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White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs

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Deliverable D6.1

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White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs

  1. 1. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program for research, technological development and demonstration under the grant agreement no. 609453. DELIVERABLE Project Acronym: MAGHRENOV Grant Agreement number: 609453 Project Title: Convergence between EU and MAGHREB MPCs innovation systems in the field of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RE&EE) – A test-bed for fostering Euro Mediterranean Innovation Space (EMIS) D6.1 WHITE PAPER CONCERNING NEW EDUCATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL PROGRAMS Version: 1.0 Authors: Refaat Chaabouni (ANME) Internal Reviewers: Claude Ayache (KIC SE) Océane Elmajdoub (KIC SE) Josep Bordonau (UPC) Abdelhak Chaibi (RD Maroc) Helene Ben Khemis (ANME) …… Dissemination Level P Public X C Confidential, only for members of the consortium and the Commission Services
  2. 2. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Table of contents Table of contents ................................................................................................................................. 2 Revision History..................................................................................................................................... 3 Acronyms and abbreviations............................................................................................................... 4 Executive summary .............................................................................................................................. 5 I. Human Resources Education and Training in Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency in the Maghreb Countries: Analysis of the Current Situation ....................................................... 9 1. Analysis of the existing training offer................................................................................... 9 1.1. Higher Education .................................................................................................................. 9 1.2. Vocational training............................................................................................................. 11 2. Strengths and weaknesses of current systems .................................................................. 12 3. Conclusion................................................................................................................................ 13 II. Recommendations for better responses to challenges ........................................................ 14 1. General recommendations.................................................................................................... 14 2. Specific recommendations for RE and EE........................................................................... 18 References........................................................................................................................................... 22 Appendices........................................................................................................................................... 23 © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20152
  3. 3. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Revision History Revision Date Author Organization Description 0.1 02/11/2015 Refaat CHAABOUNI ANME Initial draft 0.2 24/11/2015 Josep Bordonau UPC Review remarks 1.0 27/11/2015 Refaat CHAABOUNI ANME Final version Statement of originality: This deliverable contains original unpublished work except where clearly indicated otherwise. Acknowledgement of previously published material and of the work of others has been made through appropriate citation, quotation or both. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20153
  4. 4. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Acronyms and abbreviations EIT : European Institute of Innovation and Technology EMIS : Euro-Mediterranean Innovation Space ENPI : European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument EU : European Union Euro-Med : Euro-Mediterranean GSO : Group of Senior Officials (former MoCo) Medspring : Mediterranean Science, Policy, Research & Innovation Gateway MIRA : Mediterranean Innovation and Research coordination Action MOBIDOC : Mobility Programme for doctoral students MoCo : Monitoring Committee for the Euro-Mediterranean cooperation in RTD MPCs : Mediterranean Partner Countries PASRI : Programme d’Appui à la Recherche et l’Innovation RE and EE : Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency RTD : Research and Technological Development SMEs : Small and Medium sized Enterprises STI : Science, Technology and Innovation © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20154
  5. 5. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Executive summary The present “White Paper” on “New Educational Entrepreneurial Programs” is part of the support- to-policy dimension of the MAGHRENOV project. It is oriented towards stimulating the discussions, commitments and partnership building between the Euro-Med stakeholders and decision makers for the promotion and development of New Educational Programs in the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency sector. The findings of this White Paper are based on the comprehensive reports that have been produced in the framework of the MAGHRENOV project and on the various exchanges, discussions and meetings we had with several officials and stakeholders involved in the RE and EE sector and in the Euro-Mediterranean STI partnership. This document is divided in two parts: The first part is devoted to an analysis of the current status of Education and Training in the field of RE and EE in Morocco and Tunisia, the two southern Mediterranean countries members