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UNIT 9 RLC
QUI (ENGLISH: WHO/WHICH)
Qui will replace the subject in the second clause. (Hint: You will see a
verb and qui will be your subject.)
Ils ont vu le chien. + Le chien est brun. = Ils ont vu le chien qui est brun.
« Le chien » is common in both sentences, but is the subject in the new
sentence.
D’autres exemples:
1. Voici Sarah. Sarah est la soeur de Paul. Voici Sarah qui est la
soeur de Paul.
1. L’équipe de foot a gagné le championnat l’année dernière. Le
championnat a eu lieu à Raleigh.
L’équipe de foot a gagne le championnat qui a eu lieu à Raleigh.
QUE (ENGLISH: THAT/WHICH/WHOM)
Que will replace the object in the second clause. (Hint: You will see a
subject and a verb in the second part of the sentence.)
Nous aimons Sarah. + Vous avez rencontré Sarah hier? = Nous aimons
Sarah que vous avez rencontré hier.
« Sarah » is common object in both sentences, and is the direct object in
the new sentence.
Note: You must also be careful with the preceding direct object and be
sure to make it agree. Voici la fille que tu as vue.
Autre exemple:
1. L’équipe de foot a gagné le championnat. J’ai regardé le
championnat à Raleigh.
L’équipe de foot a gagne le championnat que j’ai regardé à Raleigh.
DONT – (ENGLISH: OF/ABOUT WHOM, WHICH, WHOSE)
**Remember you will always have a preposition in front of an indirect object. When the
preposition is DE, use DONT as the relative. Also use DONT when showing possession
or ownership.**
Dont will replace DE + indirect object in the second clause. (Hint: You will
see a subject and a verb and dont will be your object.)
Je parle du livre. + Le livre est intéressant. = Le livre dont je parle est
intéressant. (parler de)
« Le livre » is common in both sentences, but is the indirect object in the
new sentence.
D’autres exemples:
1. J’ai besoin de l’ordinateur. L’ordinateur a Windows 8. L’ordinateur
dont j’ai besoin a Windows 8.
2. Philippe est le propriétaire de la voiture. La voiture est rouge. La
voiture dont Philippe est le propriétaire est rouge.
CE QUE AND CE QUI
• Ce qui and ce que are also relative pronouns, but they are indefinite
relative pronouns because they don’t refer to back to something
specific or already mentioned. Often they refer to something that
hasn’t been mentioned.
• Just like qui and que, ce qui and ce que introduce the next clause or
LINK two sentences.
• Ce qui and ce que differ many times refer to something that is understood
or an idea. They refer to something unstated and unspecified.
• What she does on the weekends... – Ce qu’elle fait le weekend...
• The thing that interests me most... – Ce qui m’intéresse le plus...
CE QUE (ENGLISH: WHAT, THAT, WHICH)
Ce que (what, that, which) functions as the direct object of the next sentence/clause
and will be followed by a subject and a verb.
Ce que becomes ce qu’ in front of a vowel.
Ce que je veux, c'est vivre longtemps. What I want is to live a long time.
Can you translate these to English?
1. Ce que nous voulons le plus, c’est de voyager.
2. C’est ce qu’il aime !
3. Tout ce que le comédien a raconté était drôle!
4. Ce qui est incroyable, c’est ce qu’ il a pu faire pour les enfants à Noël!
CE QUI (ENGLISH: WHAT, THAT, WHICH)
Ce qui (what, that, which) functions as the subject of the sentence/clause and will
be followed by a verb.
Ce qui m'intéresse, c'est le français. What interests me is French.
Can you translate these to English?
1. Ce qui fait la différence entre deux élèves, c’est la responsabilité.
2. L’amour est ce qui rend heureux.
3. Claire a gagné le prix... ce qui ne m’étonne pas comme elle chante si bien.
4. Ce qui est fascinant, c’est la fin du livre!
CELUI / CELLE
Demonstrative Adjectives Demonstrative Pronoun
Used to describe or modify a noun. Used in place of a noun.
This, That, These, Those
1. Comes in front of the noun.
2. Must agree with the noun.
3. Used for something close or
farther away.
I like that book. (‘That’ is in front of
the noun so it’s the adjective that
points out which book we’re talking
about.
