When the individual objectives doesn’t match with the
societal /organizational objectives, we need training.
Individual objectives Societal objectives
According to Michael Armstrong, training means
“the systematic development of the KAS required by an
individual to perform
adequately a given
task or job.
Improving Employee Performance: By making the person to
do job faster.
Updating Employee skills: Technological Training.
Preparing for promotion & Managerial Succession:
Transition from present job to next job.
Retaining & Motivating Employees: Career planning &
Creating an efficient & Effective Organization: Proper training
can reduces -----less time supervision, accidents at workplace.
After assessing the organizational objectives & training needs of the
employees , then only we need to plan the training.
Needs can be assessed by:
Determining the organizational goals.
Prioritizing the tasks in meeting these goals.
Determining the skills required by the employees.
Identifying deficiencies in the skill & knowledge levels of employees.
Note: Training Manager need to assess training needs from time to
time based upon changes in ----- environment, employees tastes
& preferences, global challenges.
1.Company policies & procedures: Organization’s rules,
practices, processes & procedures, apart from the
organizational culture, structure, & business.
2.Skill based training: Training provided to match the skill
requirements of the jobs they perform.
Human Relations Training: Employee interact with their
peers, supervisors, subordinates, suppliers & customers.
This training helps them how to manage their
professional relationships like leadership, interpersonal
skills ,group dynamics, perception, motivation.
Problem solving Training: This type of training helps how
to encounter the problems in the course of their work
ranging from simple operational problems to major
Managerial & Supervisory Training: this type of training
helps the employees to perform managerial & supervisory
functions such as planning, organizing, directing,
controlling, & decision-making, so that employees move
ahead in their career paths.
On the Job Training:
1. Job Instruction Method
2. Apprenticeship &
3. Job Rotation
4. Committee Assignments
Off- the –Job Training:
1. Class Room Lectures
2. Simulation Exercises
3. Programmed Instructions.
Takes place in a real environment where the trainee is
exposed to an actual work situation.
Advantages : the trainee gets----------
Better application of the knowledge & skills gained.
Any mistake they commits, loss to the organization.
here trainee is given instructions by the trainer while
performing the job on the site & any doubts of the trainee
are cleared immediately.
Job instruction training follows a systematic of activities.
These are :
Here trainee is prepared for the training by giving
him/her clear information about training to be
imparted, job to be performed, venue & time of training.
After the training is imparted to the trainee in the form
of instructions, trainee is asked to demonstrate the job
so that we assess his understanding of instructions &
If the trainer is satisfied with the performance of the
trainee, then the trainee is left on his/her own do the
Individuals seeking to enter skill trades, like carpenters,
electricians etc, are required to go through formal
apprenticeship under experienced employees, before they
join regular jobs.
Apprenticeship period ranges from 1 year to 5 years.
Here coach acts as a model for the trainee to emulate.
Coaching is provided when needed , rather than being a
part of a more planned, structured program.
Here the trainee is placed in various jobs across different
functions in the organization.
The trainee gains cross-functional knowledge & is
equipped to take up different jobs.
cross-functional knowledge helps
the organization in times of acute
need for manpower.
Under this method , group of employees are given an
actual organizational problem & are asked to find the
Trainees can develop
Refers to training imparted away from the employee’s
immediate work area. The employee is separated from the
job situation & his/her attention is focused on learning .
The organization need to consider while implementing
of-the –job training is ----------
1. Provide class rooms for lectures.
2.Provide venues for creating
artificial work environment.
3. Refreshments & training
materials have to be provided.
it helps the employees understand the rules, procedures &
policies of the organization.
works effectively if it is followed by audio-visual tools ,
suitable demonstrations , and also two way communication.
Giving & taking
both trainer & trainee.
Here the trainee is exposed to an artificial work situation that closely
resembles the actual work situation.
In situations where the organization cannot afford any mistakes by
the trainee during on the job training, simulation exercises are of
It takes shape of---
Here a real problem encountered in the organization is
presented to the trainees in the form of case study.
They are asked to
1.Analyse the case
2.Present their views
Here the trainer can create situation where the employees
are required to work in teams. After the exercise is
completed, the trainer discusses the behaviour of the
employees with the group.
Here the employees learn
quickly & also understand
their mistakes (or)
Is a technique where by dimensions of the job are
programmed into the computer.
it allows direct learning.
Used in training pilots & defense personnel.
Here the actual work conditions are simulated & the
equipment used by the trainees is similar to what is used on
here they gain real experience using the equipment.
Is a method of human interaction involving realistic
behaviour in imaginary situations.
Helps in improving communication, people management
skills, relationship management skills.
Here the trainee is given series of questions after they
studies the relevant material. After the trainee answers a
question, is given immediate feed back whether it is right
or wrong. If answer
is right , asked to proceed
to next question but
if it is wrong
asked to refer back
to the material.