Selection & interview methods in HRM


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Selection & Interview methods in Human Resources Management.

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Selection & interview methods in HRM

  1. 1. By: Madhusudhan Goud Vemula, Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, G.Pullaiah College of Engineering &Technology, Kurnool
  2. 2.  Selection process involves a series of steps which help in evaluating the candidates.  Job Analysis, Job Specifications, along with man power planning forms the basic requirements for Selection process.  Eg: An Organization stresses “Team Work” as an important feature of its organizational culture.  The organization should therefore conduct test on candidates, who have ability to work in teams.  An exceptionally brilliant candidate with poor team management & Interpersonal skills , would not be the useful to such an organization.  He/she may not add value to the organization.
  3. 3.  Definition: “The process of choosing the most suitable candidate for a job from among the available applicants is called selection”. It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications, experience ,skill, knowledge, etc, of an applicant with the purpose of determining his/her suitability for a job.
  4. 4. Accept Reject Successful Unsuccessful (Concept of Selection) Correct Decision Reject Error Accept Error Correct Decision
  5. 5. Selection process depends on a Organization’s strategy & objectives, the tasks &responsibilities of the job & the qualifications, experience & characteristics required in an individual to perform these tasks and responsibilities successfully.
  6. 6. ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES SELECTION JOB DESIGN JOB DESCRIPTION JOB SPECIFICATION RECRUITMENT POLICY COMPETENCY MODELLING Elements in a Selection Process What are the Organization’s Goals & Objectives? What are the tasks & responsibilities of the worker that contributes to these goals? What are the qualifications & experience required in an employee to perform these tasks? What are the competencies required to what level, for successful performance? What should be the criteria for selecting the right candidate , base on specifications & competencies required for the job?
  7. 7. Initial screening interview Analyze the application blank Conducting Tests & Evaluating performance Preliminary Interview Core and departmental interviews Resume/ CV’s Review Reference Checks Job Offer Offer to the next suitable candidate Medical Examination Placement Selection Process
  8. 8.  A resume is a written compilation of your education, work experience, credentials, and accomplishments and is used to apply for jobs.
  9. 9.  A curriculum vitae (CV) provides a summary of one’s experience and skills. Typically longer than resumes (at least two Or three pages),
  10. 10.  Resume (or) Curriculum Vitae can be either in a company specified format, or in the format submitted by individual applicants.  Generally evaluated by HR executives (or) junior executives of line department.  Includes basic educational qualifications and experience of the candidate.
  11. 11. Some times takes place before accepting the applications. Definition: A screening interview is a type of job interview that is conducted to determine if the applicant has the qualifications needed to do the job for which the company is hiring. A screening interview is typically the first interview in the hiring process screening interview can be conducted over the phone or in-person. In both cases, the results of the screening interview will determine if the candidate moves to the next round of the interview process.  Eg: Telephonic Round
  12. 12. 1. Personal Information: Name of the candidate Date of birth Gender Marital status Details of his/her family Members Annual Income of the Family address Socio- Economic Status & Family Background status
  13. 13. Includes  List of schools  Colleges  Institutions attended by the job applicant  Period of study  Various courses taken & subjects studied  Percentage of marks scored  Class (or) grade secured by him/ her. Applicant’s academic background
  14. 14.  Includes List of previous employers, The period of employment each, tasks, activities and responsibilities of the applicant and salaries drawn. In some cases , reasons for leaving the organizations is also included. In some cases , it also helps the organization to study the applicant’s working habits & Competencies in relation to the job.
  15. 15.  Includes  Salary last drawn in his/her last job.  Why the companies look over the issue is 1. Some offer low package with high benefits 2. Some offer high package with low benefits.
  16. 16.  Includes  Strengths & Weakness  His/her professional goals-both long term & short term.  Hobbies & Interest areas.
  17. 17.  Includes  Names & Addresses of the individuals who can contacted for reference check of the applicant.  Why the companies look for reference check specifically?  To find the credibility of the applicant & getting the information on past record.
  18. 18. Tests are generally conducted to analyze the skill levels of the candidates. Includes--------------  Intelligence Test.  Aptitudes Test.  Achievement Test.  Situational Test.  Interest Test.  Personality Test.  Polygraph test.  Graphology Test.
