Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Politics and Policies


Published on

Politics and Policies in the developed and developing worlds. Mackenzie & Monkia

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Politics and Policies

  1. 1. Politics and Policies<br />Developed World<br />
  2. 2. What is the Farm Bill?<br />Primary agricultural and food policy tool of the federal government. <br />passed every 5- 7 years by the United States Congress <br />deals with both agriculture and all other affairs under the purview of the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) <br />Contains 15 different titles within the Bill<br />
  3. 3. History<br />The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933<br />Dust Bowl and Great Depressions<br />Most significant forces affecting food, farming, and land-use in the US. <br />Total of 14 Farm Bills<br />
  4. 4. How does the Farm Bill affect me?<br />Both directly and indirectly, the Farm Bill impacts: <br /><ul><li>who can farm
  5. 5. how they farm
  6. 6. the types of food that can be grown
  7. 7. what sort of foods we eat
  8. 8. how they taste and how much they cost
  9. 9. which crops are grown under what conditions
  10. 10. Ultimately… whether we’re properly nourished or not </li></li></ul><li>Forces Shaping Agricultural Policy<br />Social and Political<br />The Market Environment<br />Budget Constraints <br />Trade Commitments<br />In the U.S., diverse stakeholders contribute to Farm Bill debate:<br />Farm and Commodity Associations<br />Agribusinesses <br />Consumers & Food Safety Group<br />„Environmental Groups<br />„Rural Communities<br />„Taxpayers<br />„Biofuel Interest<br />
  11. 11. Current Farm Bill Spending<br /><ul><li>2008 Farm Bill: $284 billion
  12. 12. $189 billion (67%) supports the cost of nutrition
  13. 13. $42 billion (15 %) supports payment programs for commodity crops
  14. 14. $22 billion (8 %) supports crop insurance
  15. 15. These three program categories account for about 90% of all Farm Bill spending.</li></li></ul><li>Food Stamp Participation<br />
  16. 16. Food Stamp Participation<br />
  17. 17. Commodity Crops<br />Problem w/ Commodity Crops<br />Fruit and Vegetables???<br />
  18. 18. Problems with the Bill<br />The Farm policy is a big part of the reason fast food is cheap and healthy food is harder to find.<br />Many programs designed to ensure healthy food for all and fair prices for farmers, have been stripped away or replaced with programs that benefit corporate interests<br />Federal policies discourage farmers from producing and strategically marketing food crops, such as fruits and vegetables<br />
  19. 19. Key findings from an analysis of the 2008 Farm Bill<br />Fruit and vegetable farmers lack a safety net that is available for commodity crop producing farmers<br />Fruit and vegetable price and yield data are not collected<br />Crop insurance, disaster assistance, and loan and conservation programs are not designed to address the unique characteristics of fruit and vegetable production and marketing<br />Nutrition program expenditures are not adequately directed to ensure children, including those from low-income households, receive healthy food <br />
  20. 20. Why Farm Programs might change between Farm Bills?<br />Meet need not covered by existing program<br /><ul><li>Ex.: disaster assistance</li></ul>Cut spending<br /><ul><li>Ex.: budget reconciliation to reduce deficit</li></ul>Meet WTO (The World Trade Organization) requirements <br /><ul><li>Ex.: circuit- breaker</li></ul>Political trade-offs provide opportunities<br /><ul><li>Ex.: tobacco buyout gained votes for overall tax bill</li></li></ul><li>Farm Act Legislative Process<br />
  21. 21. Opportunities in the upcoming 2012 Farm Bill<br />Providing crop insurance to fruit and vegetable farmers<br />Explore policy changes to enable farmers participating in the commodity programs to use program acres for the planting of fruits and vegetables. <br />Collect and use price and yield data for specialty crops<br />Ensure that USDA procurement decisions serve the two stated goals of most nutrition programs<br />Increase funding, education and technical assistance for farmers’ markets to adopt the use of Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) for SNAP and participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program<br />
