Varietal improvement and conservation the australian macadamia improvement program- bruce topp

1,419 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,419
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Varietal improvement and conservation the australian macadamia improvement program- bruce topp

  1. 1. The Australian Macadamia Improvement Program Bruce Topp QAAFI Nambour QLD Working together with the Queensland Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  2. 2. Components of GeneticImprovement• Breeding• Regional variety trials (DAFF)• Conservation• Rootstock evaluation• Husk spot screening (Akinsanmi and Drenth)• Fruit spotting bug screening (Huwer and Maddox) Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  3. 3. Components of GeneticImprovement• Breeding• Regional variety trials (DAFF)• Conservation• Rootstock evaluation• Husk spot screening (Akinsanmi and Drenth)• Fruit spotting bug screening (Huwer and Maddox) Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  4. 4. Breeding priorities• Yield• Husk spot• Quality• Fruit spotting bug• Tree size Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  5. 5. Two major obstacles to breeding• Trees are large – Planted at 200-300 trees/ha – Expensive to replicate• Trees long-lived – Orchard life > 50 years – Expensive to measure mature yield – Predicting the future? Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  6. 6. Predicting the future? What happens to trials?• Pacific highway upgrade through Newrybar trial Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  7. 7. Breeding Timeline andStages of Testing Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  8. 8. Two distinct stages of testing 1994 –Cross pollinations 1997- 3,000 progeny planted 2006 – Best 20 trees selected Propagate best 20 for RVT 2008 – Regional Variety Trials (RVTs) - 10 trials - 2 stocks - 6 replicates 2017 - Recommendations Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  9. 9. Two distinct stages of testing 1994 –Cross pollinations 1st Stage(seedling progeny) 1997- 3,000 progeny planted 2006 – Best 20 trees selected Propagate best 20 for RVT 2008 – Regional Variety Trials (RVTs) - 10 trials - 2 stocks - 6 replicates 2017 - Recommendations Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  10. 10. Two distinct stages of testing 1994 –Cross pollinations 1st Stage(seedling progeny) 1997- 3,000 progeny planted 2006 – Best 20 trees selected Propagate best 20 for RVT 2008 – Regional Variety Trials (RVTs) 2nd Stage - 10 trials (grafted trees) - 2 stocks - 6 replicates 2017 - Recommendations Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  11. 11. First Stage Testing Seedling Progeny Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  12. 12. Breeding – first generation seedling progeny tests • 3,000 progeny in 14 trials • Evaluated 2000-2010 • Quantitative analysis (Craig Hardner) • Top 150 selected in 2012 Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  13. 13. Some trial sites are better than others Cumulative NIS yield from Ages 3-8 (kg/tree) 20 15 kg / tree 10 5 0 EW 2 03 AM 01 YA 00 EG 02 0 BA 2 AM 2 03 03 AL 0 BA 2 Q 01 3 0 K0 0 0 0 0 S0 AM AM D D YM LO FF FF NO NO S R IN N N BR BR YA U U H Q D D N Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  14. 14. Yield increase compared to ‘HAES 741’ Kernel Recovery NIS Yield 60 25 Maximum obtained within progeny Maximum obtained within progeny HAES 741 HAES 741 50 20 40 15 kg / tree% KR 30 10 20 5 10 0 0 total kernel recovery (%) cumulative (age 4-8) NIS yield at 1% moisture Trait (BLUPs) Trait (BLUPs) Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  15. 15. Second Stage Testing Regional Variety Trials (RVTs) lead by DAFF Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  16. 16. 10 Regional Variety Trialsplanted 2008 • Proserpine • Mackay Childers • Bundaberg (3 sites) 1200km Hogarth Range • Alstonville Mc Lean’s Ridges • Macksville Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  17. 17. Second crop at Childers RVT Mean yield Minimum Maximum (kg/tree) (kg/tree) (kg/tree)Breeding 1.4 0.1 6.3SelectionsStandard 2.0 0.9 2.8Varieties Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  18. 18. Breeding2nd Generation Started 2011 Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  19. 19. Recurrent selection for yield1st Generation tons/ha Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  20. 20. Recurrent selection for yield Top 20 trees1st Generation use as parents (in 2012) tons/ha Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  21. 21. Recurrent selection for yield Top 20 trees 1st Generation used as parents in 2012 tons/ha2nd Generation tons/ha Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  22. 22. Controlled Hybridisation Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  23. 23. Reduced tree size• Several dwarf trees identified in progeny• One propagated and continues to express reduced size• Used as parent in 2011 Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  24. 24. Conservation• 2 ex-situ trials• Sampled 77 wild populations• All 4 species now included• 1,160 trees• Studying – Floral biology – Disease/Pest resistance – Oil profiles – Zn & Se kernel variation (Tim O’Hare) – Graft/Cross compatibility – Changes during domestication Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  25. 25. Species not domesticated• M. jansenii – Recently discovered – 40 trees total – Small nut – Hybridised with integrifolia• M. ternifolia – Small tree – Small nut – Thin shell – Hybridised with integrifolia Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  26. 26. Hybrids with clean, white kernel Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  27. 27. 60% kernel recovery Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  28. 28. Summary• Long term investment• Priority is yield• Almost there – 2017• Predicted 30% increase in profitability• 2nd generation commenced – similar gain expected• Other traits studied to allow industry to adapt Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
  29. 29. Acknowledgments• B. Topp, C. Hardner, J. Neal, A. Kelly, A. Kilian, R. Daley, D. Russell, P. O’Hare, A. Kilian, A. Drenth, F. Akinsanmi, R. Huwer, C. Maddox, C. McConchie, S. Boyton, J. Wilkie, D. Morrow• Funding from HAL, AMS, QAAFI, DAFF, NSW DPI• CSIRO was the lead agency for the project until June 2009 Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

×