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Behavioral Domains & Hierarchies of Learning
Prepared by: Mae Michelle F. Aguilar, RN
NRSG-215A
• Nursing Education is still deeply embedded in
the behaviorist model of teaching and
learning.
• Behavioral Objectives – describe observable
changes in learner behavior that reflex
progress toward or achievement of goals
established for the course or curriculum.
DOMAINS OF LEARNING
1. COGNITIVE (Intellect)
2. PSYCHOMOTOR (Performance)
3. AFFECTIVE(Attitude)
• Behavioral Objectives are reductionist in
nature and fail to capture the complexity of
applied knowledge necessary to succeed in
clinical nursing education.
• Least relevant in the clinical setting.
COGNITIVE DOMAIN
• Concerns intellectual operations based on
acquired knowledge of facts and theories.
• The most well developed of the three
behavioral domains and most commonly
encountered in nursing education.
• Bloom’s Taxonomy- guide to teaching and
evaluation.
• Revised version by Anderson et. Al. (2001)
suggest four types of knowledge can be
developed to each of the six levels of cognitive
process.
Four Types of Knowledge
1. Factual – Disconnected information.
2. Conceptual – Involves development of
connections in information to grasp content.
3. Procedural – Concerns using conceptual
knowledge to make decisions while
performing tasks.
4. Megacognitive – Thinking about one’s
thought process as well as the general process
thinking.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the
Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain
1. KNOWLEDGE – defined as remembering of
previously learned material. Involves recall of a wide
range of material. The Lowest level of learning
outcomes in the cognitive domain.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
• Knowledge of Specifics, Terminology, Specific Facts, Ways and
Means of dealing with specifics, conventions, trends and
sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methods,
universal and abstractions in the field, principles and
generalizations and theories and structures.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the
Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain
2. COMPREHENSION – The ability to grasp the meaning
of material. Shown by translating material from one
form to the other, interpreting material and estimating
future trends. The lowest level of understanding.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOR:
Translation, Interpretation and Extrapolation.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the
Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain
3. APPLICATION – the ability to use learned material in
new and concrete situations. Includes application of
rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws and theories.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the
Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain
4. ANALYSIS – The ability to breakdown material into its
component parts so that its organizational structure
may be understood.
-Learning represents a higher intellectual level than
comprehension and application.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Analysis of Elements, relationships and organizational principles.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the
Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain
5. SYNTHESIS - The ability to put parts together to form
a new whole.
-Learning outcomes in this area stresses creative
behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulations of
new patterns and structure.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Production of unique communication, plan or proposed set of
operations, and a set of abstracts relations.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Cognitive Domain
6. EVALUATION – the ability to judge the value of
material for a given purpose. The judgments are based
on a definite criteria.
•Internal Criteria (Organization)
•External Criteria (Relevance to the purpose)
-Learning outcomes are the highest because they
contain elements of all the other categories, plus
conscious value judgments based on criteria.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Judgments in terms of internal and external criteria.
PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
• Concerns skills involving neuromuscular
activities and physical manipulations.
• Mastery requires practice.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Psychomotor Domain
1. PERCEPTION – Concerned with the use of sense
organs to obtain cues that guide motor activity
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Awareness of the stimulus
Selection of task-relevant cues
Translation of cue perception to action in a performance.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Psychomotor Domain
2. SET – refers to the readiness to take a particular type
of action. Perception is an important prerequisite in
this level.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Mental readiness to act
Physical readiness to act
Willingness to act
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Psychomotor Domain
3. GUIDED RESPONSE – Concerned with the early
stages in learning a complex skill. Adequacy of
performance is judged by an instructor or by a suitable
set of criteria.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Imitation of Instructor’s demonstration
Continuous referral to model performance
Trial and Error
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Cognitive Domain
4. MECHANISIM – concerned with performance acts
where the learned response have become habitual
and the movements can be performed with some
confidence and proficiency.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Psychomotor Domain
5. COMPLEX OVERT RESPONSE – the skillful
performance of motor acts that involve complex
movement patterns.