of the MAGHRENOV consortium. The analysis of the existing training offer reveals the existence of several major weaknesses but also points of support making possible any ambitious and coherent program aiming to upgrade and develop the existing training offer. The second part is devoted to the identification of a series of challenges to be addressed and provides recommendations to decision markers and stakeholders on how to better address the challenges. The following set of recommendations is discussed in the Report: • Establishing a political dialogue about the Euro-Med cooperation in the field of Higher Education. • Extending the existing Higher Education bilateral cooperation activities (North-South and South-South) to integrate a Euro-Mediterranean dimension. • Leveraging the 5 + 5 Dialogue to launch sub-regional initiatives in Higher Education. • Creating a new Euro-Mediterranean Master program to train a core group of game changers in renewable energy, highly competent and having entrepreneurial spirit. • Creating a Euro-Med network of training structures in RE and EE. It is important to underline that the specific recommendations for RE and EE New Educational programs should not be considered as separate actions. In fact, the efficiency and impact intended from these actions require their implementation as components of a comprehensive programme coordinated and monitored at the regional level. Indeed, these recommendations should be considered as complementary with those to be proposed in the two forthcoming White Papers on “New adequate infrastructure” and “Innovative business stimulation”. The ultimate objective of these reports is to foster a political dialogue that will lead to the adoption of a joint road map for the development of the Euro-Mediterranean Innovation Space in RE and EE. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20155
  6. 6. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Introduction The MAGHRENOV project is part of a new series of projects funded by the European Commission at the end of the 7th Framework Programme in order to give a new impetus to the Euro-Mediterranean Research and Innovation Partnership. Indeed, nearly twenty years after its institutionalization in 1995 as part of the “Barcelona Process”, emerged the need to design a new approach of this Partnership, which would better meet the expectations of the Mediterranean Partner Countries. Notwithstanding its many achievements, the Euro-Mediterranean Research and Innovation Partnership had limited impact on the socio-economic development of the southern Mediterranean countries and more specifically on the promotion of their innovation capabilities. In fact, several factors are behind this mixed situation. First and foremost, the socio-economic development in any country is a highly complex issue. The success depends on many different factors; some of them rely on the general structure and modernization of the economy, and the interaction between local, national and international agents; others on the skill level of their human resources or on the infrastructure capacity. In that sense the definition and implementation of comprehensive and coherent policies for STI in the MPCs have been more difficult than expected which prevented them from fully benefitting from the available European instruments. The second reason is that during this period, programmes and initiatives specifically oriented towards the promotion of innovation in the southern Mediterranean countries have been less supported than, for example, in countries of Central and Eastern Europe before their accession to the European Union. Last but not least, many institutional and practical difficulties in the involvement of policy makers, academic, industrial groups, and end users from both sides of the Mediterranean hindered this complex process. In May 2011, addressing the ongoing transformation in the Mediterranean, the EU issued a Joint Communication “A new response to a changing Neighbourhood” stressing the need for a new approach to strengthen the partnership between the EU and the European Neighbourhood Policy countries.1 Working towards the development of a “common knowledge and innovation space” was underlined as a cooperation priority. The principles of demand driven and impact driven EU-MPCs cooperation based on co-ownership, mutual interest and shared benefits were also outlined. In this spirit, a Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Research and Innovation was held in Barcelona in April 2012. It adopted a new frame of cooperation based on a renewed partnership according to the principles mentioned above. Following this High Level Event, the Commission launched, during the last period of the 7th Framework Programme, new calls addressing more specifically innovation and the institutional and capacity building issues; such as the call “Bridging the gap between research and innovation” (R2I- ENP)2 to which the MAGHRENOV proposal was successfully submitted. Several projects were funded under this call, and in order to promote synergies between them and realize a better overall impact they were clustered together (R2I Cluster Mediterranean). 1 http://www.iemed.org/observatori-en/recursos/documents/documents-oficials/documents-oficials- adjunts/A%20new%20response%20to%20a%20changing%20Neighbourhood.pdf 2 https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/fp7/calls/fp7-inco-2013-9.html © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20156