This one, That one, These, Those
1. Takes the place of noun in front of
verb.
2. Must agree with the gender and
number
of the noun is replaces.
3. “-ci” and “-là” are interchangeable.
here/there
I like that. (‘That’ is the actual noun in
the second part of the sentence. It
points out what we’re talking about, but
only if the object is present and we can
see it, or if it’s been referenced
previously.
Masc. Ce ... monument est
l’Opéra.
Masc. Celui-
ci/là
... est la
Madeleine.
Fem. Cette ... église est vieille. Fem. Celle-
ci/là
... est moderne.
Celui, celle, ceux, celles
Celui, celle, ceux, celles ('this one' or 'that one' in the
singular; 'these,' 'those' or 'the ones' in the plural) are
demonstrative pronouns.
They replace a specific noun, which has been mentioned
or is obvious from context, in order to avoid repeating it.
They agree in gender and number with the nouns they
replace.
QUEL / LEQUEL
Lequel, lesquels, laquelle, lesquelles are interrogative
pronouns, i.e. they are used in place of a noun.
They are used to ask the questions 'which one?' or 'which
ones?‘
À + LEQUEL
Compound relatives – they are made up of two words that are combined.
They are used AFTER A PREPOSITION. They carry the gender of the noun
they are reemphasizing.
Ex. La raison pour laquelle je suis à Paris, c’est pour travailler.
Les amis avec lesquels je voyage sont espagnols.
Compound Relative Pronouns:
lequel, lesquelles, auquel, à laquelle, etc…
Lequel can be used with the prepositions ‘à’ and ‘de’. When this happens you will
use certain contractions. As you will remember from French 1 and 2, when you
have ‘à’ beside ‘le’ you contract it to ‘au’.
Let’s review just the au contractions.
à + le = au / à + la = à la / à + les = aux
AUQUEL means ___TO, AT WHICH___ Each form below must agree in gender and
number with the noun it modifies. Here, because it is a pronoun, the noun is NOT
repeated. See the chart above.
Here, the à piece of these contractions IS A PREPOSITION. The relative
pronouns carry the gender of the noun it is reemphasizing.
Ex. L’homme auquelle je pense travaille au supermarché.
Les sports auxquels vous jouez sont très difficiles !
Nous organisons une fête à laquelle vous êtes invités.
possessive adjectives = show ownership
leursleurleurTHEIR
vosvotrevotreYOUR
nosnotrenotreOUR
sessasonHIS, HER, ITS
testatonYOUR
mesmamonMY
English masculine
singular **
feminine
singular all plural
* * When your possessive adjective is in front of a feminine
noun beginning with a vowel, use the masculine singular form!!
Remember : Choose your adjective based on the item
itself being owned NOT the owner like in English.
Son = his, her, its - masculine noun
Sa = his, her, its - feminine noun
Ses = his, her, its - plural noun
Examples of how you use these adjectives with explanations:
your friend = ton ami or ton amie (even if she’s a girl you use the masculine form, ton,
because you need the consonant in front of the vowel)
my mother = ma mère (she’s a girl, so you use the feminine form)
our house = notre maison (house is feminine, but since the masc and femin form for our are the
same, it doesn’t change)
their brothers = leurs frères (more than one brother so you use the plural form)
his sister = sa soeur (feminine form because we’re talking about the sister not ‘him’)
her mother = sa mère (feminine again because of mother not the sister)
his father = son père (masculine form because father is male)
Des exemples
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
These agree with the noun and vary depending on the owner.
Study the chart below paying close attention to spelling and also the article
that comes in front.
Ex. Mon chien est marrant. Et le tien? -- Le mien est marrant aussi.
Notre maison a un jardin. Et la vôtre? -- La nôtre (or la mienne) n’a pas de jardin.
SINGULAR PLURAL
MASCULIN FEMININ MASCULIN FEMININ
JE le mien la mienne les miens les miennes
TU le tien la tienne les tiens les tiennes
IL/ ELLE le sien la sienne les siens les siennes
NOUS le nôtre
la nôtre
les nôtres
VOUS le vôtre
la nôtre
les vôtres
ILS/ ELLES le sien la sienne les siens les siennes
Spelling change for the feminine forms.