  19. 19.  Includes  Intelligence defined as “reasoning, Judgment, memory,& the power of abstraction.”  Reasoning(word fluency, verbal comprehension, numbers, Memory and space)  IQ usually measures logical reasoning, analytical reasoning, And General Knowledge.
  20. 20.  Measures individual‘s ability to learn a given job, when given adequate training.  Here they do not test the knowledge of the individual, But they test his/her ability to learn. Eg: Mechanical, clerical, linguistic, musical & academic abilities . Tested skills are Finger dexterity, Hand dexterity, Hand-eye dexterity are tested using psychometer tests.
  21. 21. Are also called as Proficiency (or) Knowledge Test.   Job Knowledge Test: knowledge of the applicant in his/her area of experience is tested.  Work sample test , the ability of the candidate to perform the job he/she is experienced in is tested. Job Knowledge Test Work sample test Achievement Test
  22. 22.  Generally used in middle and senior level management selections, to test the applicant’s likely responses to real-life situations. Situational tests Group Discussions In-Basket Games Simulated Business Games
  23. 23.  In GD, group members are left to interact on their own, without any leader being specified.  Measures-------------- a. Initiative b. Leadership qualities c. Negotiating skills d. Communication skills e. Decision making skills Can be assessed by observing the group discussion.
  24. 24.  Measures--------  The managerial and administrative skills of the candidate.  the candidate is exposed to simulated office situation where he/she has to respond to letters, clear important documents, schedule his/her meeting , meet his/her colleagues and make some business related decisions-all activities which are normally a part of a day’s work
  25. 25.  Measures------------  Candidates play the role of a simulated character and are evaluated within a group.  These are used for a variety of executive activities, from capital asset management to marketing.  Generally called Role-Play.
  26. 26.  It helps companies to identify & understand the degree of interest a candidate has in a job.  Eg: A candidate who looks for variety in his job might not be interested in doing a monotonous and mechanical job.  Majorly concentrates in applicant’s likes and dislikes related to work, job, hobbies and recreational activities.
  27. 27.  It helps to in understanding the basic job-related personality traits of an employee.  Helps in assessing individual’s value system, emotions, maturity and other personal characteristics which are expressed like self-confidence , optimism, judgment, dominance ,conformity .
  28. 28.  This method is used to test the validity and truthfulness of an applicant's answers by monitoring the physical changes in his body as he/she answers a series of questions.  This test is used for defense & high-profile security jobs where it is essential that an employee is completely Trustworthy.
  29. 29.  Involves examining an individual’s handwriting to assess his/her personality, emotional characteristics and honesty.  This test examines the lines loops, strokes and curves in the applicant’s handwriting to assess his personality.
  30. 30.  An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee.  Why the HRS do interview process?  To assess the applicant’s profile and comparing it with the job profile for suitability.  Interviews helps in assessing the candidate and validating the information provided in his/her application.
  31. 31.  Advantages: 1. It forms a part of the recruitment process. 2. The employer can sell his organization and the job to the candidate during the course of the interview. Disadvantages: 1. Main disadvantage is its subjectivity. 2. Opinion & perception of the interviewer becomes very critical. 3. Individual biases based on gender, religion, race, nationality, caste etc. can influence the decision making of the interview.
  32. 32. Interview 1. Preliminary Interview 2. Selection Interview Formal & Structured Unstructur ed Stress 3. Decision Making Interview Group Panel In-Depth
  33. 33.  These are 1st round interviews that aim to eliminate the applicants who are unqualified for the job.  These are generally informal and unstructured even before the candidates fill in the application blanks.  Eg: When a job applicant approaches personal manger regarding the employment advertisement , is an informal interview.  Preliminary interview enable quickly to interviewer about interviewee on the basis of appearance and quality of communication. But it may be undesirable.
  34. 34.  A selection (or) Core interview is normally takes place between job applicant and line manger (or) experts where the applicant’s job knowledge, skills talents are evaluated and ascertained.  The suitability of the candidate for the job is determined in this interview.  Selection interview can be of the following types
  35. 35.  Interviewer follows rigid structure and contents.  The interviewer goes on format questions.  Eg: Tell me about yourself? Tell me your strengths & weaknesses? What are your hobbies? Advantages: 1: No scope for subjectivity 2: effective time management. Disadvantages: 1: No scope for openness. i.e. we cannot make the job applicant to think out of the box.