  7. 7. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs The MAGHRENOV project addresses Mediterranean innovative markets in the field of Renewable Energies and Energy efficiency (RE and EE). Two other R2I projects: “Mediterranean activities for Research and Innovation in the Energy sector”, MARE1 , and “Empowering Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Research alliance for Europe 2020 challenges”, ETRERA 20202 , focus also on the same field. The theme of Renewable Energy has been, since the launch in 1992 during the 3rd Framework Programme of the Averroes initiative, one of the priority themes of the Euro-Mediterranean RTD cooperation. Several projects covering almost all the areas of Renewable Energy have been funded in the past 20 years. They mobilized hundreds of researchers from both shores of the Mediterranean, and provided concrete answers to several scientific and technological issues. It should also be stressed that the Energy sector and particularly its Renewable Energy component is among the priorities of the Euro-Mediterranean economic cooperation. Several ambitious initiatives such as DESERTEC3 and MEDGRID4 have been launched in the past in the framework of the Mediterranean Solar Plan. The current context is conducive for giving a new impetus to this cooperation. In the aforementioned Barcelona Conference, this theme was addressed in a full session which questioned several fundamental issues related to innovation and market development such as growing needs in energy and electricity demand, integration of renewable energy and grid development, defining integrated innovation strategies targeting both supply for domestic markets and exports. Many European and Mediterranean countries have already implemented adequate policies to substantially increase the share of renewable sources in their energy mix and the costs of these technologies are falling rapidly, being in many cases competitive with fossil fuels. Countries and regions that take the lead in developing these new energy sources will have first-mover advantage in one of the world’s fastest growing economic sectors reaping the economic growth and job creation that will flow from it. The ambition of the MAGHRENOV project is to contribute to this regional challenge and be the test- bed of the RE and EE part of the Euro-Mediterranean Innovation Space (EMIS). The project has three main objectives: • To explore practical methods devoted to capacity building and to fostering innovation on Mediterranean RE and EE markets, • To facilitate convergence between initiatives undertaken in EU and MPCs in favour of (a) the development of sustainable energies adapted to regional specificities and (b) the establishment of a shared and dynamic Research and Innovation Systems in the domain, • To create real mobility between young academics and entrepreneurs in both regions making use of the built-up capacity. Following these objectives, MAGHRENOV activities are devoted to capacity building (human resources as well as research and innovation infrastructures) on one hand, and to business creation, including joint financial support to Euro-Med innovation projects in the RE and EE sector on the other hand. The expected impact of the project thus, concerns practical results from the capacity building activities as well as more general lessons addressed to stakeholders and policy makers within the EU 1 http://www.mare-euromed.eu/ 2 http://www.etrera2020.eu/ 3 http://www.desertec.org/ 4 https://setis.ec.europa.eu/publications/setis-magazine/smart-grids/medgrid-interconnecting-mediterranean © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20157
  8. 8. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs and the MPCs. In fact, the project aims to lead to the emergence of a more political vision in which the converging potential of Research and Innovation Systems will be assessed as well as the constraints that may prevent full integration within a reasonable timeframe. The present “White Paper” on “New Educational Entrepreneurial Programs” is part of this support- to-policy dimension of the MAGHRENOV project. It is oriented towards stimulating the discussions, commitments and partnership building between the Euro-Med stakeholders and decision makers for the promotion and development of New Educational Programs in the RE and EE. The findings of this White Paper are based on the comprehensive reports that have been produced in the framework of the MAGHRENOV project and on the various exchanges, discussions and meetings we had with several officials and stakeholders involved in the RE and EE and in the Euro- Mediterranean STI partnership. This document is divided in two parts: The first part is devoted to an analysis of the current status of Education and Training in the field of Re and EE in Morocco and Tunisia, the two southern Mediterranean countries members of the MAGHRENOV consortium. The second part is devoted to the identification of a series of challenges to be addressed and provides recommendations to stakeholders and decision makers on how to better address the challenges. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20158
  9. 9. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs I. Human Resources Education and Training in Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency in the Maghreb Countries: Analysis of the Current Situation The development of a critical mass of professionals with high scientific and technical skills and at the same time, with entrepreneurial skills is one of the main objectives of the MAGHRENOV project. The ultimate target is to create a generation of the so-called “game-changers”; these are professionals coming from both EU and MPCs, who will contribute, in a decisive manner, to the development of the Euro-Mediterranean Innovation Space in the field of RE and EE. Trans-border mobility at all career levels is considered as a key element of this endeavor; it will favour the mastering of technological, economic, environmental and societal factors of the region, and, at the same time, lead to the creation of an Euro-Med “community of interest” in the RE and EE field. Another important feature of this approach is that the intended actions will target higher education students, practitioners and entrepreneurs, thus covering the whole spectrum of the potential “game-changers”; namely: • University graduates interested in enrolling in an international Master of Sciences programme, • Master of Sciences graduates interested in a PhD programme, • PhD graduates interested in a post-doctoral experience abroad, • Professionals working in industry and in research centers interested in developing their skills, • Entrepreneurs willing to devote their efforts for the development of the field of Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency. 1. Analysis of the existing training offer Education and training in the areas of RE and EE are mainly existing at the higher education system and vocational training system. 