsefulla kunskapen för mänsklighetens framtid… Jag tror vinu står vid tröskeln till att förstå dem. Vi måste göra det – och snart – ifall den brännandekapplöpningen mellan atomkaos och intelligenta hjärnor skall kunna vinnas… Situationen förmänskligheten är inte annorlunda än den för dinosaurierna, som levde här på jorden för 30miljoner år sedan. De hade mycket lite av intelligens men 40 ton av kött och ben. Närmiljön började förändras hade de inte tillräckligt med klokhet för att förstå sin situation ochanpassa sig. Deras öde – utplåning. Vi har också utvecklat onormala muskler och ben:raketer, vapen och biologisk krigföring. Våra hjärnor är inte ordentligt utvecklade, men demåste bli det om inte vårt öde skall bli detsamma.In Behaviorists Ideal State,Control Replaces Liberty – 3 September, 1971Traditional concepts of individual freedom and dignity have made an immeasurable contribution, buttheyve served their purpose, the rangy, cheerful, 67-year-old Harvard University professor asserted duringa conversation… Dr. Skinner argues that contrary to prevailing wisdom, individual men and women areincapable of controlling their own behavior through free will, that their behavior is an inevitable product ofexternal influences. Having thereby disposed of "autonomous man," Dr. Skinner goes on to say that theonly way to control behavior is to manipulate the environmental influences that regulate it...So he proposeswidespread application of a developing "technology of behavior," in which the actions of individualswould be controlled… Dr. Skinner, on the other hand, believes it will be possible toengineer a behavioral control system in such a way that the leaders of societywould be brought under the same controls as the people.N EW YORK TIMES BOOK REVIEW –3.9.1971 "There is just no gainsaying the profoundimportance of B.F. SKINNERS new book, BEYOND FREEDOM AND DIGNITY.
  12. 12. If you plan to read only one book this year, this is probably the one you should choose." From the New York Times review by Christopher Lehmann-HauptThe new book by the great behaviorist, author also of Walden Two, whois the mostinfluential (and controversial) living psychologist, is just published. Ithas already, throughthe shock and force of its ideas, stirred nationwide debate.Dr. Skinner questions the ideals western man holds most sacred. Heproposes tosubstitute — as the only possible solution to the deepening crisis in ourcivilization — a"technology of behavior" making full use of scientific capabilitis to alter theenvironmentand man himself.The Time cover story (Skinners Utopia: Panacea or Path to Hell?) theextensiveeditorials and articles in the New York Times (Is Freedom Obsolete?), theWashingtonStar (He calls for an end to autonomous man), the Washington Post, TheAtlantic, theChristian Science Monitor, as well as the cover story and condensationin PsychologyToday, all bear witness to an event of the first importance. His book isone of the most
  13. 13. important happenings in 20th century psychology (Science News) as itchallenges, equally,the liberal, conservative, and radical concepts of mans nature andmans future. Already in its 4th printing $ 6.95BEYOND FREEDOM AND DIGNITY, NYT Book Review, 24.10.1971The Skinner who appears in this book is different from the evengetistic author ofWalden Two. Where once he fantasized about a world controlled by social science,now he attacks the unscientific fantasies of others; the fantasy that people possessthe right to freedom from society, or that mankind has an innate dignity whichtranscends the way society makes man behave… This dissonance in Skinnersthinking becomes amplified when he tries to explain the ethical purpose of behaviorconditioning. He tells us that the "technology of behavior" is of itself morally neutral;a saint or a devil could employ it equally well. Speaking, as it were, ex machina, heindicates a few purposes to which he personally would like to see the techniquesput… Science — modern, up-to-date, hard science — stands ready to support him. Inthe process Skinner, who has some harsh words for "pre-scientific" writers, mis-represents the character of modern scientific work. The unforgivable failing of thisbook is that it is incurious about the nature of society and has little to say aboutsocial life, though it proclaims a world of entirely socializable human beings..Indeeda concepton of human dignity as simple-minded as Skinners will never provide theinsights that might stimulate a society to encourage more dignified behavior in itscitizens.ARTIFICIAL BRAIN, 10.2.1972Electrodes planted deep withing the brain stem area, where commands fromthe cortex are normally integrated, could evoke movements of the head, foreleg,hindquarters and muscles of the face...Higher levels of behavior, including attack,withdrawal, sitting, standing, preening and eating food, could also be elicited.Curbs on Biomedical Tests on Humans Proposed by Panels at Minority Parley – 9 jan 1976Draft recommendations including the barring of all biomedical research in prisons and on childrenand the mentally infirm, were made today by panels of the first National Minority Conference onHuman Experimentation… Among these was a feeling of urgent need for safe guards of the rights andmedical well-being of research subjects. Another theme was the view that minority groups were consistentlyexploited in research. The minority groups cited in this regard were not only ethnic but also suchgroups as the poor and the mentally infirm. A third theme was an expression the need for a permanentnational body to see that justice is done to research subjects in all institutions were there is humanexperimentation…We dont want to kill science, said M. Carl Holman, President of the NationalUrban Coalition, but we dont want science to kill, mangle and abuse us.
  14. 14. Behavior Tests for C.I.A. Disclosed by Denver University, Sept. 7, 1977The chancellor of the University of Denver said today that the school participated inmind control experiments sponsored by the Central Intelligence Agency 20 yearsago… Maurice Mitchell said he received a letter from the agency on Aug. 12,informing him that from 1954 to 1957 Alden B. Sears,then a graduate student at the university, conducted the experiments under a grantfrom the Geschikter Foundation for Medical Research, a C.I.A. front… He said thatunder the grants provisions, Mr.Sears, who may not have known that the experiments were connected to theC.I.A., was to perform three types of hypnosis and mind control studies. Oneexperiment, involved testing whether a person could be brainwashed and"programmed" to do something at a later date.The New York Times, August 20, 1998.A terrorist whispering into his phone doesnt realize that his words get transmittedto a ground station, becomeamplified and disappear into space where they are captured by the antennas onN.S.A. satellites...