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IG2 Task 1 Definition of Terms


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IG2 Task 1 Definition of Terms

  1. 1. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 Produce a glossary of terms specific to the methods and principles of sound design and production. Using a provided template, you must research and gather definitions specific to provided glossary terms. Any definitions must be referenced with the URL link of the website you have obtained the definition. You must also, where possible, provide specific details of how researched definitions relate to your own production practice. Name: Patryk Kleczkowski RESEARCHED DEFINITION (provide short internet researched definition and URL link) DESCRIBE THE RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCHED TERM TO YOUR OWN PRODUCTION PRACTICE? SOUND DESIGN METHODOLOGY Foley Artistry Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to film, video, and other mediums in post-production to enhance audio quality. %28filmmaking%29 We have used and produced foley sounds all the time while studying Music, we used it to ehnance several of our pieces of work as well as recorded a whole lot of raw recordings that then we could edit out in the studio. To record those sounds we used basic sound recording equipment with a microphone with wind noise cancelling. All of the recordings would be modified to sound differently and sometime used to create completely different effects or sounds. Sound Libraries A sample library is a collection of digital sound recordings, known as samples, for use by composers, arrangers, performers, and producers of music. The sound files are loaded into a sampler - either hardware or computer- based - which is then used to create music. We have our own as well as secondary sound libraries that we use in our studies. In terms of our own, we used basic recording equipment to record as many sounds as possible. Then we used those sounds to various extents in various tasks. We modified them for different uses as well as to gain different effects. What sounds we couldn't get, we used the secondary sound libraries to complete our primary sound library. SOUND FILE FORMATS Uncompressed Uncompressed audio files are the most accurate digital representation of a soundwave, but can also be the most resource- intensive method of recording and storing digital audio, both in terms of storage and management. Their accuracy makes them suitable for archiving and delivering audio at high resolution, and working with audio at a When we save our work we always compress our work in order to save storage space, a compressed piece of audio also opens a lot faster. 1
  2. 2. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 professional level, and they are the 'master' audio format of choice. mpressed-audio-file-formats. .wav The WAVE file format is a subset of Microsoft's RIFF specification for the storage of multimedia files. A RIFF file starts out with a file header followed by a sequence of data chunks. A WAVE file is often just a RIFF file with a single "WAVE" chunk which consists of two sub- chunks -- a "fmt " chunk specifying the data format and a "data" chunk containing the actual sample data. Call this form the "Canonical form". cts/WaveFormat/ Our basic audio files that we saved were in the WAVE format. .aiff AIFF is short for Audio Interchange File Format, which is an audio format initially created by Apple Computer for storing and transmitting high-quality sampled audio data. It supports a variety of bit resolutions, sample rates, and channels of audio. This format is quite popular upon Apple platforms, and is commonly adopted in professional programs that handle digital audio waveforms. AIFF files are uncompressed, making the files quite large compared to the ubiquitous MP3 format. AIFF files are comparable to Microsoft's wave files, because they are high quality they are excellent for burning to CD. There is also a compressed variant of AIFF known as AIFF-C or AIFC, with various defined compression codecs. format.shtml We didn't use this in our work .au AU is a file extension for a sound file format We didn't use this in our work 2
  3. 3. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 belonging to Sun, NeXT and DEC and used in UNIX. The AU file format is also known as the Sparc-audio or u-law fomat.AU files contain three parts: the audio data and text for a header (containing 24 bytes) and an annotation block. Sun-NeXT-DEC-UNIX-sound-file .smp An ".smp" file may be one of several different types of audio file. For example, it could be a SampleVision audio sample file. This 16-bit audio file was originally used by Turtle Beach SampleVision; you can open it with Adobe Auction, Sound Forge Pro or Awave Studio. It could also be a sample file for AdLib Gold, a PC sound card released in 1992; Scream Tracker, a mid-1990s music editing program; or Swell. Reason, a music recording and production program, uses the ".smp" extension for sampler instrument patches. smp.html We didn't use this in our work Lossy Compression In information technology, "lossy" compression is a data encoding method that compresses data by discarding (losing) some of it. The procedure aims to minimize the amount of data that needs to be held, handled, and/or transmitted by a computer. Typically, a substantial amount of data can be discarded before the result is sufficiently degraded to be noticed by the user. n We didn't use this in our work .mp3 The MP3 file format revolutionized music distribution in the late 1990s, when file- swapping services and the first portable MP3 We used the MP3 format quite a lot in our formatting of audio files. It is because it was the most common format that the software we used 3