  36. 36.  Name suggests no pre-determined framework of questions and takes its own course depending on the response s of the candidate and the interest of the interviewer.  No time limit. More open ended questions. Eg: which food you like? why should I hire you? Tell me something about your favorite hero?  Advantage: 1. Candidate remains comfortable in answering the questions, because every thing takes place naturally. Disadvantage: 1. More scope for subjectivity
  37. 37.  Objective of a this round is to test the applicant’s ability to perform & deliver under stress.  Here interviewer put the interview under stress by repeatedly interrupting him/her, criticizing their answers, asking them unrelated questions or keeping quiet for long periods after the interviewee has finished speaking.  Eg: Are you Male (or) Female?  Show your self-confidence if you have. Advantage: 1. We can see whether interviewee has a capability to work under stress r not. Disadvantage: 1. Some times it may hurt opposite person’s value system.
  38. 38.  Here all the candidates are interviewed by a panel of interviewer or a single interviewer.  This method is useful when number of applicants is high and the time available for interviewing is short. Advantage:  Candidates can evaluate their talent in comparison to the talents of others. Disadvantage:  We cannot judge the talent of student in short span of time.
  39. 39.  In today’s organizations where all functions are interdependent and every job involves cross-functional Interactions, it is imperative that people from different functions interview a candidate. Advantage:  Reduces subjectivity involved in one-to-one interview. Disadvantage:  We cannot find the core domain knowledge of the candidate.
  40. 40.  These interviews are more suitable for selection of candidates for high-end technology and high skill jobs. Advantage:  Experts from relevant area test the candidate’s knowledge and understanding of the subject and assess his/her expertise. Disadvantage:  Cannot find cross-functional knowledge
  41. 41.  After the applicant’s knowledge in the core areas is evaluated by experts , including line managers , the candidates are finally interviewed by Dept. heads and HR Dept.  These interviews are usually informal discussions where the candidate’s interest in job and the organization, their reaction to the working conditions, career planning and promotional opportunities, work adjustment and allotment are evaluated and discussed.  The HR manager tries to find out candidates expectations regarding salary, allowances, benefits, promotions and career opportunities.  Finally selecting the candidate is taken by interview board and HR dept.
  42. 42. Setting Conduct Of Interview Closing an Interview Evaluation Reference checks Medical Examination Placement Preparation Interview Process
  43. 43.  Here not only interviewee, but also interviewer , has to prepare for the interview.  Interviewer has to go through the Job Description & Job Specification to understand the requirements of the job.  Scan the application of the candidate to understand his/her background & experience to form an idea of the kind of questions that can be asked.  Don’t go through the application, by waiting the candidate. unfortunately though, many interviewers do just that.
  44. 44. Following steps need to consider for the interviewer.  Determine the objectives of the interview—what position & specification.  Read the application in advance to ask relevant questions.  Determine mode of evaluation, standards, the weights.  Plan the time management to allocate equal time & attention to all interviewees.  Interview the candidate without any prejudice & bias.
  45. 45. Most of the candidates ,no matter how confident they seem, experience , tension, & pressure when they go interview. List of responsibilities from the point of interviewers:----  Interview need to conduct in serene and soothing atmosphere.  Interview room should be well ventilated.  Seating arrangement should be appropriate, ambience.
  46. 46.  Avoid attending phone calls, meeting colleagues during the interview.  Interviewer need to make candidate feel relaxed and at ease.  A pleasant smile & a offer of a seat or a glass of water can make the candidate comfortable.  But nowadays some interviewers behave very rude towards candidates in the name of “stress interview”
  47. 47. Guidelines to conduct pleasant and pleasant manner.  The interviewer has to demonstrate a basic liking & respect for people.  Ask open ended questions , that gives maximum scope to the candidate to speak, should be asked.
  48. 48.  Allow the candidate to talk & gather complete & relevant information.  Ask more questions & probe only if necessary.  Make a note of the relevant points during the interview for accurate assessment.  Stick to the plan of the interview.
  49. 49.  Closing of the interview is as important as its commencement.  Should be done in a smooth manner, avoiding any abrupt (or) awkward gestures and words.
  50. 50.  The interviewer should explain the expected course of action, the expected date of intimation.  The interviewer should give a chance to candidate to pose his/her queries.
  51. 51.  Evaluation need to takes place immediately after the candidate leaves the room.  If the interviewer decides to evaluate all the candidates together at the end of all the interviews, he/she might get influenced by the recency effect.  While evaluating , interviewer need to look at: 1. Should not take personal bias , but for the betterment of the organization 2. They need to evaluate time to time by improving their interviewing skills 3. They need to attend workshops on interview skills .
