waste management

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waste management

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON WASTE MANAGEMENT BY DEBDATTA MUKHERJEE JYOTI VERMAN MADHURIMA DHAR SAYANI BHATTACHARYA
  2. 2. What are Wastes? Substances or objects  which are disposed of  or are intended to be disposed of  or are required to be disposed of By the provisions of the law. Disposal - Any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re- use or alternative uses.
  3. 3. KINDS OF WASTE ON THE BASIS OF RHEOLOGY AND COMPACTNESS: o Solid wastes : trash domestic, commercial and industrial wastes especially common as co-disposal of wastes Examples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other o Liquid Wastes : wastes in liquid form Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources
  4. 4. ON THE BASIS OF PROPERTIES BIO-DEGRADABLE WASTES FROM PLANT OR ANIMAL SOURCES BROKEN DOWN BY OTHER LIVING ORGANISMS Eg-MUNICIPAL WASTE- GREEN WASTE,FOOD WASTE,PAPER WASTE AND BIO DEGRADABLE PLASTICS ALSO INCLUDE HUMAN WASTE,MANURE,SEWAGE. NON BIO-DEGRADABLE WASTES CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN BY OTHER LIVING ORGANISMS NOT CAPABLE OF DEGRADATION OR DECOMPOSITION. Eg-PLASTIC,METAL,GLASS. ALSO INCLUDE DANGEROUS CHEMICALS,TOXINS AS ARE PLASTIC GROCERY BAGS
  5. 5. ON THE BASIS OF THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT Hazardous wastes  Non-hazardous
  6. 6. SOURCES OF WASTES Households Commerce and Industry
  7. 7. SOURCES OF WASTES Agriculture Fisheries
  8. 8. EFFECTS OF WASTE  Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate Rise in global temperatures Rise in sea levels
  9. 9. METHODS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT Disposal Methods Land fills  Convenient  Inexpensive  Destruction of food sources  Desalination Incineration  Requires minimum land  Can be operated in any weather  Expensive to build and operate  Continuous maintenance Recycling methods Biological reprocessing  Key to providing a livable  environment for the future  Expensive  Some wastes cannot be recycled  Technological push needed Energy recovery  Pyrolysis  Gasification
  10. 10. METHODS OF PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT Options for Plastic Waste Management Plastics recycling technologies have been historically divided into four general types – Primary Secondary. Tertiary. Quaternary.
  11. 11. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING  Organic waste materials, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter.  The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes.  Waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity.  An example of waste management through composting is the Green Bin Program in Toronto, Canada, where household organic waste are collected in a dedicated container and then composted.
  12. 12. Waste-to-energy  The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel.  Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to fuel for boilers ,to generate steam and electricity in a turbine.  Pyrolysis  Gasification
  13. 13. Waste management concepts  There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include:  .Waste hierarchy - The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.  Extended producer responsibility - Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. This means that firms which manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture.  Polluter pays principle - Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment.
  14. 14. DIAGRAM ON WASTE HEIRARCHY
  15. 15. Talking Trash: The World's Waste Management Problem  Trash is a pervasive but unnoticed part of our lives  Today, many nations face a looming waste management crisis, as their landfills reach capacity and continue to degrade the environment.  Waste management is linked to environmental quality in general, and climate change in particular.  Breakdown of bio-degradable wastes like paper, food releases greenhouse gas methane which traps 70 times more heat than CO2.  Other heat-trapping gasses like nitrous oxide (nearly 300 times more powerful than CO2) are emitted when plastics and textiles are burned in incinerators. Waste management also has a significant impact on human health.  Chemicals from degrading waste can leak into aquifers and contaminate water supplies.  Landfills and older incinerators can also release harmful dioxins, a cancer-causing carcinogen  Air pollutants like NOx and SOx, which make up acid rain and can cause respiratory illnesses.  Landfills also provide shelter for disease-carrying agents like rats, flies, and other vermin .
  16. 16. PRACTICAL ISSUES IN WASTE MANAGEMENT Unplanned growth and development of cities Lack of awareness Un sorted waste. mixture of bio-degradable and non bio-degradable Some wastes cannot be recycled Requires proper planning, design, and Operation.
  17. 17. EFFECTIVE WASTE MGMT STRATEGY. Minimising or avoiding adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Allowing economic development and improvement in the quality of life.  The aims of waste management are to: conserve resources of water, energy, raw materials and nutrients control pollution of land, air and water enhance business performance and maintain corporate social responsibility improve occupational health and safety
  18. 18. ZERO WASTE POLICY Many governments and organisations are adopting ‘zero waste’ policies. This whole-of-system approach aims to reduce waste at the source through product design and producer responsibility. It also includes waste reduction strategies further down the supply chain such as: cleaner production product dismantling recycling repair reuse.
  19. 19. WASTE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS.  Improve product design to use less materials.  Use biodegradable materials  Maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets  At Source Treatment, Separation of materials should be done at source  Encourage people to reuse materials rather than purchase new ones. Create awareness among civilians Change of attitude from the part of the civilians
  20. 20. CONCLUSION Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of wastematerials.[1] The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substance s, with different methods and fields of expertise for each.

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