THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP By Jahan Ara Shams University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan
Theory X & Theory YPeople are inherently People are not lazy and dislike work inherently lazy and like workPeople must be coerced, controlled, People will exercise directed and self-direction and self- threatened control to reach organizational goals
The Ohio State StudiesOhio State researchers at Ohio State University found that leaders behavior could be described in terms of two dimensions – Initiating Structure – Consideration
The Michigan StudiesBy Resis Likert and his associates at the University of MichiganHow leadership behavior relates to organizational performanceIdentified two leader behaviors – Employee-centered leader behavior – Job-centered leader behavior
Rensis Likert identified four main styles ofleadership, in particular around decision-making andthe degree to which people are involved in thedecision. • Exploitive authoritativeIn this style, the leader has a low concern for peopleand uses such methods as threats and other fear-based methods to achieve conformance.Communication is almost entirely downwards andthe psychologically distant concerns of people areignored. • Benevolent authoritativeWhen the leader adds concern for people to anauthoritative position, a benevolent dictatorship isformed. The leader now uses rewards to encourageappropriate performance and listens.
• ConsultativeThe upward flow of information here is still cautiousand rose-tinted to some degree, although the leaderis making genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas.Nevertheless, major decisions are still largelycentrally made. • ParticipativeAt this level, the leader makes maximum use ofparticipative methods, engaging people lower downthe organization in decision-making. People acrossthe organization are psychologically closer togetherand work well together at all levels."Our knowledge can only be finite, while our ignorance must necessarily be infinite." ―Karl Popper, Austrian philosopher
Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid By Robert R. Blake and Jane SrygleyMouton Method of analyzing leader behavior usinga two-dimensional grid Concern for people Concern for production
Hersey & Blanchard Theory of Leadership Developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth H.Blanchard States that the leaders behavior (task behavior/relationship behavior) should be altered accordingto the employees readiness/maturity (ability andwillingness ) to complete the task States that behaviors (high or low) determine theleadership style and leadership style is contingenton followers maturity level (able/unable andwilling/unwilling).
Path Goal theory of Leadership By Martin G. Evans, Robert J. House and others It has its roots in expectancy theory of motivation Suggests that the leaders primary motivationalfunctions are to make attractive rewards available,to guide employees through the path to theserewards by clarifying the behavior that will achievegoals, and to remove any obstacles that preventgoal attainment. Suggests leaders can modify their behaviordepending on the situational variables(environmental factors,subordinate characteristics) they face.
Four Behaviors of a LeaderDirective Leadership- task is unstructured, complex or novel orsubordinates lack skills........telling exactly what to do and how todo........similar initiating structure and task orientationSupportive Leadership -task unambiguous, boring orstressful........to increase satisfaction of yoursubordinates........similar to consideration and relationshiporientation.
Achievement Oriented Leadershiptask unstructured.........challenging followers so as to increase their self-confidence and satisfaction.Participative Leadershiptask unstructured.............................................call for participation....consulting.
FIEDLERS CONTINGENCY THEORYIt relates situation favorability (Leader-memberrelations, Task structure, Position Power)towards various leadership styles to help leadersdetermine the best approach in a given situation.> > Relationship motivated behavior>> Task motivated behavior
Transformational theory of LeadershipJames MacGregor Burns (1978) first introduced theconcept of transforming leadership in his descriptiveresearch on political leaders, but this term is now used inorganizational psychology as well.According to Burns, transforming leadership is a processin which "leaders and followers help each other toadvance to a higher level of morale and motivation".Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns(1978) and introduced the term "transformational" in placeof "transforming.He said that the extent to which a leader istransformational, is measured first, in terms of hisinfluence on the followers.
Four basic elements of transformational leadership:Individualized Consideration – the degree to which the leader attends toeach followers needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listensto the followers concerns and needs. The leader gives empathy andsupport, keeps communication open and places challenges before thefollowers.Intellectual Stimulation – the degree to which the leader challengesassumptions, takes risks and solicits followers ideas. Leaders with this stylestimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. They nurture anddevelop people who think independently.Inspirational Motivation – the degree to which the leader articulates a visionthat is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirationalmotivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimismabout future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand. The followersare willing to invest more effort in their tasks, they are encouraged andoptimistic about the future and believe in their abilities.Idealized Influence – Provides a role model for high ethical behavior, instillspride, gains respect and trust.