Semiotics final

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  • Because of many enterprises invest money on IT in order to get fast and accurate information exchange, high productivity as well as cost cut through integrating business processes.Normally enterprises don’t replace legacy system with a new system , sometimes legacy mission critical system may have to integrate with new system. Actually systems integration is not just connections among IT systems. It is the issues of the whole organization where both social and technical aspects need to be considered.
  • This paper will introduce a new concept of semiotics interoperability which is defined into different level of interoperability. Semiotic interoperability provides a solid conceptual framework by explaining how signs can be successfully communicated in different level.
  • The word ‘semiotics’ comes from the Greek for ‘symptom’.
  • signifier’ – the material form of the sign‘signified’ – the object, action, event or concept it represents
  • The sign that stands for something elseThe object it refers to (what the sign represents)The interpretant (usually a person) who fulfils the office of an interpreter – this refers to the interpretation placed on the sign
  • Examples for iconic signs are images,diagrams,maps,portraits,photo graphs and icons of the algebraic kind.Examples are smoke signifying fire,athermometer,a knock on a door,footprints,and pain in the stomach.
  • Information systems integration can be seen as the process of sign communication not only among technical systems but also interactions in the social environment surround the systems. Technical integration is the preliminary stage of integration which allows information systems to understand each other’s functionalities in order to improve efficiency of using information comprehensive information systems integration should fully consider and depends on the successful use of sign at different levels of communications, interactions and social activities.physical level about interconnection of devices via computer networks; application level dealing with interoperability of software applications and database systems in heterogeneous computing environments;business level on coordination of functions that manage, control and monitor business processes.
  • Organisational semiotics is one of the branches of semiotics particularly related to business and organisations.
  • Physics as a separate branch concerned with the physical aspects of signs at the level of signals and marksThe physical properties of a sign can be its shape,size,contrast,intensity ,moving speed,acceleration,loudness depending on the type of the sign.Empirics has been introduced as another branch to study the statistical properties of signs when different physical media and devices are used. deal with coding,entropymeasurement,optimal signal transmission,channelcapacity,etc.Syntactic, semantics and pragmatics respectively deal with the structures, meanings and usage of signs Social world has been defined as the effects of the use of signs in human affairs.
  • level indicates that connectivity between networks, hardware and devices. the data transmission cannot be succeeded without proper communication channelPhysical interoperability is achieved when a chain of physical tokens, transmitted along a route, is received at the other end, by the receiver, conserving the same physical properties. RAM , Disk Storage, Bandwidth , Transmission speed
  • For example, specific bandwidth and proper communication protocols such as IEEE 108.11g have to be matched for both systems in order to successfully transmit the data.
  • For example, a program wrote in JAVA cannot be recognised by other non-JAVA supported information systems. However, although the syntactic level is achieved, the communication still may fail if the message cannot be understood by other information systems.
  • successful communication at this level is achieved if the hearer understands the speaker’s intentions, irrespective of the semantic interpretation of the communicative act.
  • Perceptual norms are implicitly agreed ways of seeing the world.With these norms,words canbe assigned meanings that enable people to use them as labels on the happeningsaround them. People can code the message picked up by the eyesand ears in a way that is useful to other people.Cognitive norms are the standardized beliefs and knowledge possessed by a group. These norms ensure that the members of the group acquire the knowledge and expectations about the world which have been accumulated by other members of the cultural group. Evaluative norms direct the group towards common ends. They provide a framework of valuation with which people’s behavior can be assessed. Behavior norms govern people so that they behave in an appropriate manner in a given cultural setting.
  • These two levels are the technical infrastructure which is provided by the telephone companies. They are normally not the concern of the users.Syntactical - speak the same language.
  • pragmatic - if person A calls person B and says ‘I’m interested in your goods but the price is a bit too high', A's intention will be to ask whether B can lower the price a bit.Social level -B answers ‘You’ll get ten per cent discount if you buy ten or more of the PCs’,ther e will be an obligation on B to give the discount if A buys ten or more PCs.