1.1. Higher Education It was in the 1980s that were introduced in the Engineering Schools of the Maghreb countries, the first degrees in “Energy Engineering “ as a response to the needs for engineers in this field of the local electricity producers and the chemical industry. Subsequently, with the diversification of the industrial sector, several universities of the region offered Bachelor degrees in Energy in order to fulfill the needs of SMEs and Master degrees for those in the research system. Overtime, this process has led to the emergence of a significant number of educational programs in RE and EE in the Maghreb countries backed by several Research Laboratories. Among several examples, it is worth mentioning the Master of Sciences in Energy that the International University of Rabat is offering in collaboration with the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine. This programme is focused on Renewable Energies and Petroleum Technology.1 1 http://www.uir.ac.ma/les-formations-de-luir/energies-renouvelables-et-etudes-petrolieres © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/20159
  10. 10. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs The Master of Sciences in Sustainable Energy Management, imparted in Alkhawayn University in Morocco, is another interesting programme focused on Renewable Energies production, transformation, distribution and management.1 The Master in Energy Engineering of the University of Monastir in Tunisia is one of the oldest ones; it focuses mainly on Energy production and Management.2 The University of Sfax in Tunisia, is offering a Master of Sciences in Electricity conversions and Renewable energies.3 More recently, the newly created Euro-Mediterranean University of Fez, in Morocco, is considering the introduction of a comprehensive program in Energy Engineering and Renewable Energies in partnership with the French most prestigious Engineering School, Ecole Polytechnique.4 Concerning doctoral programmes, the first PhD degrees in Renewable Energies in the southern Mediterranean countries were created at the end of the 1970s almost at the same period as their European counterparts. They were backed by academic Research Laboratories specialized mainly in semi-conductor materials /photovoltaic solar cells. These Laboratories were followed, a few years later, by those belonging to “National Research Centres”. The fundamental mission assigned to these newly created institutions was to promote applied research and to be the showcase of the “science for development” orientation promoted by the national policy stakeholders, against the “science for science” orientation advocated, at that time, by the vast majority of university teachers. Among these institutions it is worth mentioning, the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique in Tunisia, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique in Morocco, the Office National de la Recherche Scientique in Algeria, the National Research Centre in Egypt and the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan. All these organizations played a tremendous role in the development of scientific research in their respective countries and contributed to the training of thousands of PhD students in the field of RE and EE and other strategic domains such as health, agriculture and environment. It is interesting to point out that in the Maghreb countries, the development of these Doctoral programs took advantage of the strong scientific cooperation they have with France. For instance, the Hubert Curien Partnership, (formerly: Programmes d’Actions Intégrées, PAI) was instrumental to promote the joint supervision of PhD thesis or “co-tutelle de thèse” between French and Maghrebian universities.5 The Hubert Curien Partnership encourages also multilateral cooperation by jointly funding regional projects involving the three Maghreb countries. Renewable energy production, storage and management are considered the priority fields of this program. It also allows the possibility to Maghrebian PhD students not engaged in the “co-tutelle” scheme to obtain fellowships varying from 3 to 6 months to carry out part of their research in the French partner institution. Similar bilateral mobility schemes were then set up in the 1990s with Spain, Portugal, and Italy and more recently with Germany. These bilateral agreements were very useful for the Maghreb countries to diversify and enlarge their scientific cooperation. 1 http://www.aui.ma/en/admissions/graduates/programs/9-academics/372-master-of-science-in-sustainable-energy- management.html 2 http://www.um.rnu.tn 3 http://www.enis.rnu.tn/site/enis/uploads/file/research_master_electricalconversions_english.pdf 4 http://www.ueuromed.org/pro/file/plaquette_master_er.pdf 5 http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/politique-etrangere-de-la-france/diplomatie-scientifique/partenariats- scientifiques-20601/partenariats-scientifiques/article/les-partenariats-hubert-curien-phc © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201510
