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Crop protection phytophthora management in macadamia production - femi akinsanmi

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Crop protection phytophthora management in macadamia production - femi akinsanmi

  1. 1. C pPCrop ProtectionPhytophthora Management in Macadamia 6th International Macadamia Symposium, Brisbane, Australia, 18 20 Sept., Brisbane Australia 18-20 Sept 2012 Dr. ’ F e m i A k i n s a n m i University of Queensland, Brisbane uqoakins@uq.edu.au uqoakins@uq edu au Working together with the Queensland Government
  2. 2. ‘THE NUT RUSH Prospecting for Gold’
  3. 3. NEW 2012 1981 Macadamias prove a M d i guaranteed goldmine for farmers
  4. 4. Prospecting for Gold
  5. 5. ‘THE NUT RUSH Prospecting for Gold’Is Phytophthora a major clog in the wheel?
  6. 6. Phytophthora:Phytophthora: Ecology & Description There are about 120 Phytophthora species They infect > 3500 p y plant species p o Crops – Arable and tree crops o Forest trees o Mangroves o Lifestyle horticulture – flowers, trees, etc.• Able to cause large scale devastating diseases
  7. 7. Phytophthora in Macadamia• Trunk canker
  8. 8. Phytophthora in Macadamia• Tree decline
  9. 9. Phytophthora in Macadamia• Tree death
  10. 10. Phytophthora: Lifecycle
  11. 11. Phytophthora: Ecology & Description• Thrives in wet conditions• Rapid formation of sporangia• Abundant zoospore formation• Rapid life cycle• Many alternative hosts y• Infects multiple plant parts
  12. 12. Phytophthora in Macadamia P. P capsici : raceme, shoot and nut bli ht , i i h t d t blight - Hawaii 1975, 1979 P. tropicalis : Macadamia quick decline (with sap bleeding, frass) - - Hawaii P. palmivora : raceme, new leaf flush and nut blight - Hawaii 1975, 1979; Costa Rica – late 1960s 1975 P. cinnamomi : Stem canker, root rot, tree decline, dieback - South Africa, Hawaii, Australia, Kenya
  13. 13. Phytophthora in MacadamiaPhytophthora cinnamomi • Most widespread • Most frequent • g Most devastating • Multiple symptoms but similar impact on production
  14. 14. Phytophthora cinnamomi: Impact • Over $300 million loss to Australian horticulture & agriculture • $US30 million loss to the US avocado industry • 60% macadamia yield loss in Kenya (Mbaka et sl. 2009) sl • 100s of macadamia trees died in SE Australia (Pegg,1981) ( gg, )
  15. 15. Phytophthora in Macadamia 1. Factors that i fl 1 F t th t influence di disease severity in macadamia it i d i • Rootstock & root density (Good foundation) • Soil fertility • Environmental stress: drought, waterlogged2.2 Management of diseases caused by Phytophthora
  16. 16. Phytophthora in MacadamiaGoodG d root system provides a strong foundation t t id t f d ti Good soil Bad soil Ugly soil U l il
  17. 17. Phytophthora in MacadamiaGood root system provides a strong foundation Very poor Poor Good Very good
  18. 18. Good root system contributes to macadamia resilience to adverse conditions 2010 Courtesy: David & Liz Kirby
  19. 19. Good root system contributes to macadamia resilience to adverse conditions 2011 Courtesy: David & Liz Kirby
  20. 20. Good root system contributes to macadamia resilience to adverse conditions 2012 Courtesy: David & Liz Kirby
  21. 21. Phytophthora in Macadamia Scion affects rootstock performance 5 y = 0.1384x + 0.0633 R 0 071 R² = 0.071 ating (0‐4) 4 severity ra 3 2Tree canopy s 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Trunk canker severity rating (0‐4) T k k i i (0 4)
  22. 22. Phytophthora in MacadamiaEffect on grafted tree @ 3 years after planting: H2 (Hinde) rootstock 3.5 Treated (control) 3.0 Untreated 2.5 40% reduction Tree height (m) ) 2.0 1.5 15 h 60% reduction 60% d ti 1.0 0.5 05 0.0 842 816 Cultivar