-Learning outcomes include highly coordinated motor
activities.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Performance without hesitation
Movements exhibit ease and good muscle control
Coordinated, fluid, timely and automatic movements.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Psychomotor Domain
6. ADAPTATION – Individual can modify movement
patterns to fit special requirements or to meet a
problem situation.
7.ORIGINATION – creating of new movement patterns
to fit a particular situation or specific problem.
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
• Concerns emotional responses to phenomena.
• Incorporates awareness of feelings generated
to phenomena as well as value judgments
about phenomena.
• It is complex, ill defined and difficult to
measure.
• Attitude – disposition towards or against a
phenomenon that leads to an inclination to
behave in ways reflecting the attitude.
• Appreciation- involves enjoyment of and
experiencing pleasure in relation to
phenomenon.
• Valuing – evaluation of phenomenon as having
worth, utility and importance.
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Affective Domain
1. RECEIVING – Student’s willingness to attend to
particular phenomenon or stimuli.
-from a teaching standpoint it is concerned with
getting, holding, and directing student’s attention.
-the lowest level of learning outcomes in the affective
domain.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Awareness
Willingness to receive
Controlled or selected attention
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Affective Domain
2. RESPONDING – Refers to active participation on the
part of the student.
-Higher levels of this category include those
instructional objectives that are commonly classified
under interests.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Acquiescence in responding
Willingness to respond
Satisfaction in response
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Affective Domain
3. VALUING – Concerned with the worth or value a student
attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior.
-Ranges in degree from the more simple acceptance to the more
complex level of commitment.
-Instructional objectives that are commonly classified under
“attitudes” and “appreciation”
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS:
Acceptance of value
Preference for a value
Commitment
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Affective Domain
4. ORGANIZATION –concerned with bringing together
different values, resolving conflicts between them, and
beginning the building of an internally consistent value
system.
-Instructional objectives relating to the development of
a philosophy of life fall into this category.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Conceptualization of Value
Organization of Value
Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical
Categories in the Affective Domain
5. CHARACTERIZATION by a VALUE or VALUE COMPLEX
– at this level the individual has a value system that has
controlled his or her behavior fir a sufficiently long time
for him or her to have developed a characteristic
“lifestyle”
-Instructional objectives concerned with general
patters of adjustment.
CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS
Generalized set
Characterization

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Domains of learning

  • 1. Behavioral Domains & Hierarchies of Learning Prepared by: Mae Michelle F. Aguilar, RN NRSG-215A
  • 2. • Nursing Education is still deeply embedded in the behaviorist model of teaching and learning. • Behavioral Objectives – describe observable changes in learner behavior that reflex progress toward or achievement of goals established for the course or curriculum.
  • 3. DOMAINS OF LEARNING 1. COGNITIVE (Intellect) 2. PSYCHOMOTOR (Performance) 3. AFFECTIVE(Attitude)
  • 4. • Behavioral Objectives are reductionist in nature and fail to capture the complexity of applied knowledge necessary to succeed in clinical nursing education. • Least relevant in the clinical setting.
  • 5. COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Concerns intellectual operations based on acquired knowledge of facts and theories. • The most well developed of the three behavioral domains and most commonly encountered in nursing education.
  • 6. • Bloom’s Taxonomy- guide to teaching and evaluation. • Revised version by Anderson et. Al. (2001) suggest four types of knowledge can be developed to each of the six levels of cognitive process.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Four Types of Knowledge 1. Factual – Disconnected information. 2. Conceptual – Involves development of connections in information to grasp content. 3. Procedural – Concerns using conceptual knowledge to make decisions while performing tasks.
  • 10. 4. Megacognitive – Thinking about one’s thought process as well as the general process thinking.
  • 11. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain 1. KNOWLEDGE – defined as remembering of previously learned material. Involves recall of a wide range of material. The Lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS • Knowledge of Specifics, Terminology, Specific Facts, Ways and Means of dealing with specifics, conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methods, universal and abstractions in the field, principles and generalizations and theories and structures.