  11. 11. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs At the multilateral level, the participation, since the 1990s, of several MPCSs universities and research centers in European Joint R&D projects enhanced the international mobility of their PhD students. More recently, European Programs such as Tempus program helped strengthening the links between European and Mediterranean universities and promoting the creation of several networks. For instance, in relation to the MAGHRENOV project we can mention the FEFEDI network (Filière d’Expertise Maghrébine de Formation en Entrepreneuriat et en Développement International), which is focusing on training entrepreneurship and international development.1 This network is formed by several schools of management from the three Maghreb countries, France, Greece and Italy and involves also professional organizations such as the Union Tunisienne du Commerce et de l’Artisanat (UTICA). Another interesting network created through the Tempus program is DICAMP2 (Development and Implementation of an Accredited Cross-Universities Innovation Management Master Programme in Tunisia) which main characteristic is the association of two management schools and one engineering school from Tunisia with partners from Germany, France and England. This project contributed in demonstrating the interdisciplinary nature of innovation management, allowed the possibility to the enrolled students to carry out their Master thesis abroad, and showed to the Tunisian partners how to successfully achieve an European accreditation process. For the networks in the field RE and EE it is worth mentioning the Desertec University Network (DUN) which was created in 2011 in the framework of Desertec project. This network includes more than 15 Euro-Med higher education and research organizations from almost all the countries of the region and the University of Wuppertal in Germany.3 In conclusion, several interesting Doctoral Programs in RE and EE are currently offered by MPCs universities, with, for many of them, good academic links with their European counterparts. Several networks also exist which can be instrumental for the emergence of the EMIS in the field of RE and EE. 1.2. Vocational training An important effort has been made in the southern Mediterranean countries to develop vocational training which is of paramount importance for economic development. Many projects in the framework of bilateral cooperation are currently in progress in order to strengthen the capacities of vocational training centers. In Tunisia, as part of the Tunisian-German cooperation in RE, a dedicated training program in Energy Management was set up. Several experts and technicians were trained and accredited by the Tunisian- German Chamber of Industry and Commerce (AHK). In addition to these initiatives, a training platform on RE was installed in a vocational training center in Tunis.4 In Morocco, within the context of bilateral cooperation with France, the creation and networking of three new institutes for training in RE and EE is already programmed. They will be located on the sites of Oujda 1 http://www.fefedi.polito.it/fr/Project.html 2 http://dicamp.eu/ 3 http://www.dun-eumena.com/ 4 http://www.allemagnepartenaire.tn/Fr/economie-et-emploi_58_6_D6#.VijcM9IvfIV © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201511
  12. 12. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs (in 2015), Ouarzazate and Tangier (2016), which will host the main investments of the Moroccan solar and wind programmes.1 It is important to mention that either in the higher education or in vocational training institutions, besides to curricula exclusively specialized in RE and EE, many other curricula in the fields of science and technology include courses on RE and EE. Regarding continuous training, several institutions provide technical training in response to requests from companies or professional organizations. This is for example the case of the Technopark of Borj Cedria in Tunisia2 and the Green Energy Park in Morocco3 . It is also important to point out that several Euro-Med professional organizations such as the Mediterranean Association of National Agencies for Energy Efficiency and Development of Renewable Energy (MEDENER)4 are offering continuous training sessions to their members. 2. Strengths and weaknesses of current systems The scientific relevance of the above described Masters and PhD programs is well established; however, their impact on innovation and business creation is relatively modest. This is mainly due to the strong theoretical orientation of the existing curricula. Students and young researchers have rarely the opportunity to tackle practical industrial problems or to benefit from long term internships. Many institutional and operational constraints are behind these drawbacks.5 The entrepreneurial dimension is also poorly addressed. The acquisition of the related knowledge and skills requires the continuous participation of experienced practitioners. Unfortunately, this is rarely the case. The importance of an entrepreneurial dimension in Master programs and graduate studies in general, seems to be not yet fully acknowledged by several Maghrebian stakeholders. A survey conducted in the framework of the MAGHRENOV project revealed that among the different characteristics of a Master program that foster the emergence of “game changers”, entrepreneurship and international perspective, were considered by the consulted experts as being the less important ones. The quasi absence of trainings in the work place is also a serious drawback because it is well known that practical experience builds applied and tacit knowledge and develops self-confidence in someone’s ability to act effectively. Many scholars have highlighted the importance of tacit knowledge in the innovation process.6 They consider that the creativity necessary for innovation derives not only from obvious and visible expertise, but from invisible reservoirs of experience. In fact, these weaknesses characterize more or less, all the Master and Doctoral programmes in the Maghreb countries, but they are more pronounced in the field of Renewable Energies because of the absence of large scale production facilities and a critical mass of innovative companies. But things are changing quickly in the region and the ambition of the MAGHRENOV is precisely to help foster these changes. The analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of current training systems in the Maghreb countries has been performed on the basis of the following criteria: • The ability to deliver educational and training programmes tailored to business 1 http://www.afd.fr/jahia/webdav/site/afd/shared/PORTAILS/SECTEURS/CLIMAT/fiches-2015/MAROC_formation- emploi_vert_energie.pdf 2 www.ecopark.tn/ 3 http://www.greenenergypark.ma/ 4 http://medener-indicateurs.net/uk/ 5 See Appendix 1. 6 Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company. New York: Oxford University Press. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201512