  22. 22. Room for Change<br />There are many opportunities for the farm and public health communities to work together with other stakeholders in implementing policy changes to address some of the key challenges outlined in the report. <br />Some program policy changes could be made by USDA without the need for additional direction from Congress, but in some cases, Farm Bill action will be required. <br />Questions to consider…<br />
  23. 23. Developing Countries:Politics, Policy, & NGO’s<br />
  24. 24. United Nations’ global Development Network(UNDP)<br /><ul><li>organization advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life
  25. 25. 177 countries
  26. 26.  Millennium Development Goals
  27. 27. cutting poverty in half by 2015
  28. 28. Solutions towards:</li></ul>Democratic Governance<br />Poverty Reduction<br />Crisis Prevention & Recovery<br />Environment & Energy<br />HIV/AIDS<br /><ul><li>Human Development Index
  29. 29. Developing vs Developed
  30. 30. Life expectancy
  31. 31. Years of Schooling
  32. 32. Gross national Income
  33. 33. Human Development Report
  34. 34. Multiple reports for different countries
  35. 35. Policies
  36. 36. Requirements for developing</li></ul><br />
  37. 37. Human Development Index (HDI) - 2010 Rankings<br />Very High Human Development <br />Norway<br />Australia<br />New Zealand<br />United States<br />Ireland<br />Liechtenstein<br />Netherlands<br />Canada<br />Sweden<br />Germany<br />Japan<br />Korea (Republic of)<br />Switzerland<br />France<br />Israel<br />Finland<br />Iceland<br />Belgium<br />Denmark<br />Spain<br />Hong Kong, China (SAR)<br />Greece<br />HighHuman Development <br />Bahamas<br />Lithuania<br />Chile<br />Argentina<br />Kuwait<br />Latvia<br />Montenegro<br />Romania<br />Croatia<br />Uruguay<br />Cuba<br />Palau<br />Libya<br />Panama<br />Saudi Arabia<br />Mexico<br />Malaysia<br />Bulgaria<br />Trinidad and Tobago<br />Serbia<br />Belarus<br />Costa Rica<br />Peru<br />Albania<br />Russian Federation<br />Kazakhstan<br />Azerbaijan<br />Bosnia and Herzegovina<br />Ukraine<br />Iran (Islamic Republic of)<br />The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia<br />Mauritius<br />Brazil<br />Georgia<br />Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)<br />Armenia<br />Ecuador<br />Belize<br />Colombia<br />Jamaica<br />Tunisia<br />Italy<br />Luxembourg<br />Austria<br />United Kingdom<br />Singapore<br />Czech Republic<br />Slovenia<br />Andorra<br />Slovakia<br />United Arab Emirates<br />Malta<br />Estonia<br />Cyprus<br />Hungary<br />Brunei Darussalam<br />Qatar<br />Bahrain<br />Portugal<br />Poland<br />Barbados<br />Jordan<br />Turkey<br />Algeria<br />Tonga<br /><br />
  38. 38. Human Development Index (HDI) - 2010 Rankings<br />Medium Human Development <br />Fiji<br />Turkmenistan<br />Dominican Republic<br />China<br />El Salvador<br />Sri Lanka<br />Thailand<br />Gabon<br />Suriname<br />Bolivia (Plurinational State of)<br />Paraguay<br />Philippines<br />Botswana<br />Moldova (Republic of)<br />Mongolia<br />Egypt<br />Uzbekistan<br />Micronesia (Federated States of)<br />Guyana<br />Namibia<br />Honduras<br />Maldives<br />LowHuman Development <br />Kenya<br />Bangladesh<br />Ghana<br />Cameroon<br />Myanmar<br />Yemen<br />Benin<br />Madagascar<br />Mauritania<br />Papua New Guinea<br />Nepal<br />Togo<br />Comoros<br />Lesotho<br />Nigeria<br />Uganda<br />Senegal<br />Haiti<br />Angola<br />Djibouti<br />Tanzania (United Republic of)<br />Côte d'Ivoire<br />Indonesia<br />Kyrgyzstan<br />South Africa<br />Syrian Arab Republic<br />Tajikistan<br />Viet Nam<br />Morocco<br />Nicaragua<br />Guatemala<br />Equatorial Guinea<br />Cape Verde<br />India<br />Timor-Leste<br />Swaziland<br />Lao People's Democratic Republic<br />Solomon Islands<br />Cambodia<br />Pakistan<br />Congo<br />São Tomé and Príncipe<br />Zambia<br />Gambia<br />Rwanda<br />Malawi<br />Sudan<br />Afghanistan<br />Guinea<br />Ethiopia<br />Sierra Leone<br />Central African Republic<br />Mali<br />Burkina Faso<br />Liberia<br />Chad<br />Guinea-Bissau<br />Mozambique<br />Burundi<br />Niger<br />Congo (Democratic Republic of the)<br />Zimbabwe<br />