  • Social level ApplicationdomainThe scope and boundary within which a provenancesystem is designed to be used.Data processingarchitectureDifferent architectures or modes of data processing thatcreate the objects of provenance capture.SocialconsequencesThe types of consequences that can result from theactions or decision performed by the users of dataprovenance.ActioncomplexityThe nature of the actions. The actions can bestructured, semi-structured, or unstructured.Pragmatics AcquisitioncomplexityThe level of automation of provenance acquisitiontechniques as well as costs and overhead incurred.AcquisitionscopeThe range of sources for the acquisition of provenanceinformation.Trust andsecurityThe extent to which the captured data provenance canbe trusted to be uncompromised and free from error.Usability The extent to which the captured provenance is usefulwith regard to satisfying various provenance-relatedinquiries.Semantics Semantics ofprovenanceThe meaning of provenance and the aspects of dataprovenance that are captured.Syntactics Representation ofprovenanceThe schemes and languages used for representingprovenance.
  • The researchprogramme MEASUR (Stamper 1993) has developed a set of methods todeal with all aspects of information systems development.The Architecture and Implementation of Digital Hospital - Information System Integration for Seamless Business Process (2010) phd
  • Semiotics final

    1. 1. Semiotic Interoperability - a critical step towards systems integration AS2010427 - K.A.D.Y.L. Kuruppuachchi AS2010377 – M.K.H. Gunasekara CSC 364 1.5 Seminar 2 Department of Computer Science and Statistics University of Sri Jayewardenepura 1
    2. 2. Overview • Introduction • Semiotics • Semiotics concepts • Information Systems Integration And Interoperability • Semiotic Interoperability • Semiotic Interoperability framework • Conclusion 2
    3. 3. Introduction • Information systems integration is becoming critical for organization . • Legacy systems often generates needs for integration with new systems . • The ideal integration of information systems should be organic and seamless communications among not only technical systems but also process, norms, people, culture as well as organisational strategies. 3
    4. 4. Introduction cont'd. • The nature of information systems integration lies in the successful signs communication among different systems. • Semiotics, as the study of signs, provides the theoretical foundation on how signs can be successfully communicated among systems. • Organizational semiotics provides a theoretical foundation for systems interoperability. • A notion of ‘semiotic interoperability’ is proposed in this research as a paradigm. 4
    5. 5. Semiotics • Semiotics, as the study of signs that examines the nature and properties of all kinds of signs (Morris, 1946; Peirce, 1931), • Sanders Peirce (1839–1914), founded semiotics as the ‘formal doctrine of signs’. • Signs and symbols can be studied, not only in language (both written and spoken forms), but also in rituals, culture, images and art – in fact, anything that can be ‘read’ as text. • Semiotic researchers do not study signs in isolation, rather they study the conventions governing the use of signs and sign systems. 5
    6. 6. Signs • A sign can mean one thing in one particular cultural context, but mean something quite different in another • Signs can also change their meaning over time • Semiotics has been used especially in information systems, management, marketing and organizational studies • Marketing researchers have used semiotics in research on advertising, brand image and marketing communications (Hackley, 2003) 6
    7. 7. Semiotics concepts 1. 2. 3. 4. Signifier and signified Sign, object and interpretant Icon, index and symbol Encoding and decoding 7
    8. 8. Signifier and signified • Saussure distinguished between two things: • The signifier is a sign or symbol that can stand for something else. By definition, all words are signifiers since they always stand for something else (e.g. a thought, a feeling, or a thing). A signifier is used by the person wanting to communicate • The signified is what the sign or symbol represents – what it is interpreted to mean by the receiver of the communication 8
    9. 9. Sign, object and interpretant • Peirce distinguished between three things: • Sign : The written word ‘house’ or a drawing of a house. • Object : The category ‘house’. • Interpretant : Anyone who is involved in reading and interpreting the sign. • Peirce’s view recognizes that the same sign can have different meanings depending upon the context • For example the word ‘slim’, although the spelling is the same in both languages, means ‘cleaver’ in Dutch while in English it means ‘thin’. 9
    10. 10. Icon, index and symbol • An icon is a sign that signifies its meaning by qualities of its own; it is like the thing it represents (e.g. the icon of a trash can on Apple and Windows computers) • A sign can also act as an index: • An indexical sign points to or indicates something else. For example, a wavy line on a road might ‘point to’ bends in the road a few hundred yards ahead. • A symbol is something that stands for or is symbolic of something else (Eg: the three colors of traffic lights.) • The three categories of signs are not separate and distinct; a complex sign may be a mixture of several kinds. 10
