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  1. Levels of Care Prepared by: Genevieve D. Chavez, RN
  2. Scope of Nursing ❖ Nurses provide care for three types of clients: individuals, families, and communities. ❖ Nursing practice involves four areas: promoting health and wellness, preventing illness, restoring health, and care of the dying.
  3. • Primary prevention focuses on (a) health promotion (b) protection against specific health problems (e.g., immunization against hepatitis B). • Secondary prevention focuses on (a) early identification of health problems (b) prompt intervention to alleviate health problems. • Tertiary prevention focuses on restoration and rehabilitation, with the goal of returning the individual to an optimal level of functioning. Levels of Prevention
  4. Promoting Health and Wellness/ Health Promotion ❏ Nurses promote wellness in clients who are both healthy and ill. ⮚ healthy lifestyles, such as improving nutrition and physical fitness ⮚ preventing drug and alcohol misuse ⮚ restricting smoking ⮚ preventing accidents and injury in the home and workplace.
  5. Health Promotion ❏ It is both the art and science of supporting people to male lifestyle changes and create an environment conducive to health. ❑ It spans from the prevention of disease to empowering individuals, to promoting environmental and policy change. ❑ Concepts of individuality, holism, homeostasis and human needs.
  6. ❑ Concepts of Individuality ⮚ Each individual is a unique being who is different from every other human being, with a different combination of genetics, life experiences, and environmental interactions. ⮚ In total care context- the nurse considers all the principles and areas that apply when taking care of any client. ⮚ In individualized care context- the nurse becomes acquainted with the client as an individual.
  7. ❑ Concept of Holism ⮚ It emphasizes that nurses must keep the whole person in mid and strive to understand how one area of concern relates to the whole person. ⮚ The nurse must also consider the relationship of the individual to the external environment and to others.
  8. ❑ Concept of Homeostasis ⮚ Was first introduced by Cannon, to describe relative constancy of the internal processes of the body, such as blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose and FE balance. ⮚ It is the tendency of the body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium while continually changing.
  9. ❑ Concept of Homeostasis ⮚ Physiologic homeostasis 1. They are self-regulating 2. They are compensatory 3. They tend to be regulated by negative feedback systems. 4. They may require several feedback mechanisms to correct only one physiologic imbalance.
  10. ❑ Concept of Homeostasis ⮚ Psychological homeostasis refers to emotional or psychological balance or a state of mental well-being. ⮚ It is maintained by a variety of mechanisms. ⮚ Each individual has certain psychological needs, such as the need for love, security, and self-esteem, which must be met to maintain psychological homeostasis.
  11. ❑ Concept of Human Needs
  12. Healthy People 2020
  13. Prevention of Illness/ Disease Prevention • The goal of illness prevention programs is to maintain optimal health by preventing disease. • Nursing activities that prevent illness include immunizations, prenatal and infant care, and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.
  14. Health Restoration/ Maintenance Restoring health focuses on the ill client, and it extends from early detection of disease through helping the client during the recovery period. Nursing activities include the following: • Providing direct care to the ill individual, such as administering medications, baths, and specific procedures and treatments • Performing diagnostic and assessment procedures, such as measuring blood pressure and examining feces for occult blood.
  15. Health Restoration/ Maintenance • Consulting with other healthcare professionals about client problems • Teaching clients about recovery activities, such as exercises that will accelerate recovery after a stroke • Rehabilitating clients to their optimal functional level following physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical addiction.
  16. • It refers to health care practices that treat patients with the intent of curing them, not just reducing their pain or stress. An example is chemotherapy, which seeks to cure cancer patients. • The issue of curative care comes up when a patient has a terminal illness and is considering hospice care. Curative
  17. Rehabilitative Rehabilitative care emphasizes the importance of assisting clients to function adequately in the physical, mental, social, economic, and vocational areas of their lives.