  39. 39. Types of Governments Present Today<br />Absolute monarchy Anarchy Authoritarian Commonwealth Communist Confederacy (Confederation) Constitutional Constitutional democracyConstitutional monarchy Democracy Democratic republic Ecclesiastical Emirate Federal (Federation) Federal republic Islamic republic<br />Maoism <br />Marxism Marxism-Leninism Monarchy Oligarchy Parliamentary democracy Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) Parliamentary monarchy Presidential Republic Socialism Sultanate Theocracy Totalitarian <br /><br />
  40. 40. NGO’s<br />
  41. 41. World Food Program<br />MERET: Managing Environmental Resources to Enable Transition<br />Treat cultivated land<br />Rehabilitate forest areas and gullies<br />Harvest water and improve draining structures<br />Build & Maintain feeder roads to improve access to markets<br />P4P: Purchase for Progress<br />Demand: tests innovative ways to buy staple food and promote marketing opportunities for smallholder farmers.<br />Supply: support farmers to achieve better yields, reduce their losses after the harvest and improve the quality of their staple crops.<br />Learning and Sharing: share lessons on effective approaches to connect smallholder farmers to markets in a sustainable way<br />School Meals<br />Food for Assets<br />Cash and Vouchers<br /><br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsOCHA<br />Coordination<br />Policy<br />Advocacy<br />Information Management<br />Humanitarian Financing<br />
  44. 44. USAID- government<br />Goals:<br />economic growth, agriculture and trade<br />global health<br />democracy, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance<br />Provide assistance in five regions of the world:<br />Sub-Saharan Africa<br />Asia<br />Latin America and the Caribbean<br />Europe and Eurasia<br />Middle East<br />
  45. 45. Cases on Policy<br />
  46. 46. 112) South Africa<br />Republic<br />1990s six years- established a new, democratic political order<br />power of international and local organized business to set the pace of change in a market economy imposes severe constraints on government’s capacity to reduce social inequality<br />Amended Labor Relations Act<br /><br /><br />
  47. 47. 127) Pakistan<br />Federal Republic<br />Landlords Power<br />Illegal pumping from canals <br />failure to conduct an effective land reform <br />1900 Alienation of Lands Act<br /><br />
  48. 48. 143) Uganda<br />Republic<br />Land belongs to the citizens<br />Government policy regarding land is to provide security of tenure for all<br /><br />
  49. 49. Land Act 1998<br />To provide security of tenure to all land users <br />To resolve the land use impasse between the registered owners and the lawful and bonafide occupants of this land<br />To provide an institutional framework for the control and management of land under a decentralised system<br />To ensure proper planning and well-co-ordinated development of urban areas<br />To ensure sustainable land use and development throughout the country to conserve the environment<br />To redress historical imbalances and injustices in the ownership and control of land<br />To provide for government and local government to acquire land compulsorily in the public interest and public use, public safety, public order, public morality or public health.<br />
  50. 50. 169) Zimbabwe<br /><ul><li>Parliamentary Democracy
  51. 51. the unity government was meant to end the economic ruin brought about by Mugabe's tyranny</li></ul>THE LAND QUESTION AND GOVERNANCE IN ZIMBABWE <br /><ul><li>inequitable distribution of landownership between large-scale commercial farmers, the communal small farmers and the landless</li></ul>Three components namely: <br /><ul><li>unequal and inequitable land distribution,
  52. 52. insecurity of land tenure,
  53. 53. unsustainable and sub-optimal land use.
  54. 54. Independence, the Zimbabwe Government was therefore faced with the enormous question and challenge of land redistribution
  55. 55. Lancaster House Constitution made it virtually impossible to redistribute land in any comprehensive manner. </li></ul>1997-the government had acquired 3,4 million hectares of land on which it resettled about 71 000 families <br /><ul><li>The inherited economy contained inequalities
  56. 56. The council illegally allocated municipal land to themselves</li></ul>;hwwilsonid=B0NHXA3WOUADLQA3DILSFGOADUNGIIV0<br /><br />
  57. 57. Somalia<br />No permanent national Government<br />Collapse in 1991<br />Restricted aid access<br />US Eases Restrictions on Aid Groups<br /><br /><br /><br />