  13. 13. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs requirements; • Responsiveness and adaptability of the host institutions; • The capacity of the institutions to deliver a coordinated offer and to disseminate the information to the target audiences (businesses, graduates, job seekers, etc.); • The capacity to involve industry in the training process. 3. Conclusion It appears from the preceding analysis that despite several drawbacks and weaknesses there are strong points of support which will allow for successful design and implementation of an Euro-Med ambitious and coherent program aiming to upgrade and develop the existing training offer. Beyond the development of scientific and technical skills, the need to train specialists who are able to act as vectors of change and opinion leaders and to promote entrepreneurship and innovation is of paramount importance. The achievements of the MAGHRENOV project in this domain have created the conditions for reaching this objective. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201513
  14. 14. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs II. Recommendations for better responses to challenges 1. General recommendations Recommendation 1. Establishing a political dialogue about the Euro-Med cooperation in the field of Higher Education Reasons / Main challenges: Currently, the instance leading the political dialogue in the field of research and innovation between the EU and the southern Mediterranean countries is the Euro-Mediterranean Group of Senior Officials in Research and Innovation, (the former Monitoring Committee for RTD, MoCo, which was established in 1995). Historically, the main objective of this Committee was to promote the Euro-Med RI cooperation. The higher education dimension- as such- was virtually absent in its discussions and recommendations. Several attempts to introduce it in the Euro-Med STI dialogue, especially after the First Euro- Mediterranean Ministerial Conference on Higher Education (Cairo – 18 June 2007), were unsuccessful. The challenge today is of particular significance for the whole region. The links between education, research and innovation - the three components of the "knowledge triangle" - should be closer and more effective than ever before in order to successfully achieve the construction of the Euro- Mediterranean Innovation Space. Reaching this objective requires, among other conditions, a better coordination between the Directorates-General of the European Commission in charge of these strategic sectors. The Directorate General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) should be formally represented at the GSO. Similarly, important DG for the Euro-Med Partnership such as the Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations (DG NEAR) and other Directorates-General operating in priority areas, such as the Directorate-General for Energy (DG ENER), should also be strongly involved in the activities of this Committee. Among other benefits, this enlargement will facilitate the design and implementation of multilateral actions for fostering innovation and strengthening the knowledge triangle in the Euro- Mediterranean region. To these issues is added a major challenge which is the improvement of the South-South coordination. Common positions and joint initiatives are almost nonexistent today. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201514
  15. 15. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Implementation: • Engage DG EAC in a formal way in the GSO. • Involve important DG for support to innovation triangle in southern Mediterranean countries, like DG NEAR and other Directorates-General of the European Commission operating in priority areas (Water, Energy, Agriculture,...), in the GSO meetings. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201515
  16. 16. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Recommendation 2. Leveraging the 5 + 5 Dialogue to launch sub-regional initiatives in Higher Education. Reasons / Main challenges: The 5 + 5 Dialogue, which secretariat is provided by the Union for Mediterranean (UfM), is an interesting political dialogue framework. However, there are no sub-regional initiatives in higher education between countries of the 5 + 5 Dialogue. The regular meetings between ministers in charge of Higher education of the concerned countries (the last one took place in March 2015 in Madrid) are likely to facilitate the implementation of initiatives and the monitoring of cooperation activities. Implementation: • Launching, within the 5 + 5 Dialogue, sub-regional initiatives in higher education targeting water, energy, agriculture, health and transport as priority areas of the Euro-Med partnership. • Leveraging best practices from EU programs for the benefit of MPCs to perform sub-regional and regional actions. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201516