  23. 23. Phytophthora in MacadamiaSoil health – Soil fertility - Pc; + Fertilizer + Pc; + Fertilizer + Pc; - Fertilizer
  24. 24. Phytophthora in Macadamia Management of Ph t hth M t f Phytophthora di diseases Plant disease-free materials: good root structure Monitor tree health: changes in tree performance symptoms etc performance, symptoms, etc. Manage soil health: adequate soil fertility, structure and biological Apply treatment when disease conducive conditions prevail for extendedperiod Treat affected trees appropriately
  25. 25. Phytophthora in Macadamia y p• Do not treat plants in the nursery with metalaxyl or phosphonates• Disease Management options – Chemical • Metalaxyl –not effective in badly damaged trees; resistance • Phosphoric acid products – Cultural – Resistant rootstocks• Natural disease suppression (soil health)• Holistic approach – combination of 2 or more cultural, rootstock, chemical and biological tactics are most effective
  26. 26. Phytophthora in MacadamiaManagement of Phytophthora: Chemical control 1.4 y = 0 22ln(x) + 1 01 0.22ln(x) 1.01 1.2 R² = 0.96 1.0 Mean disease severity rating y = 1.14 - 0.29ln(x) 0.8 R² = 0.98 e 0.6 06 y = 1.21 - 0.43ln(x) R² = 0.99 0.4 Potassium phosphonate 0.2 Metalaxyl-M Untreated control 0.0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Assessment period
  27. 27. Phytophthora in MacadamiaBefore & after Phosphite treatment p
  28. 28. Phytophthora in MacadamiaBefore & after Phosphite treatment p
  29. 29. Phytophthora in MacadamiaDecision Guide for Application of Phosphite to Control Phytophthora inMacadamiaApplication strategy Severity level Description Application method ScaleHealthy None 0 None (Maintain good good  management practices)Maintenance Low ‐Medium 1 ‐ 2 Foliar Curative High 3 ‐ 4 Trunk or FoliarRestoration Very High 5 Trunk
  30. 30. Phytophthora in MacadamiaManagement of Phytophthora: Cultural control Drainage is the most critical factor Inorganic nutrition e.g. Calcium - Can be li d l h t (gypsum) – slow release of C ++ C b applied as sulphate ( ) l l f Ca - Promotes resistance in roots - Acts as a mild fungicide - Improves soil drainage ~ aeration O ga c amendments: oody u c (C:N at os 5 00 ), Organic a e d e ts Woody mulch (C ratios 25-100:1), composts, Chicken and green manure, cover crops - P id a complex bi l i l suppression and promotes root growth Provides l biological i d t t th
  31. 31. Phytophthora in MacadamiaManagement of Phytophthora: Resistant rootstock• Australian R t t k I A t li Rootstock Improvement Program tP – Evaluate rootstocks originating from three different ecological regions – Evaluate both clonal and seedling rootstocks – E l t M Evaluate Macadamia species d i i
  32. 32. Phytophthora in MacadamiaConclusionsC l i Holistic view of disease control is important Know the ecology and biology of the pathogen – waterlogging, drought Know your crop – agronomy, p y y p g y, physiology etc. gy Emphasis on sustainable management Reduced reliance on chemicals
  33. 33. Other major diseasesFruit & flower diseaseso Husk spot; Husk rot; Raceme blight; etc.Emerging and new disease developmentso Tree diebark ~ Botryosphaeriaceae
  34. 34. Husk spot Pseudocercospora macadamiae
  35. 35. Husk rot & Anthracnose Phomopsis sp.; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
  36. 36. Botryosphaeria tree dieback
  37. 37. Floret blight
  38. 38. AcknowledgementsFunding & Support Team members & Contributors - Dr. Bruce Topp - Associate Prof. Andre Drenth - Dr Ken Pegg Dr. - Mr. Luke Smith Working together with the Queensland Government PENCITON FARMS

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