  4. 4. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 players made their debut. MP3, or MPEG Audio Layer III, is one method for compressing audio files. MPEG is the acronym for Moving Picture Experts Group, a group that has developed compression systems for video data, including that for DVD movies, HDTV broadcasts and digital satellite systems.Using the MP3 compression system reduces the number of bytes in a song, while retaining sound that is near CD-quality. Anytime you compress a song, you will lose some of its quality, which is the trade-off for the ability to carry more music files in a smaller storage system. A smaller file size also allows the song to be downloaded from the Internet faster. player1.htmAUDIO LIMITATIONS were being used and also because it is one of the best formats. AUDIO LIMITATIONS Sound Processor Unit (SPU) Integrated circuit that generates an audio signal and sends it to a computer's speakers. The sound card can accept an analog sound (as from a microphone or audio tape) and convert it to digital data that can be stored in an audio file, or accept digitized audio signals (as from an audio file) and convert them to analog signals that can be played on the computer's speakers. On a personal computer, the sound card is usually a separate circuit board that is plugged into the motherboard. udio+processing+unit Sound processing units are integrated into the computers that we use to create our work. Digital Sound Processor (DSP) Digital signal processing (DSP) is the mathematical manipulation of an information signal to modify or improve it in some way. It is characterized by the representation of discrete time, discrete frequency, or other discrete domain signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals. We didn't use this in our work. 4
  5. 5. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 The goal of DSP is usually to measure, filter and/or compress continuous real-world analog signals. cessing Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM (pronounced ramm) is an acronym for random access memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. ml All of our computers that we work on have RAM in them in order for us to be able to create work. Without any RAM it is really hard for a computer to function and therefore it is important to always have sufficient RAM amounts for each computer. Mono Audio Commonly called mono sound, mono, or non- stereo sound, this early sound system used a single channel of audio for sound output. In monophonic sound systems, the signal sent to the sound system encodes one single stream of sound and it usually uses just one speaker. Monophonic sound is the most basic format of sound output. honic_sound.html We didn't use this in our work. Stereo Audio Commonly called stereo sound or just stereo, stereophonic sound divides sounds across two channels (recorded on two separate sources) then the recorded sounds are mixed so that some elements are channeled to the left and others to the right. Stereophonic sound is generally considered the best sound technology of the 1950 and early 1960's. honic_sound.html All of our audio files are done in stereo to get the best quality possible. 5
  6. 6. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 Surround Sound Surround sound is a term used to describe a type of audio output in which the sound appears to "surround the listener" by 360 degrees. Surround sound systems use three or more channels and speakers in front and behind the listener to create a surrounding envelope of sound and directional audio sources. The term surround sound has become popular in recent years and more commonly used since the advent of home theater systems. Surround sound can be either an analog or digital system. d_sound.htm We have experimented in the Reaper software to create surround like sound effects or sound effects that go from one earbud in earphones to another. This allowed us to understand how surround technology works and how we can use it to our advantage to improve the quality of our future audio. Direct Audio (Pulse Code Modulation – PCM) Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps.PCM streams have two basic properties that determine their fidelity to the original analog signal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples are taken; and the bit depth, which determines the number of possible digital values that each sample can take. code_modulationAUDIO RECORDING SYSTEMS We didn't use this in our work AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEMS Analogue An analog recording is where you would record the analog signal to a recordable medium. The medium may be magnetic tapes or etched or sketched on vinyl. We didn't use this in our work 6