Only the
article
changes.
Feminine form spelling change.
La Fin !
DE + LEQUEL
NEGATION – NE... QUE
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND
PRONOUNS

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9 rlc fr3 -unit 9

  • 2. QUI (ENGLISH: WHO/WHICH) Qui will replace the subject in the second clause. (Hint: You will see a verb and qui will be your subject.) Ils ont vu le chien. + Le chien est brun. = Ils ont vu le chien qui est brun. « Le chien » is common in both sentences, but is the subject in the new sentence. D’autres exemples: 1. Voici Sarah. Sarah est la soeur de Paul. Voici Sarah qui est la soeur de Paul. 1. L’équipe de foot a gagné le championnat l’année dernière. Le championnat a eu lieu à Raleigh. L’équipe de foot a gagne le championnat qui a eu lieu à Raleigh.
  • 3. QUE (ENGLISH: THAT/WHICH/WHOM) Que will replace the object in the second clause. (Hint: You will see a subject and a verb in the second part of the sentence.) Nous aimons Sarah. + Vous avez rencontré Sarah hier? = Nous aimons Sarah que vous avez rencontré hier. « Sarah » is common object in both sentences, and is the direct object in the new sentence. Note: You must also be careful with the preceding direct object and be sure to make it agree. Voici la fille que tu as vue. Autre exemple: 1. L’équipe de foot a gagné le championnat. J’ai regardé le championnat à Raleigh. L’équipe de foot a gagne le championnat que j’ai regardé à Raleigh.
  • 4. DONT – (ENGLISH: OF/ABOUT WHOM, WHICH, WHOSE) **Remember you will always have a preposition in front of an indirect object. When the preposition is DE, use DONT as the relative. Also use DONT when showing possession or ownership.** Dont will replace DE + indirect object in the second clause. (Hint: You will see a subject and a verb and dont will be your object.) Je parle du livre. + Le livre est intéressant. = Le livre dont je parle est intéressant. (parler de) « Le livre » is common in both sentences, but is the indirect object in the new sentence. D’autres exemples: 1. J’ai besoin de l’ordinateur. L’ordinateur a Windows 8. L’ordinateur dont j’ai besoin a Windows 8. 2. Philippe est le propriétaire de la voiture. La voiture est rouge. La voiture dont Philippe est le propriétaire est rouge.
  • 5. CE QUE AND CE QUI • Ce qui and ce que are also relative pronouns, but they are indefinite relative pronouns because they don’t refer to back to something specific or already mentioned. Often they refer to something that hasn’t been mentioned. • Just like qui and que, ce qui and ce que introduce the next clause or LINK two sentences. • Ce qui and ce que differ many times refer to something that is understood or an idea. They refer to something unstated and unspecified. • What she does on the weekends... – Ce qu’elle fait le weekend... • The thing that interests me most... – Ce qui m’intéresse le plus...
  • 6. CE QUE (ENGLISH: WHAT, THAT, WHICH) Ce que (what, that, which) functions as the direct object of the next sentence/clause and will be followed by a subject and a verb. Ce que becomes ce qu’ in front of a vowel. Ce que je veux, c'est vivre longtemps. What I want is to live a long time. Can you translate these to English? 1. Ce que nous voulons le plus, c’est de voyager. 2. C’est ce qu’il aime ! 3. Tout ce que le comédien a raconté était drôle! 4. Ce qui est incroyable, c’est ce qu’ il a pu faire pour les enfants à Noël!
  • 7. CE QUI (ENGLISH: WHAT, THAT, WHICH) Ce qui (what, that, which) functions as the subject of the sentence/clause and will be followed by a verb. Ce qui m'intéresse, c'est le français. What interests me is French. Can you translate these to English? 1. Ce qui fait la différence entre deux élèves, c’est la responsabilité. 2. L’amour est ce qui rend heureux. 3. Claire a gagné le prix... ce qui ne m’étonne pas comme elle chante si bien. 4. Ce qui est fascinant, c’est la fin du livre!