  52. 52.  Before the winding up the interview process, it is responsibility of the HR Dept. to get some reference checks of the candidates before going to hire him/her.  Here referrals may be former employers (or) professors (or) acquaintances of the candidate, who are in responsible positions in the corporate world (or) in the society.  The company can handover this work of background verification to any consultancy (or) they may personally contact reference persons through mail, phone or person.
  53. 53.  Medical examination is part of job specification & organizational recruitment policy.  Medical examinations is done to probe whether candidate is infected with HIV positive/TB/Cancer.
  54. 54.  Definition: “ the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned & his/her assignment to that job”.  a proper placement of an employee in low employee turnover, low absenteeism and low accident rates in the shop floor jobs & increase morale and commitment of the employees.
  55. 55.  Definition: “The systematic collection , evaluation, & organization of related to jobs” It is the process of determining & recording all the pertinent information about a specific job, including the tasks involved, the knowledge & skill set required to perform the job, the responsibilities attached to the job & the abilities required to perform the job successfully.
  56. 56. JOB ANALYSIS Systematic investigation into the tasks & skills & other information relevant to performing a job. Employment Job Evaluation Job Design Training Appraisal Recruitmen t Selection Job Evaluation Wage surveys Job enrichment Alternative work schedule Establishing job Requirements On the job Training Performance appraisal Compensation system
  57. 57. Steps in the process: 1. Information gathering: includes  Information of the structure  Role of the job in relation to the other jobs  Class to which belongs  Detailed description of the activities & responsibilities involved in a job.
  58. 58.  Job specific competency determination: based on study & observation, the competencies required are identified.  Developing a Job description: includes---------- duties, responsibilities, tasks, functions of the job is prepared.  Developing a Job Specification: includes--------- minimum qualifications & experiences required to match the job description.
  59. 59. Job Analysis Job Description(job-oriented) 1.Job Identification-job title, location, job code dept.& unit. 2.Job summary-authority & responsibility 3.Relation to other jobs (relation with superiors, peers, subordinates) 4.Location 5.Machine tolls. 6.Materials used 7.Responsibilities 8.Conditions of the work, 9.Hazards(accidental hazards) Job specification(employee- oriented) 1. Education 2. Experience 3. Training 4. Judgment 5. Initiative 6. Physical effort 7. Physical skills 8. Communication skills 9. Emotional Characteristics 10. Usual sensory demands such as vision, smell, hearing etc.
  60. 60.  Includes: Tasks, responsibilities, duties & functions involved in the job. Guidelines required in writing a good job description: 1.The scope & nature of the work. 2. Work & duties of the position should be clearly laid out. 3.Supervisory responsibility should be explained to the incumbents.
  61. 61. It is a written statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications, knowledge, skills, traits, & physical & mental characteristics that an incumbent must posses to perform the job successfully. Specifications can be …………………. 1. Physical specifications: height, weight, vision, hearing, ability to lift & carry weights, health condition, age, capacity to use machines, tools etc.
  62. 62. 2.Mental specifications: includes analytical ability, data interpretation ability, decision making ability etc. 3.Emotional & Social specifications: includes stability, adaptability & flexibility. Social specifications include ability to work in a team, maintain interpersonal relationships etc. 4. Behavioral specifications: include the ability to make judgments, ability to undertake research, creativity, teaching ability, self-reliance, ability to be authoritative etc.
  63. 63. -Job Title: Manager-Technical-BPO operations -Location: New Delhi -Job Description: -ownership of the technical consulting operation, providing technical services to client with regard to connectivity, specific applications support, etc. -lead the team(of assistant managers, team leaders, quality coaches, trainers and technical support associates) & provide support to actualize on innovative business solutions in a cost efficient manner. -Manpower planning, recruiting, scheduling, training & appraising ensuring resource utilization. -co-ordinate with other departments in order to assure the smooth running of operations.
  64. 64. Job specifications: ---5 to 7 years experience with at least 2-3 years in BPO. ---Customer service /care BPO experience essential. ---experience of handling technical processes in a call center ---knowledge of quote/order to delivery cycle ---excellent analytical, management, and communication skills ----must be open to work in night shifts.
  65. 65. Than Q