  7. 7. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 ?qid=1006051503661 Digital Mini Disc The MiniDisc (MD) is an obsolete magneto- optical disc-based data storage device for 74 minutes and, later, 80 minutes, of digitized audio or 1 gigabyte of Hi-MD data. The Sony brand audio players were on the market from September 1992 until March 2013. We didn't use this in our work Compact Disc (CD) A compact disc [sometimes spelled disk] (CD) is a small, portable, round medium made of molded polymer (close in size to the floppy disk) for electronically recording, storing, and playing back audio, video, text, and other information in digital form. Tape cartridges and CDs generally replaced the phonograph record for playing back music. At home, CDs have tended to replace the tape cartridge although the latter is still widely used in cars and portable playback devices. Initially, CDs were read-only, but newer technology allows users to record as well. CDs will probably continue to be popular for music recording and playback. A newer technology, the digital versatile disc (DVD), stores much more in the same space and is used for playing back movies. Some variations of the CD include: CD-ROM CD-i CD-RW CD-ROM XA CD-W Photo CD Video CD We didn't use this in our work 7
  8. 8. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 n/compact-disc Digital Audio Tape (DAT) DAT (Digital Audio Tape) is a standard medium and technology for the digital recording of audio on tape at a professional level of quality. A DAT drive is a digital tape recorder with rotating heads similar to those found in a video deck. Most DAT drives can record at sample rates of 44.1 kHz, the CD audio standard, and 48 kHz. DAT has become the standard archiving technology in professional and semi- professional recording environments for master recordings. Digital inputs and outputs on professional DAT decks allow the user to transfer recordings from the DAT tape to an audio workstation for precise editing. The compact size and low cost of the DAT medium makes it an excellent way to compile the recordings that are going to be used to create a CD master.As an archiving medium, DAT is an alternative to consider along with: Digital Data Storage (DDS1 through DDS3) Optical disc VHS tape Digital-Audio-Tape We didn't use this in our work. MIDI MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another. A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. We used MIDI quite a lot within the Reaper software. We use MIDI to create instrumental audio files as well as to enhance our standard recordings. MIDI items are very useful to give additional detail and quality to a piece of work and is easy to use as well. 8
  9. 9. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 Software Sequencers A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically MIDI or CV/Gate, and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. The software we use, Reaper, uses sequencing automatically to aid us in our work Software Plug-ins A software plug-in is an add-on for a program that adds functionality to it. For example, a Photoshop plug-in (such as Eye Candy) may add extra filters that you can use to manipulate images. A browser plug-in (such as Macromedia Flash or Apple QuickTime) allows you to play certain multimedia files within your Web browser. VST plug-ins add effects for audio recording and sequencing programs such as Cubase and Logic Audio. We use VST and VSTi plugins for the Reaper software to have more sound editors to experiment with and use. This allows us to create more sounds from smaller amount of original raw recordings which saves time and resources. MIDI Keyboard Instruments A MIDI keyboard is typically a piano-style user interface keyboard device used for sending MIDI signals or commands over a USB or MIDI cable to other devices connected and operating on the same MIDI protocol interface. This could also be a personal computer running software such as a digital audio workstation (DAW) that listens to and sends MIDI information to other MIDI devices connected by cable or running internal to the personal computer system. The basic MIDI keyboard does not produce sound. Instead, MIDI information is sent to an electronic module capable of reproducing an array of digital sounds or samples that resemble traditional analog musical instruments. These samples or waveforms are also referred to as voices or timbres. We use MIDI keyboard instruments all the time to create our own pieces of music to add or combine with our raw recordings. 9
  10. 10. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 AUDIO SAMPLING File Size Constraints - Bit-depth Bit depth is the number of bits used to carry the data in each sample of audio. The bit depth chosen for recording limits the dynamic range of the recording. (Other factors in the audio chain may also limit this, so more bits often will not produce a better recording.) The software we use, Reaper, handles bit depth automatically for us. File Size Constraints - Sample Rate In developing an audio sound for computers or telecommunication, the sample rate is the number of samples of a sound that are taken per second to represent the event digitally. The more samples taken per second, the more accurate the digital representation of the sound can be. For example, the current sample rate for CD-quality audio is 44,100 samples per second. This sample rate can accurately reproduce the audio frequencies up to 20,500 hertz, covering the full range of human hearing. e-rate Whenever we work, we always have to keep in mind the constrains of different file sizes. 10