  17. 17. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Recommendation 3 Extending the existing bilateral cooperation activities (North-South and South-South) to integrate a Euro- Mediterranean dimension. Reasons / Main challenges: Many bilateral STI cooperation programmes are in force in the Euro-Med which can be divided into two broad categories: • Classical bilateral cooperation activities between EU member states and MPCs, and between MPCs themselves. • New bilateral cooperation activities between the EU and MPCs, (RDI programmes with Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia and Morocco) which are funded mainly through the ENPI. Developing coordination and enhancing complementarities and synergies between these various programmes and instruments is still a pending issue despite the fact that it is a recurrent recommendation of the MoCo conclusions since many years. However, this mixed situation is evolving and there are already some interesting initiatives that could serve as examples to follow. In the first category, the Hubert Curien Partnership is a good model since it introduced a Maghreb component in its initial bilateral scheme. In the second category, although there were no formal coordination and synergies between current RDI programmes, several activities were undertaken in common, mainly through the Mediterranean INCO-Net projects MIRA and MedSpring. Implementation: • Extend existing bilateral programs between EU member states and MPCs to give them a sub-regional dimension. In the case of mobility, the aforementioned Hubert Curien Partnerships between France and Maghreb can serve as example for the extension of bilateral programmes existing between Spain and Maghreb countries for instance. • Encourage the integration of regional actions in bilateral EU and MPCs RDI programmes. For example, the MOBIDOC1 programme established in Tunisia in the framework of the PASRI project allows PhD students or "post-docs" to carry out their research in companies in Tunisia. One suggestion is to pair it up with the corresponding RDI programme in Morocco. • Establish a common strategy in the MPCs for enhancing their participation in the Marie Curie- Sklodowska and ERASMUS+ programmes. Good practice example: • The Hubert Curien Partnerships France-Maghreb (http://www.campusfrance.org/fr/maghreb). 1 http://www.pasri.tn/news/mobidoc-la-mobilit%C3%A9-de-la-recherche-et-des-chercheurs-pour-la- cr%C3%A9ation-de-la-valeur-l%E2%80%99autre-man © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201517
  18. 18. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs 2. Specific recommendations for RE and EE Recommendation 4. Creating a new Euro-Mediterranean on-line Master programme to train a core of game changers in renewable energy, highly competent and having entrepreneurial spirit. Reasons / Main challenges: The existing Masters programmes in the MPCs focus mainly on academic knowledge. The development of technical skills suffers from weaknesses related to the insufficient involvement of companies and professionals. The entrepreneurship dimension is also very limited. Yet, the need for developing entrepreneurial spirit among young people in the MPCs is of fundamental importance. Under the MAGHRENOV project, the establishment of a new international Master programme in RE and EE was considered as being the key action of the project’s human resources capacity building component. Unfortunately, the related proposal submitted within Erasmus+ programme in 2015 by the MAGHRENOV consortium was not selected. Regarding the undeniable contribution of such a Master programme for addressing the needs for professionals and entrepreneurs who are able to act as vectors of real changes in the MPCs, it is highly recommended to overcome the funding difficulties of this important initiative. The proposed international master would benefit from being offered in blended learning. Implementation: • Establishing a new Euro-Mediterranean Master programme to train a core of specialists in the region with the qualifications required by companies but also having an entrepreneurial and creative spirit allowing them to create innovative new businesses or expand existing business activities. To achieve this objective, this new Euro-Mediterranean Master must have a special focus on international mobility and on creativity and entrepreneurial skills and competences. • Adopting the European Master MSc RENE - Renewable Energy labeled by "KIC InnoEnergy" in the "European Institute of Technology" as a model but providing adjustments when required. The purpose of conformity to the requirements of the "European Institute of Technology" for the labelling of the new Euro-Mediterranean Master should be adopted since the beginning of the project. • Through MAGHRENOV actions, many training structures, able to carry of this project, have emerged in MPCs. It would be appropriate to entrust them with a role in the new Euro- Mediterranean Master. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201518
  19. 19. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs • Involving partners in the socio-economic environment in the new Euro-Mediterranean Master and especially: o Business Schools in MPC, providing modules as Summer or Winter Schools to encourage and to train the entrepreneurship spirit of the students. This action has been successfully used in KIC InnoEnergy MSc School. o partner companies of "KIC InnoEnergy" ; o national professional associations in RE and EE for to their expertise, their deep knowledge of the needs of the sector and their capacity to involve companies in the training and in funds raising ; o Mediterranean Association of National Agencies for energy efficiency and development of renewable energy (MEDENER) which is an important regional player. o Exploring funding opportunities of the new Euro-Mediterranean Master (Erasmus+,…). Good practice example: • Master RENE at KIC InnoEnergy (http://www.kic-innoenergy.com/education/master- school/msc-rene-renewable-energy/). © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201519
