Nutrition and soil health to optimize production monitoring and manipulating orchard nutrition to maximize quality and yield – science, tips and tools
2012 International Macadamia Symposium – Brisbane,Queensland AustraliaMonitoring and manipulating orchard nutrition tomaximise quality and yield:science, tips, and tools
Integrated Agronomic Solutions• Laboratory and Analytical Services• Nutrition Management• Pest and Disease Management• Remote Sensing• Postharvest Quality Control• Research and Development• Software and Data Management• Marketing – B2B and Direct• TrainingAgProHosting of grower data via cloud accounts
Overview• The basics of nutrition science and management• Integration of nutrition with other agronomicprinciples• Trends, nutrient form, manipulation,Hormone/Nutrient interactions
Why is this relevant to me• Potential to increase production through greaterunderstanding of macadamia plant nutrition andhormone manipulation/management• To provide an understanding of and how toImplement a complete and integrated process tohave a real impact on orchard productivity andprofit.
Digitise block boundaries to enableyou to track performance spatiallyWork toward variable rate –NDVI, yield mapping, zonal sampling
• Live soil moisture, EC and temperature monitoring• Quicksoil monitoring of soil solution enables the determination of nutrientcomposition
Decline of wateruse at 10 cmWater usecommences at 40 cmPreferential feeding zones
Mechanisms for nutrient uptake• Diffusion (osmotic potential)– Nutrient ions move from high to lowconcentrations• Mass flow– Ions move in the soil solution to the plant roots asa function of transpiration loss of water form theleaves• Root interception– Suggests roots come into contact with the ions
• Diffusion: potassium, magnesium,calcium and to lesser extent, zincand iron• Mass flow: nitrogen, calcium,copper, boron, manganese,magnesium, and sulfur• Root interception: Calcium,PhosphorousMechanisms for nutrientuptake ExchangeVsSolution
Nutrient ratios change with depthThis can cause anomalies that, at thesurface seem inexplicable
When compared to Sap and quicksoilresults, an understanding of nutrientinteractions begins to formAnd then a targeted regime can be implemented
Nutrient interactionsUptake of thisnutrientDecreases the uptake of thesenutrientsIncreases uptake of these nutrientsNH4+ Mg, Ca, K, Mo Mn, P, S, ClNO3- Fe, Zn Ca, Mg, K, MoP Cu, Zn MoK Ca, Mg Mn (on acid soils)Ca Mn (on acid soils)Mg Ca, K, MoFe Cu, ZnZn CuCu Zn, MoMn Zn, Ca, MoDocumented nutrient interactions. (Adapted from Tisdale et al., 1985)
Availability of Macro-nutrients atvarious pH’s
Timing of applications• Matching peak demand of specific elements ateach phenological interval (just before) iscritical.• Manipulation of phenological intervals isachieved through the use of each of the 5plant hormones• It is essential to match nutrient availabilitywith these application.• Understanding the partnerships is critical.
Hormones’ influence on nutrientdemand0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%EV FL FS FF PEHABAGAAuCy
Using Sap tests in Macadamias• sap testing is a snapshot of elements in the sapstream while dried tissue detects the totalamount of element in the leaf;• sap testing, therefore, can detect a temporaryshortage caused by a range of factors other thannutrient deficiency in the soil.• This can be critical if the higher demand is due toheavy nut load and supply is restricted by animbalance of cations (for instance) or applicationof an antagonistic hormone.
Using test results to monitorperformance of applied product.or monitor trends to understandoptimal demand pathways.
Factors to take into consideration when calculating total elemental requirement•Balancing requirement from lab result to optimal ratio or level•Yield goal – nutrient removal•Sampling depth•Bulk density
Incorporate your pest and other parametermonitoring into decision making processAs there is strong correlations between nutritionalstatus and susceptibility to pest and disease
How can I implement this on my farm• invest into understanding what is happening within theorchard (regular pest monitoring, soil, quicksoil, sap and drytissue testing)• create an action plan to which performance can be tracked• implement action plan recording and variations to it• review results, compare, refine and re implement
Take home message• Holistic approach to agronomy and management;– soil and tree nutrition are just a cog, but a critical one.• Importance of MONITORING to target your response and reduce waste• -start a cycle of continuous improvement• Attention to detail• - focus on ppm/ mg/kg and the tons will come• - doing the same thing over and over again but expecting a different resultis the definition of madness. Isolated sequential experimentation• Return on investment for good growers• - 2% of gross production value into technical assistance delvers a 5-10%return on investment at best and reduces risk of crop failure at worst.SHARE THE LOAD, DON’TGO IT ALONEA FEW SHARP SETS OF EYES AREBETTER THAN JUST ONE SETTHERE IS ALWAYS ROOM FORIMPROVEMENTSO TURBO CHARGE YOUR ORCHARDAND START MAXIMISING YOURYIELD