    11. 11. Encoding and decoding • The only way that messages can be sent from one person to another is via the use of a code • Encoding is the process of transforming any thought or communication into a message • Decoding is the process of reading the message and understanding what it means • For example, consider the road code - only someone who can read the road signs correctly is allowed to obtain a driver’s licence 11
    12. 12. Information Systems Integration And Interoperability • Information systems integration is the process that ensures the interaction between information systems necessary to achieve domain objectives. • The development of information systems integration can be divided into two phases: technical integration and comprehensive integration. • (Chen and Vernadat, 2004) defines three levels from enterprise interoperability. 12
    13. 13. Semiotic Interoperability • Organisational semiotics • Semiotic framework • Semiotic interoperability 13
    14. 14. Organisational semiotics • Sub branch of semiotics. • It is the study of organizations using the concepts and methods of semiotics. • The scope of organisational semiotics includes both public and private organizations and concerns their inner workings, their interactions with the environment and with one another. • Addressed fields such as marketing, human resource management, business law and business ethics 14
    15. 15. Semiotic framework BY Stamper (1973) 15
    16. 16. Semiotic Interoperability framework to work together through communication with insight into • the physical properties • transmission structure of signs • placing emphasis on communicating meaning • intention • social consequence of information 16
    17. 17. Physical Interoperability • This level is concerned with the physical connection and transmission channel in sign communication. • The hardware devices of the systems must be interconnected in order to support the data transmission. 17
    18. 18. Empiric Interoperability • This level ensures sign transmission through compatible channels and protocols between systems. • This level is concerned with the matching of coding and decoding between sign sender and receiver. • This level ensures the capacity of communication channels and protocols of different information systems are matched. 18
    19. 19. Syntactic Interoperability • Syntactic interoperability ensures data exchange between systems through compatible formats and structures. • The syntactic interoperability is achieved when the expression of information, or language, or formula can be recognized by different information systems. 19
    20. 20. Semantic Interoperability • This level indicates the ability of interpreting and converting information into equivalent meaning to allow information sharing between systems. • Semantic level is concerned with the meaning of signs. • communication is successful if signs are interpreted for both sender and receiver according to same principles. 20
    21. 21. Pragmatic Interoperability • Pragmatics is the level of semiotics concerned with the relationship between signs and the potential behavior / intention of responsible agents, in a social context. • This level ensures that processes supposed by the systems in individual contexts can be aggregated to achieve the overall intended purpose. 21
    22. 22. Social Interoperability • This level ensures that the resultant interoperable systems should be coherent with the social commitment, obligation and norms in the organization and support organization's strategy, vision and objectives. • Norms have long been classified into several categories: • • • • Perceptual Cognitive Evaluative Behavioral 22
    23. 23. Example • At the physical level, the telephones must be connected by the phone line through telephone service providers. • At the empirical level, the voice signals will be converted into electronic (or optical) signals and transmitted between two telephones. • At the syntactical level, the two people involved in the telephone conversation must follow the same grammatical rules. 23
    24. 24. Example… • At the semantic level, the words, the technical and non-technical terms, and the things referred to in the conversations must be understood by the two people. The sentences and the contents of the conversation must make sense to both of them. • At the pragmatic level, there is a concern with the intention (of the caller),and there may be ‘silent’ messages beneath the surface. • At the social level, social commitments and obligations can often be created or discharged as the result of a conversation. 24
    25. 25. Semiotic Interoperability framework BY Stamper (1973) 25
    26. 26. Summary 26
    27. 27. Conclusions • The semiotic interoperability provides a theoretical concept covering how signs are communicated successfully from physical to social level in order to achieve effective information systems integration. 27
    28. 28. References • Weizi Li, Kecheng Liu, Shixiong Liu, 2013 ,”Semiotic Interoperability ”, Published in proceeding of 5th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, Vilamoura, Algrave, Portugal • Kecheng Liu,2000, “SEMIOTICS IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING”, Cambridge University Press. • Chen, D., Vernadat, F., 2004. Standards on enterprise integration and engineering—state of the art. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing 17, 235–253. 28
    29. 29. Questions 29
    30. 30. Thank You 30

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