  20. 20. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Recommendations 5 Creating a network of training structures in RE and EE. Reasons / Main challenges: Master programmes in RE and EE are offered in the region without any multilateral coordination. Yet, collaboration among universities in the region should lead to better results (win-win for all partners) and create synergies. The opportunities of internationalization are not sufficiently exploited by the MPCs unlike European countries. Implementation: • Creating a network of RE and EE training structures. Modalities of the creation of the network, its management and its funding should be defined by the founding members. In a first step, the core of the new network could be composed by the academic partners of the MAGHRENOV project, the Euro-Mediterranean University of Fez, Université Mohammed V Agdal, École Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Monastir, École National d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, Université Cadi Ayadd and other interested universities. This network could start with the following actions: o Coordinate an initiative aiming to the integration of transversal courses (change management, entrepreneurship, soft skills…) in the Masters curricula in the area of RE and EE. o Organize MOOCs and appropriate SPOCs to promote a culture and an education favouring RE and entrepreneurship in society in MPCs. o Implement a short Euro-Mediterranean blended-learning program for the development of generic skills (soft skills) of the best doctoral students in the areas of RE and EE. o Promote co-graduations, co-supervision of thesis, international internships, etc. • This network could be transformed, eventually, into a Euro-Mediterranean centre of excellence ("without walls") specialized in training in the areas of RE and EE and endowed with a flexible and reactive capacity to deliver training and advice to companies. Good practices examples: • MOOC Idea Generation Methods de KIC InnoEnergy (http://www.kic- innoenergy.com/education/further-education/mooc-idea-generation-methods/). • MOOC « Energies renouvelables » (https://www.france-universite-numerique- mooc.fr/courses/uved/34004/session01/about). © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201520
  21. 21. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs • Certifying Program "Entrepreneurship in renewable energies” proposed by “L’École Polytechnique Executive Education” and KIC InnoEnergy, with the collaboration of HEC Paris. The program includes a part in the form of a SPOC (http://exed.polytechnique.edu/formations/18112/entrepreneuriat-dans-les-energies- renouvelables). • EIT-labelled educational programmes at Master and Ph.D. levels (http://eit.europa.eu/activities/education/eit-labelled-programmes). © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201521
  22. 22. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs References Ayache, C. and Brach, J. (2012). The European Commission: Report on the Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Research and Innovation. Barcelona, 2-3 April 2012. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/research/conferences/2012/euro-mediterranean/pdf/euro- med_conference_consolidated_report.pdf EIT Triennial Work Programme. (TWP) 2016-2018. The EIT – Making Innovation Happen. European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT). Retrieved from: http://eit.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EIT%20TWP%202016-2018.pdf European Directorate for Enterprise and Industry (2012). Effects and Impact of Entrepreneurship Programs in Higher Education. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/newsroom/cf/ ModES, (2012) MODernising higher Education through Soft skills accreditation, Retrieved from: http://www.modesproject.eu/ Morini C. (ed.), Rodriguez Clemente R. (ed.), Arvanitis R. (ed.), Chaabouni R. (ed.). Moving forward in the Euro-Mediterranean Research and Innovation partnership. The experience of the MIRA project. Bari : CIHEAM, 2013. 259 p. (Options Méditerranéennes : Série B. Etudes et Recherches; n. 71). http://om.ciheam.org/om/pdf/b71/b71.pdf © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201522
  23. 23. D6.1 White paper concerning new educational entrepreneurial programs Appendices Appendix 1: Strengths and weaknesses of current training system OBJECTIVES STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Provide training appropriate to requirements of companies Capacity of designing curricula and training programmes (including customized ones) closely with professionals. The MPCSs have indeed training engineering skills and master co-constructing curricula and trainings with professionals. Difficulties in implementing curricula as they are planned (limited ability to mobilize the required resources, regulatory constraints...). Training structures sometimes struggle to sustain curricula or training programmes or to preserve the quality. The regulatory framework and the management mode limit the responsiveness of public structures and their capacity to customize trainings to business needs. Responsive and flexible system Disparity between training structures (public versus private; higher education versus vocational training) regarding their capacity to respond rapidly or with a customized offer to the needs of companies through appropriate training. Coordinate offers at all instruction levels and inform target audiences about these. This function does not exist. Generally, there is no coordination between higher education institutions and between these institutions and vocational training ones. Involving companies in the training process Some training institutions, particularly vocational training centers, have the know-how to involve individual companies and have adapted services to manage relationships with companies. The expertise is not shared by all training structures and the governance system especially in higher education does not allow it. Professional federations or trade associations are not always available or willing to engage in the design and implementation of curricula and training programmes. The involvement of professionals and companies is not institutionalized. It often depends on initiatives and personal wills which can prevent its perpetuation. © MAGHRENOV Consortium Version 1.0 - 27/11/201523

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