  • 12. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain 2. COMPREHENSION – The ability to grasp the meaning of material. Shown by translating material from one form to the other, interpreting material and estimating future trends. The lowest level of understanding. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOR: Translation, Interpretation and Extrapolation.
  • 13. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain 3. APPLICATION – the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. Includes application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws and theories.
  • 14. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain 4. ANALYSIS – The ability to breakdown material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. -Learning represents a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Analysis of Elements, relationships and organizational principles.
  • 15. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain 5. SYNTHESIS - The ability to put parts together to form a new whole. -Learning outcomes in this area stresses creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulations of new patterns and structure. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Production of unique communication, plan or proposed set of operations, and a set of abstracts relations.
  • 16. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain 6. EVALUATION – the ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose. The judgments are based on a definite criteria. •Internal Criteria (Organization) •External Criteria (Relevance to the purpose) -Learning outcomes are the highest because they contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on criteria. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Judgments in terms of internal and external criteria.
  • 17. PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN • Concerns skills involving neuromuscular activities and physical manipulations. • Mastery requires practice.
  • 18.
  • 19. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Psychomotor Domain 1. PERCEPTION – Concerned with the use of sense organs to obtain cues that guide motor activity CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Awareness of the stimulus Selection of task-relevant cues Translation of cue perception to action in a performance.
  • 20. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Psychomotor Domain 2. SET – refers to the readiness to take a particular type of action. Perception is an important prerequisite in this level. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Mental readiness to act Physical readiness to act Willingness to act
  • 21. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Psychomotor Domain 3. GUIDED RESPONSE – Concerned with the early stages in learning a complex skill. Adequacy of performance is judged by an instructor or by a suitable set of criteria. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Imitation of Instructor’s demonstration Continuous referral to model performance Trial and Error
  • 22. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Cognitive Domain 4. MECHANISIM – concerned with performance acts where the learned response have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.
  • 23. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Psychomotor Domain 5. COMPLEX OVERT RESPONSE – the skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. -Learning outcomes include highly coordinated motor activities. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Performance without hesitation Movements exhibit ease and good muscle control Coordinated, fluid, timely and automatic movements.
  • 24. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Psychomotor Domain 6. ADAPTATION – Individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements or to meet a problem situation. 7.ORIGINATION – creating of new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.
  • 25. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN • Concerns emotional responses to phenomena. • Incorporates awareness of feelings generated to phenomena as well as value judgments about phenomena. • It is complex, ill defined and difficult to measure.
  • 26. • Attitude – disposition towards or against a phenomenon that leads to an inclination to behave in ways reflecting the attitude. • Appreciation- involves enjoyment of and experiencing pleasure in relation to phenomenon. • Valuing – evaluation of phenomenon as having worth, utility and importance.
  • 27.
  • 28. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Affective Domain 1. RECEIVING – Student’s willingness to attend to particular phenomenon or stimuli. -from a teaching standpoint it is concerned with getting, holding, and directing student’s attention. -the lowest level of learning outcomes in the affective domain. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Awareness Willingness to receive Controlled or selected attention
  • 29. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Affective Domain 2. RESPONDING – Refers to active participation on the part of the student. -Higher levels of this category include those instructional objectives that are commonly classified under interests. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Acquiescence in responding Willingness to respond Satisfaction in response
  • 30. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Affective Domain 3. VALUING – Concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. -Ranges in degree from the more simple acceptance to the more complex level of commitment. -Instructional objectives that are commonly classified under “attitudes” and “appreciation” CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS: Acceptance of value Preference for a value Commitment
  • 31. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Affective Domain 4. ORGANIZATION –concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system. -Instructional objectives relating to the development of a philosophy of life fall into this category. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Conceptualization of Value Organization of Value
  • 32. Descriptions and Characteristics Behaviors of the Hierarchical Categories in the Affective Domain 5. CHARACTERIZATION by a VALUE or VALUE COMPLEX – at this level the individual has a value system that has controlled his or her behavior fir a sufficiently long time for him or her to have developed a characteristic “lifestyle” -Instructional objectives concerned with general patters of adjustment. CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS Generalized set Characterization