  • 8. CELUI / CELLE Demonstrative Adjectives Demonstrative Pronoun Used to describe or modify a noun. Used in place of a noun. This, That, These, Those 1. Comes in front of the noun. 2. Must agree with the noun. 3. Used for something close or farther away. I like that book. (‘That’ is in front of the noun so it’s the adjective that points out which book we’re talking about. This one, That one, These, Those 1. Takes the place of noun in front of verb. 2. Must agree with the gender and number of the noun is replaces. 3. “-ci” and “-là” are interchangeable. here/there I like that. (‘That’ is the actual noun in the second part of the sentence. It points out what we’re talking about, but only if the object is present and we can see it, or if it’s been referenced previously. Masc. Ce ... monument est l’Opéra. Masc. Celui- ci/là ... est la Madeleine. Fem. Cette ... église est vieille. Fem. Celle- ci/là ... est moderne.
  • 9. Celui, celle, ceux, celles Celui, celle, ceux, celles ('this one' or 'that one' in the singular; 'these,' 'those' or 'the ones' in the plural) are demonstrative pronouns. They replace a specific noun, which has been mentioned or is obvious from context, in order to avoid repeating it. They agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace.
  • 10. QUEL / LEQUEL Lequel, lesquels, laquelle, lesquelles are interrogative pronouns, i.e. they are used in place of a noun. They are used to ask the questions 'which one?' or 'which ones?‘
  • 11. À + LEQUEL Compound relatives – they are made up of two words that are combined. They are used AFTER A PREPOSITION. They carry the gender of the noun they are reemphasizing. Ex. La raison pour laquelle je suis à Paris, c’est pour travailler. Les amis avec lesquels je voyage sont espagnols. Compound Relative Pronouns: lequel, lesquelles, auquel, à laquelle, etc…
  • 12. Lequel can be used with the prepositions ‘à’ and ‘de’. When this happens you will use certain contractions. As you will remember from French 1 and 2, when you have ‘à’ beside ‘le’ you contract it to ‘au’. Let’s review just the au contractions. à + le = au / à + la = à la / à + les = aux AUQUEL means ___TO, AT WHICH___ Each form below must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies. Here, because it is a pronoun, the noun is NOT repeated. See the chart above. Here, the à piece of these contractions IS A PREPOSITION. The relative pronouns carry the gender of the noun it is reemphasizing. Ex. L’homme auquelle je pense travaille au supermarché. Les sports auxquels vous jouez sont très difficiles ! Nous organisons une fête à laquelle vous êtes invités.
  • 13. possessive adjectives = show ownership leursleurleurTHEIR vosvotrevotreYOUR nosnotrenotreOUR sessasonHIS, HER, ITS testatonYOUR mesmamonMY English masculine singular ** feminine singular all plural * * When your possessive adjective is in front of a feminine noun beginning with a vowel, use the masculine singular form!! Remember : Choose your adjective based on the item itself being owned NOT the owner like in English. Son = his, her, its - masculine noun Sa = his, her, its - feminine noun Ses = his, her, its - plural noun
  • 14. Examples of how you use these adjectives with explanations: your friend = ton ami or ton amie (even if she’s a girl you use the masculine form, ton, because you need the consonant in front of the vowel) my mother = ma mère (she’s a girl, so you use the feminine form) our house = notre maison (house is feminine, but since the masc and femin form for our are the same, it doesn’t change) their brothers = leurs frères (more than one brother so you use the plural form) his sister = sa soeur (feminine form because we’re talking about the sister not ‘him’) her mother = sa mère (feminine again because of mother not the sister) his father = son père (masculine form because father is male) Des exemples
  • 15. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS These agree with the noun and vary depending on the owner. Study the chart below paying close attention to spelling and also the article that comes in front. Ex. Mon chien est marrant. Et le tien? -- Le mien est marrant aussi. Notre maison a un jardin. Et la vôtre? -- La nôtre (or la mienne) n’a pas de jardin. SINGULAR PLURAL MASCULIN FEMININ MASCULIN FEMININ JE le mien la mienne les miens les miennes TU le tien la tienne les tiens les tiennes IL/ ELLE le sien la sienne les siens les siennes NOUS le nôtre la nôtre les nôtres VOUS le vôtre la nôtre les vôtres ILS/ ELLES le sien la sienne les siens les siennes Spelling change for the feminine forms. Only the article changes. Feminine form spelling change.